Property of Lear Siegler
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 101

Property of Lear Siegler PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 57 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Property of Lear Siegler. FRONTAL WEATHER. Property of Lear Siegler. Terminal Learning Objective. Page D-1 in Student Handout: ACTION: CONDITION: STANDARD:. ELO Identify the characteristics common to all fronts IAW FM 1-230. WARM. COLD. A FRONT IS A BOUNDARY BETWEEN AIR MASSES

Download Presentation

Property of Lear Siegler

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Property of lear siegler

Property of Lear Siegler


Frontal weather

FRONTAL WEATHER

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Terminal Learning Objective

Page D-1 in Student Handout:

ACTION:

CONDITION:

STANDARD:


Property of lear siegler

ELO

Identify the characteristics common

to all fronts IAW FM 1-230.


Property of lear siegler

WARM

COLD

A FRONT IS A BOUNDARY

BETWEEN AIR MASSES

OF DIFFERENT DENSITIES.

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

WARM

COLD

Frontal formation: When two high pressure cells exist so that the circulation of air is converging between

them, a front is formed. The converging air currents veer

upward creating a zone (trough) of low pressure.

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

H

cP

L

H

mT

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Frontal weather is caused by the lifting of warm moist air by colder more dense air.

ALL FRONTS HAVE

A TEMPERATURE INVERSION


Frontal discontinuities

FRONTAL DISCONTINUITIES

  • TEMPERATURE

  • DEWPOINT

  • PRESSURE “ FALL THEN RISE”

  • WIND SHIFT : APPROX 90°

    DRIFT CORRECTION TO THE RIGHT

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Primary factors affecting frontal

weather are slope, speed,

moisture content, and stability.


Property of lear siegler

questions ?


Property of lear siegler

ELO

Identify the general characteristics

of a cold front IAW FM 1-230.


Property of lear siegler

Cold Front

The leading edge of a cold air mass, normally moving toward the southeast.

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

ColdFront

  • Slope

  • Clouds

  • Width of weather band

  • Winds

  • Direction of movement

  • Speed

  • Symbol


Property of lear siegler

1 mile

80 miles

ColdFront

Slope – avg. 1:80


Property of lear siegler

25,000’

cumuliform predominant

CUMULONIMBUS

20,000’

15,000’

10,000’

COLD AIR

WARM AIR

Cold Front

COLD FRONT

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

type of weather

Post-frontal, can be violent

Cold Front

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

50 miles

Width of weather band

Cold Front

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

northwest

southwest

Cold Front Winds


Property of lear siegler

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

southeast

Direction of Movement


Property of lear siegler

Average 25 knots

Speed


Property of lear siegler

WARNING!

If speed of front exceeds 25 kts a squall

line may form as much as 300 miles

ahead. Squall lines may include

tornadoes, hail, and destructive winds!

Speed


Property of lear siegler

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

SQUALL LINE

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

NOTE: You must recognize

in color and black and white.

color-blue

triangle shapes,

pointing in direction

of movement

Symbol


Property of lear siegler

questions ?


Property of lear siegler

ELO

Identify the general characteristics

of a warm front IAW FM 1-230.


Property of lear siegler

Warm Front

The trailing edge of a cold air mass, normally moving generally toward the northeast,

being overridden by warmer air.

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

WarmFront

  • Slope

  • Clouds

  • Width of weather band

  • Winds

  • Direction of movement

  • Speed

  • Symbol


Property of lear siegler

1 mile

200 miles

WarmFront

Slope – avg. 1:200


Property of lear siegler

stratiform predominant

Warm Front

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

25,000’

20,000’

Width of weather band

15,000’

Ci

10,000’

Cs

As

WARM AIR

Ns

COLD AIR

St

400 to 600 miles

0

100

MILES

200

300

400

500

WARM FRONT

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

southwest

southeast

WARM FRONT

Winds


Property of lear siegler

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

northeast

WARM FRONT

Direction of Movement


Property of lear siegler

Average 15 knots

WARM FRONT

Speed


Property of lear siegler

NOTE: You must recognize

in color and black and white.

WARM FRONT

color - red

half moon shapes,

pointing in direction

of movement

Symbol


Property of lear siegler

questions ?


Property of lear siegler

ELO

Identify the general characteristics

of a stationary front IAW FM 1-230.


Property of lear siegler

Stationary Front

A front which is not moving, speed

of zero to less than 5 knots.

