Particle physics
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PARTICLE Physics. An overview. M.C. Consider the scene . If I were to ask you what is water made of what would you say? Molecules of hydrogen and oxygen. What are the hydrogen and oxygen made of? Protons neutrons and electrons. What are the protons neutrons and electrons made of?

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PARTICLE Physics

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Particle physics

PARTICLEPhysics

An overview

M.C.


Consider the scene

Consider the scene ...

  • If I were to ask you what is water made of what would you say?

    Molecules of hydrogen and oxygen.

  • What are the hydrogen and oxygen made of?

    Protons neutrons and electrons.

  • What are the protons neutrons and electrons made of?

    ….This is what particle physics aims to find out.

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Particle physics1

What is Particle Physics all about? Let’s be more specific!

It is a study of the most basic building blocks of matter and the forces that act upon them.

We want to understand how these basic building blocks interact to make the universe look and behave the way it does.

To do this, you need to think……. BIG

Particle Physics

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Requirements

Requirements?

  • What do we need to study particle physics?

  • We need the fastest computers

  • The coldest temperatures

  • and the strongest magnets on the planet!

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How do we do particle physics

How do we do particle physics?

  • We take a particle we can easily reproduce, such as a proton, and we accelerate it around and around in a circle faster and faster until it almost reaches the speed of light...

    and then we smash them together and see what happens!

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What do we know so far

What do we know so far?

  • We have a body of knowledge called the standard model it says that all matter is made up of 12 fundamental particles (6 quarks and 6 leptons) acted on by three of the four forces of nature

    • the strong force,

    • the weak force and

    • the electromagnetic force.

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Problems with the standard model

Problems with the standard model

  • Are there any problems with the standard model?

  • Yes, loads of problems. Gravity is not part of the standard model, although it is the best known of all the fundamental forces.

  • The model also predicts the existence of a special particle called a Higgs Boson that gives other particles their mass. We haven't been able to find or infer the presence of the Higgs Boson to date.

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Fundamental forces

Fundamental forces

How do the fundamental forces work?

  • The weak, strong and electromagnetic forces result from the exchange of force carrier particles called Bosons.

  • We believe the force carrier particle for gravity is the graviton but we haven’t found it yet.

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Other big questions

Other big questions

  • Apart from looking for fundamental particles what other big questions does Particle Physics try to answer?

    • Where is all the anti-matter?

    • If regular matter makes up only 4% of the universe what exactly is the other 96% made of?

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Where is all the anti matter

Where is all the Anti Matter?

  • At the time of the Big Bang equal amounts of matter and anti matter were created so for all of the matter in the universe there should be an equal amount of anti matter.

  • We do not know where this anti matter is!

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Anti matter

Anti matter ...

  • We do know that when matter meets anti matter pure energy is created and all the matter is annihilated. The natural world seems to have a preference for matter over antimatter; we need to find out why. Could there be an antimatter galaxy out there?

  • Maybe an anti matter galaxy and our galaxy could collide!

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Dark energy and dark matter

Dark Energy and Dark Matter

  • Believe it or not we think that all the matter in the universe is only 4% of the total universe, 70% is dark energy and 26% is dark matter.

  • We cannot see dark matter but we can infer its presence from its gravitational effect on galaxies and light.

  • Dark energy is responsible for the universe expanding at ever increasing rates. We need to find out the exact nature of dark energy and matter to truly understand the nature of the universe

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What is the large hadron collider

What is the Large Hadron Collider?

  • It is the latest accelerator built at CERN it is the biggest and most powerful accelerator ever built, it will smash hadrons which are heavier particles like protons and lead ions together.

  • They will look for the Higgs boson and try to recreate the conditions at the time of the big bang.

  • They will also try and look for clues as to where the anti matter is gone and look for special particles that might explain the nature of dark energy and matter.

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Particle physics

LHC

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Impressive

Impressive?

So what’s so impressive about this Large Hadron Collider?

  • It is the world’s biggest machine.

  • It has the world’s largest fridge.

  • It has the emptiest space in the Solar System, a vacuum tens times less than the vacuum on the moon.

  • It cools its magnets down to 1.9 K or –271.3 degrees Celsius.

  • It can monitor 600 million collisions per second.

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Particle physics

Particle Physics is

  • Fundamental and

  • Fascinating!

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