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Property of Lear Siegler. FRONTAL WEATHER. Property of Lear Siegler. Terminal Learning Objective. Page D-1 in Student Handout: ACTION: CONDITION: STANDARD:. ELO Identify the characteristics common to all fronts IAW FM 1-230. WARM. COLD. A FRONT IS A BOUNDARY BETWEEN AIR MASSES

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Frontal weather
FRONTAL WEATHER

Property of Lear Siegler


Terminal Learning Objective

Page D-1 in Student Handout:

ACTION:

CONDITION:

STANDARD:


ELO

Identify the characteristics common

to all fronts IAW FM 1-230.


WARM

COLD

A FRONT IS A BOUNDARY

BETWEEN AIR MASSES

OF DIFFERENT DENSITIES.

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WARM

COLD

Frontal formation: When two high pressure cells exist so that the circulation of air is converging between

them, a front is formed. The converging air currents veer

upward creating a zone (trough) of low pressure.

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H

cP

L

H

mT

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Frontal weather is caused by the lifting of warm moist air by colder more dense air.

ALL FRONTS HAVE

A TEMPERATURE INVERSION


Frontal discontinuities
FRONTAL DISCONTINUITIES air by colder more dense air.

  • TEMPERATURE

  • DEWPOINT

  • PRESSURE “ FALL THEN RISE”

  • WIND SHIFT : APPROX 90°

    DRIFT CORRECTION TO THE RIGHT

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Primary factors affecting frontal air by colder more dense air.

weather are slope, speed,

moisture content, and stability.


questions ? air by colder more dense air.


ELO air by colder more dense air.

Identify the general characteristics

of a cold front IAW FM 1-230.


Cold Front air by colder more dense air.

The leading edge of a cold air mass, normally moving toward the southeast.

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Cold air by colder more dense air.Front

  • Slope

  • Clouds

  • Width of weather band

  • Winds

  • Direction of movement

  • Speed

  • Symbol


1 mile air by colder more dense air.

80 miles

ColdFront

Slope – avg. 1:80


25,000’ air by colder more dense air.

cumuliform predominant

CUMULONIMBUS

20,000’

15,000’

10,000’

COLD AIR

WARM AIR

Cold Front

COLD FRONT

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type of weather air by colder more dense air.

Post-frontal, can be violent

Cold Front

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50 miles air by colder more dense air.

Width of weather band

Cold Front

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northwest air by colder more dense air.

southwest

Cold Front Winds


Property of Lear Siegler air by colder more dense air.


southeast air by colder more dense air.

Direction of Movement


Average 25 knots air by colder more dense air.

Speed


WARNING! air by colder more dense air.

If speed of front exceeds 25 kts a squall

line may form as much as 300 miles

ahead. Squall lines may include

tornadoes, hail, and destructive winds!

Speed


Property of Lear Siegler air by colder more dense air.


Property of Lear Siegler air by colder more dense air.


SQUALL LINE air by colder more dense air.

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NOTE: You must recognize air by colder more dense air.

in color and black and white.

color-blue

triangle shapes,

pointing in direction

of movement

Symbol


questions ? air by colder more dense air.


ELO air by colder more dense air.

Identify the general characteristics

of a warm front IAW FM 1-230.


Warm Front air by colder more dense air.

The trailing edge of a cold air mass, normally moving generally toward the northeast,

being overridden by warmer air.

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Warm air by colder more dense air.Front

  • Slope

  • Clouds

  • Width of weather band

  • Winds

  • Direction of movement

  • Speed

  • Symbol


1 mile air by colder more dense air.

200 miles

WarmFront

Slope – avg. 1:200


stratiform predominant air by colder more dense air.

Warm Front

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25,000’ air by colder more dense air.

20,000’

Width of weather band

15,000’

Ci

10,000’

Cs

As

WARM AIR

Ns

COLD AIR

St

400 to 600 miles

0

100

MILES

200

300

400

500

WARM FRONT

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southwest air by colder more dense air.

southeast

WARM FRONT

Winds


Property of Lear Siegler air by colder more dense air.


northeast air by colder more dense air.

WARM FRONT

Direction of Movement


Average 15 knots air by colder more dense air.

WARM FRONT

Speed


NOTE: You must recognize air by colder more dense air.

in color and black and white.

WARM FRONT

color - red

half moon shapes,

pointing in direction

of movement

Symbol


questions ? air by colder more dense air.


ELO air by colder more dense air.

Identify the general characteristics

of a stationary front IAW FM 1-230.


Stationary Front air by colder more dense air.

A front which is not moving, speed

of zero to less than 5 knots.

H

H

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Stationary air by colder more dense air.Front

  • Slope

  • Clouds

  • Width of weather band

  • Winds

  • Direction of movement

  • Speed

  • Symbol

similar to

warm front


Stationary Front air by colder more dense air.

Winds – light and

variable, tend to

parallel isobars.

