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Word List. muhajirun (migrants) ansar (helpers) umma (community) Constitution of Medina. Word List. Timeline. Banu Qaynuqa ‘ Banu ’ l-Nadir Banu Qurayza khandaq (ditch) Sa ‘ d ibn Mu ‘ adh. 624 Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Banu Qaynuqa ‘ . 625 Battle of Uhud. Expulsion

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Word List

muhajirun (migrants) ansar (helpers)

umma (community)

Constitution of Medina

Word List


Banu Qaynuqa‘


Banu Qurayza

khandaq (ditch)

Sa‘d ibn Mu‘adh

624 Battle of Badr. Expulsion

of the Banu Qaynuqa‘.

625 Battle of Uhud. Expulsion

of the Banu’l-Nadir.

627 Battle of the khandaq.

Execution of the Banu Qurayza.

Word List



Ta’if haram

Ka‘ba jizya

hajj ‘A’isha

628 Truce with Mecca

629 Muslim pilgrimage

to Mecca

630 Muhammad takes


632 Death of

Muhammad (8th June)

Map Link: Islamic Lands at the Death of Muhammad:



Issues in the Biographies of Muhammad

1. Sources written long after Muhammad’s


2. Biographies as contextualisation and

defence of Qur’an and Islam

3. Muhammad as ideal figure and exemplar

Ibn Ishaq (b. Medina c. 704, d. Baghdad 767)

Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar ibn Khiyar

Scholar from family of story-transmitters

Studied in Alexandria and Medina. Got into

quarrel with Malik ibn Anas (d. 795) and

had to leave. Eventually settled in Baghdad.

Scholars during life and after divided on his


Ibn Ishaq (b. Medina c. 704, d. Baghdad 767)

Works: Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya (biography of

the Prophet)

Kitab al-Khulafa’ (book on the caliphs)

Sunan (book of hadith [stories] of

Prophet and companions, guide for life)

Sunan lost. Others survive through other writers’

works. Sira preserved in version edited by

Ibn Hisham (d. 828 or 833) and in other

works, including history of al-Tabari

Al-Tabari (b. Amul 839, d. Baghdad 923)

Abu Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Jarir ibn Yazid


Son of prosperous landowner. Child prodigy.

Left home at 12 to seek scholars to learn from.

Travelled widely. Settled in Baghdad.

Wrote on history, Qur’anic interpretation,

jurisprudence. Taught, but never in

official position.

Al-Tabari (b. Amul 839, d. Baghdad 923)

Comprehensive user of sources, but also uses

own judgment.

Works: many, including:

Mukhtasar Ta’rikh al-Rusul wa’l-Muluk

wa’l-Khulafa’ (universal history from

creation to 915. 12.5 vols; original was

ten times that!)

Jami‘al-Bayan ‘an Ta’wil al-Qur’an

(commentary on Qur’an, finished 896-903)

isnad = chain of transmitters

qara’a = to read/to recite

mi‘raj (miraculous night journey)