H

H

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

StationaryFront

  • Slope

  • Clouds

  • Width of weather band

  • Winds

  • Direction of movement

  • Speed

  • Symbol

similar to

warm front


Property of lear siegler

Stationary Front

Winds – light and

variable, tend to

parallel isobars.

Speed – zero to < 5 kts

Movement - unpredictable

H

H

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Stationary Front

NOTE: You must recognize

in color and black and white.

combination of symbols

for cold and warm fronts,

alternating sides of

line of front

color – alternating

red and blue

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

questions ?


Property of lear siegler

ELO

Identify the general characteristics

of an open wave IAW FM 1-230.


Property of lear siegler

Open Wave

L

A wave-like appearance with one portion a cold front and the other a warm front with an open area in between.

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Open Wave

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Vertical cross section.

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Open Wave

L

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

L

Cold Front

Warm Front

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Open Wave

L

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Open Wave

L

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Open Wave

L

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Open Wave

L

Warm front WX

Cold front WX

Weather

Warm air

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Open Wave

L

Travels in easterly

direction along the line of

the original front

Movement

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Open Wave

L

Warm front

Cold front

Weather chart portrayal

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

A

B

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

questions ?


Property of lear siegler

ELO

Identify the general characteristics

of an occluded front IAW FM 1-230.


Property of lear siegler

Open Wave

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Occluded Front:

The result of a faster moving cold front overtaking a slower moving warm front.

The effect is one front on top of the other

squeezing warm air between.

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Open Wave

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

25 kts.

15 kts.

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Open Wave

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Cold Occlusion

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Cold Occlusion

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Two types of occlusions:

Cold front occlusion – The cold front

runs underneath the warm front.

(coldest air is behind the cold front)

Warm front occlusion – The cold front

overruns the warm front.

(coldest air is ahead of the warm front)


Property of lear siegler

Open Wave

Cold front occlusion – The cold front

runs underneath the warm front.

(coldest air is behind the cold front)

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Cold Occlusion

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Cold Occlusion

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Open Wave

Warm front occlusion – The cold front

overruns the warm front.

(coldest air is ahead of the warm front)

Warm Air

Cold

Colder

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Warm Occlusion

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Warm Occlusion

Warm Air

Cold

Colder

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Occlusions: cloud types

Both warm and cold front types

stratiform and cumuliform


Property of lear siegler

Occlusions: weather

Weather associated with each of these fronts

combines widespread low ceilings and poor

visibilities of the warm front with the severe

weather of the cold front.


Property of lear siegler

Occlusions: winds

Ahead of the occlusion vary south to east

generally from the southeast,

behind the front generally from the northwest.


Property of lear siegler

Occlusions: movement

Similar to an open wave, to the east


Property of lear siegler

Cold Occlusion

Travels in easterly

direction along the line of

the original front

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

Portrayal:

cold occlusion


Property of lear siegler

Warm Occlusion

Portrayal:

warm occlusion

Property of Lear Siegler


Property of lear siegler

questions ?


Property of lear siegler

ELO

Identify the proper flight procedures

to use when dealing with

frontal weather IAW FM 1-230.


Property of lear siegler

RECOGNITION OF TYPE:

Each type front presents certain problems to the aviator. The aviator

must learn to recognize type of front in

order to apply proper procedures.


Property of lear siegler

FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS:

Cold fronts and squall lines

DON’T GO!


Property of lear siegler

FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS:

Warm fronts

Sufficient fuel for a long flight and possible

diversion to an alternate airfield


Property of lear siegler

FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS:

Stationary fronts

Same as warm front, plus

alert for open wave and occlusion


Property of lear siegler

FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS:

Open wave

Avoid the crest of the wave and

cold front, cold front procedures

for cold side, warm front

procedures for warm side


Property of lear siegler

FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS:

Occluded fronts

WARNING!

Occluded fronts offer worst possible weather! Avoid the apex

of the occlusion by at least 50 to 100 miles.

Circumnavigate to right (tailwinds). Do not fly through an

occluded front. Wait, circumnavigate, or fly through

stationary/warm front separately.


Property of lear siegler

questions ?


Property of lear siegler

ELO

Identify indications of frontal

passage IAW FM 1-230.


Property of lear siegler

On the ground

  • wind shift

  • Temperature

  • Dew point

  • pressure


Property of lear siegler

In flight

  • more difficult to recognize

  • best indicator is OAT gauge

  • anticipate drift correction to right

  • (with possible exception of

  • occlusion)


Property of lear siegler

questions ?


Property of lear siegler

Practical Exercise


Property of lear siegler

The end


  • Login