Speed – zero to < 5 kts

Movement - unpredictable

H

H

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Stationary Front air by colder more dense air.

NOTE: You must recognize

in color and black and white.

combination of symbols

for cold and warm fronts,

alternating sides of

line of front

color – alternating

red and blue

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questions ? air by colder more dense air.


ELO air by colder more dense air.

Identify the general characteristics

of an open wave IAW FM 1-230.


Open Wave air by colder more dense air.

L

A wave-like appearance with one portion a cold front and the other a warm front with an open area in between.

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Open Wave air by colder more dense air.

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Vertical cross section.

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Open Wave air by colder more dense air.

L

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L air by colder more dense air.

Cold Front

Warm Front

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Open Wave air by colder more dense air.

L

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Open Wave air by colder more dense air.

L

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Open Wave air by colder more dense air.

L

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Open Wave air by colder more dense air.

L

Warm front WX

Cold front WX

Weather

Warm air

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Open Wave air by colder more dense air.

L

Travels in easterly

direction along the line of

the original front

Movement

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Open Wave air by colder more dense air.

L

Warm front

Cold front

Weather chart portrayal

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A air by colder more dense air.

B

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questions ? air by colder more dense air.


ELO air by colder more dense air.

Identify the general characteristics

of an occluded front IAW FM 1-230.


Open Wave air by colder more dense air.

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Occluded Front:

The result of a faster moving cold front overtaking a slower moving warm front.

The effect is one front on top of the other

squeezing warm air between.

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Open Wave air by colder more dense air.

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

25 kts.

15 kts.

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Open Wave air by colder more dense air.

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

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Cold Occlusion air by colder more dense air.

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

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Cold Occlusion air by colder more dense air.

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

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Two types of occlusions: air by colder more dense air.

Cold front occlusion – The cold front

runs underneath the warm front.

(coldest air is behind the cold front)

Warm front occlusion – The cold front

overruns the warm front.

(coldest air is ahead of the warm front)


Open Wave air by colder more dense air.

Cold front occlusion – The cold front

runs underneath the warm front.

(coldest air is behind the cold front)

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

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Cold Occlusion air by colder more dense air.

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Property of Lear Siegler


Cold Occlusion air by colder more dense air.

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

Property of Lear Siegler


Open Wave air by colder more dense air.

Warm front occlusion – The cold front

overruns the warm front.

(coldest air is ahead of the warm front)

Warm Air

Cold

Colder

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Warm Occlusion air by colder more dense air.

Warm Air

Colder

Cold

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Warm Occlusion air by colder more dense air.

Warm Air

Cold

Colder

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Occlusions: cloud types air by colder more dense air.

Both warm and cold front types

stratiform and cumuliform


Occlusions: weather air by colder more dense air.

Weather associated with each of these fronts

combines widespread low ceilings and poor

visibilities of the warm front with the severe

weather of the cold front.


Occlusions: winds air by colder more dense air.

Ahead of the occlusion vary south to east

generally from the southeast,

behind the front generally from the northwest.


Occlusions: movement air by colder more dense air.

Similar to an open wave, to the east


Cold Occlusion air by colder more dense air.

Travels in easterly

direction along the line of

the original front

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Portrayal: air by colder more dense air.

cold occlusion


Warm Occlusion air by colder more dense air.

Portrayal:

warm occlusion

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questions ? air by colder more dense air.


ELO air by colder more dense air.

Identify the proper flight procedures

to use when dealing with

frontal weather IAW FM 1-230.


RECOGNITION OF TYPE: air by colder more dense air.

Each type front presents certain problems to the aviator. The aviator

must learn to recognize type of front in

order to apply proper procedures.


FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: air by colder more dense air.

Cold fronts and squall lines

DON’T GO!


FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: air by colder more dense air.

Warm fronts

Sufficient fuel for a long flight and possible

diversion to an alternate airfield


FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: air by colder more dense air.

Stationary fronts

Same as warm front, plus

alert for open wave and occlusion


FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: air by colder more dense air.

Open wave

Avoid the crest of the wave and

cold front, cold front procedures

for cold side, warm front

procedures for warm side


FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: air by colder more dense air.

Occluded fronts

WARNING!

Occluded fronts offer worst possible weather! Avoid the apex

of the occlusion by at least 50 to 100 miles.

Circumnavigate to right (tailwinds). Do not fly through an

occluded front. Wait, circumnavigate, or fly through

stationary/warm front separately.


questions ? air by colder more dense air.


ELO air by colder more dense air.

Identify indications of frontal

passage IAW FM 1-230.


On the ground air by colder more dense air.

  • wind shift

  • Temperature

  • Dew point

  • pressure


In flight air by colder more dense air.

  • more difficult to recognize

  • best indicator is OAT gauge

  • anticipate drift correction to right

  • (with possible exception of

  • occlusion)


questions ? air by colder more dense air.


Practical Exercise air by colder more dense air.


The end air by colder more dense air.


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