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Property of Lear Siegler. FRONTAL WEATHER. Property of Lear Siegler. Terminal Learning Objective. Page D-1 in Student Handout: ACTION: CONDITION: STANDARD:. ELO Identify the characteristics common to all fronts IAW FM 1-230. WARM. COLD. A FRONT IS A BOUNDARY BETWEEN AIR MASSES

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Property of Lear Siegler


FRONTAL WEATHER

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Terminal Learning Objective

Page D-1 in Student Handout:

ACTION:

CONDITION:

STANDARD:


ELO

Identify the characteristics common

to all fronts IAW FM 1-230.


WARM

COLD

A FRONT IS A BOUNDARY

BETWEEN AIR MASSES

OF DIFFERENT DENSITIES.

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WARM

COLD

Frontal formation: When two high pressure cells exist so that the circulation of air is converging between

them, a front is formed. The converging air currents veer

upward creating a zone (trough) of low pressure.

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H

cP

L

H

mT

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Frontal weather is caused by the lifting of warm moist air by colder more dense air.

ALL FRONTS HAVE

A TEMPERATURE INVERSION


FRONTAL DISCONTINUITIES

  • TEMPERATURE

  • DEWPOINT

  • PRESSURE “ FALL THEN RISE”

  • WIND SHIFT : APPROX 90°

    DRIFT CORRECTION TO THE RIGHT

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Primary factors affecting frontal

weather are slope, speed,

moisture content, and stability.


questions ?


ELO

Identify the general characteristics

of a cold front IAW FM 1-230.


Cold Front

The leading edge of a cold air mass, normally moving toward the southeast.

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ColdFront

  • Slope

  • Clouds

  • Width of weather band

  • Winds

  • Direction of movement

  • Speed

  • Symbol


1 mile

80 miles

ColdFront

Slope – avg. 1:80


25,000’

cumuliform predominant

CUMULONIMBUS

20,000’

15,000’

10,000’

COLD AIR

WARM AIR

Cold Front

COLD FRONT

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type of weather

Post-frontal, can be violent

Cold Front

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50 miles

Width of weather band

Cold Front

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northwest

southwest

Cold Front Winds


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southeast

Direction of Movement


Average 25 knots

Speed


WARNING!

If speed of front exceeds 25 kts a squall

line may form as much as 300 miles

ahead. Squall lines may include

tornadoes, hail, and destructive winds!

Speed


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SQUALL LINE

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NOTE: You must recognize

in color and black and white.

color-blue

triangle shapes,

pointing in direction

of movement

Symbol


questions ?


ELO

Identify the general characteristics

of a warm front IAW FM 1-230.


Warm Front

The trailing edge of a cold air mass, normally moving generally toward the northeast,

being overridden by warmer air.

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WarmFront

  • Slope

  • Clouds

  • Width of weather band

  • Winds

  • Direction of movement

  • Speed

  • Symbol


1 mile

200 miles

WarmFront

Slope – avg. 1:200


stratiform predominant

Warm Front

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25,000’

20,000’

Width of weather band

15,000’

Ci

10,000’

Cs

As

WARM AIR

Ns

COLD AIR

St

400 to 600 miles

0

100

MILES

200

300

400

500

WARM FRONT

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southwest

southeast

WARM FRONT

Winds


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northeast

WARM FRONT

Direction of Movement


Average 15 knots

WARM FRONT

Speed


NOTE: You must recognize

in color and black and white.

WARM FRONT

color - red

half moon shapes,

pointing in direction

of movement

Symbol


questions ?


ELO

Identify the general characteristics

of a stationary front IAW FM 1-230.


Stationary Front

A front which is not moving, speed

of zero to less than 5 knots.

H

H

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StationaryFront

  • Slope

  • Clouds

  • Width of weather band

  • Winds

  • Direction of movement

  • Speed

  • Symbol

similar to

warm front


Stationary Front

Winds – light and

variable, tend to

parallel isobars.

Speed – zero to < 5 kts

Movement - unpredictable

H

H

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Stationary Front

NOTE: You must recognize

in color and black and white.

combination of symbols

for cold and warm fronts,

alternating sides of

line of front

color – alternating

red and blue

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questions ?


ELO

Identify the general characteristics

of an open wave IAW FM 1-230.


Open Wave

L

A wave-like appearance with one portion a cold front and the other a warm front with an open area in between.

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Open Wave

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Vertical cross section.

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Open Wave

L

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L

Cold Front

Warm Front

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Open Wave

L

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Open Wave

L

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Open Wave

L

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Open Wave

L

Warm front WX

Cold front WX

Weather

Warm air

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Open Wave

L

Travels in easterly

direction along the line of

the original front

Movement

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Open Wave

L

Warm front

Cold front

Weather chart portrayal

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A

B

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questions ?


ELO

Identify the general characteristics

of an occluded front IAW FM 1-230.


Open Wave

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Occluded Front:

The result of a faster moving cold front overtaking a slower moving warm front.

The effect is one front on top of the other

squeezing warm air between.

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Open Wave

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

25 kts.

15 kts.

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Open Wave

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

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Cold Occlusion

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

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Cold Occlusion

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

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Two types of occlusions:

Cold front occlusion – The cold front

runs underneath the warm front.

(coldest air is behind the cold front)

Warm front occlusion – The cold front

overruns the warm front.

(coldest air is ahead of the warm front)


Open Wave

Cold front occlusion – The cold front

runs underneath the warm front.

(coldest air is behind the cold front)

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

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Cold Occlusion

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

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Cold Occlusion

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

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Open Wave

Warm front occlusion – The cold front

overruns the warm front.

(coldest air is ahead of the warm front)

Warm Air

Cold

Colder

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Warm Occlusion

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

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Warm Occlusion

Warm Air

Cold

Colder

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Occlusions: cloud types

Both warm and cold front types

stratiform and cumuliform


Occlusions: weather

Weather associated with each of these fronts

combines widespread low ceilings and poor

visibilities of the warm front with the severe

weather of the cold front.


Occlusions: winds

Ahead of the occlusion vary south to east

generally from the southeast,

behind the front generally from the northwest.


Occlusions: movement

Similar to an open wave, to the east


Cold Occlusion

Travels in easterly

direction along the line of

the original front

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Portrayal:

cold occlusion


Warm Occlusion

Portrayal:

warm occlusion

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questions ?


ELO

Identify the proper flight procedures

to use when dealing with

frontal weather IAW FM 1-230.


RECOGNITION OF TYPE:

Each type front presents certain problems to the aviator. The aviator

must learn to recognize type of front in

order to apply proper procedures.


FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS:

Cold fronts and squall lines

DON’T GO!


FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS:

Warm fronts

Sufficient fuel for a long flight and possible

diversion to an alternate airfield


FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS:

Stationary fronts

Same as warm front, plus

alert for open wave and occlusion


FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS:

Open wave

Avoid the crest of the wave and

cold front, cold front procedures

for cold side, warm front

procedures for warm side


FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS:

Occluded fronts

WARNING!

Occluded fronts offer worst possible weather! Avoid the apex

of the occlusion by at least 50 to 100 miles.

Circumnavigate to right (tailwinds). Do not fly through an

occluded front. Wait, circumnavigate, or fly through

stationary/warm front separately.


questions ?


ELO

Identify indications of frontal

passage IAW FM 1-230.


On the ground

  • wind shift

  • Temperature

  • Dew point

  • pressure


In flight

  • more difficult to recognize

  • best indicator is OAT gauge

  • anticipate drift correction to right

  • (with possible exception of

  • occlusion)


questions ?


Practical Exercise


The end


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