New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012
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New Frontier in the Management of Venous Thromboembolic Disease (VTE) ACCP Guidelines 2012 . Samer Koussayer, MD, FACS . Asst Professor , Al Faisal University Section Head and consultant Vascular & Endovascular Surgery Division King Faisal Specialist Hospital @ Research Center

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New Frontier in the Management of Venous Thromboembolic Disease (VTE) ACCP Guidelines 2012

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New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

New Frontier in the Management of Venous Thromboembolic Disease (VTE)ACCP Guidelines 2012

Samer Koussayer, MD, FACS.

Asst Professor , Al Faisal University

Section Head and consultant

Vascular & Endovascular Surgery Division

King Faisal Specialist Hospital @ Research Center

Riyadh, KSA


Case report

Case Report

  • 52-year-old male was referred to us with enlarging thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm Type3 (extending from the midthoracic aorta to the aortic bifurcations)

  • C/O: severe leg claudication and back pain.

  • PMH:

    • Severe COPD.

    • stroke with mild right hemiparesis and slurred speech.

    • hypertension, diabetes and epilepsy .


Work up

Work up

  • CTA:

    • Large Type III TAAA (6.5cm) .

    • Thrombosis of IR portion of TAAA and both CIA.

    • Stenosis of celiac artery, Patent SMA.

    • Left renal artery occlusion with atrophic left kidney.

    • Right renal stenosis

    • Normal creatinine level.


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

CTA

RT Renal Artery stenosis

Atrophic LT Kidney

Thrombosis of IRAAA


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

CTA


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Aortobifemoral Bypass Graft

Aorto-Renal & Aorto-Celiac/SMA Bypass


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Anastomosis of the graft to the Celiac Artery


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Anastomosis of the graft to SMA & RT Renal artery


Postoperatively

Postoperatively

  • No kidney dysfunction

  • No stroke.

  • No paraplegia.

  • He was placed on prophylactic dose of Clexan.


Postoperative day 3

Postoperative Day # 3

  • (2:00 am): sudden progressive hypoxemia , Chest x-ray showed a picture of oligemia over the right lung

  • diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism was entertained.

  • The patient was switched from Clexan to Heparin infusion


Postoperative day 31

Postoperative Day # 3

ECG showed diffuse T-inversions in precordial leads. Troponin increased from normal to 0.14.

Further imaging studies to confirm the diagnosis of PE were not possible due to unstable circulatory condition of the patient.

Died secondary to Massive pulmonary embolism


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

ACCP Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines

9th Ed. 2012

ACCP: American College of Chest Physician


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Endorsing Organizations

  • This guideline has received the endorsement of the following organizations:

    • American Association of Clinical Chemistry

    • American College of Clinical Pharmacy

    • American Society of Health System Pharmacists

    • American Society of Hematology

    • International Society of Thrombosis andHemostasis


Accp grading system

ACCP Grading System

  • The strength of any recommendation depends on two factors:

    - The trade-off between benefits, risks, burdens, costs, and level of confidence in estimates of those benefits and risks

    -The quality of the evidence upon which the recommendations are based

  • If benefits outweigh risks, burdens, and costs, a strongrecommendationis used (Grade 1) .

  • If there is less certainty about magnitude of benefits and risks, burdens, and costs, a weakrecommendation is used (Grade 2) .

  • Evidence for recommendations:

    • high-quality (A), moderate-quality (B), or low-quality (C).

  • The phrase “we recommend” is used for strong recommendations (Grade 1A, 1B, 1C) and “we suggest” for weak recommendations (Grade 2A, 2B, 2C).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

DVT


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Parenteral Anticoagulation Prior to Receipt of the Results of Diagnostic of VTE

  • In patients with a low clinical suspicion of acute DVT, we suggest nottreating with parenteral anticoagulants while awaiting the results of diagnostic tests, provided test results are expected within 24 h(Grade 2C).

  • In patients with a high clinical suspicion of acute DVT, we suggest treatment with parenteral anticoagulants compared with no treatment while awaiting the results of diagnostic tests (Grade 2C).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Anticoagulation in Patients With

Isolated Distal DVT

  • In patients with acute isolated distal DVT(Tibio-peronealVeins)andwithoutsevere symptoms or risk factors for extension:

    • Wesuggest serial imaging of the deep veins for 2 weeks (Grade 2C).

    • If the thrombus does not extend, we recommend no anticoagulation (Grade 1B)

    • If the thrombus extends:

      • but remains confined to the distal veins, we suggest anticoagulation (Grade 2C)

      • into the proximal veins, we recommend anticoagulation (Grade 1B).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Anticoagulation in Patients With

Isolated Distal DVT

  • In patients with acute isolated distal DVT of the leg and with severe symptoms or risk factors for extension:

    • we suggest initial anticoagulation over serial imaging of the deep veins(Grade 2C).

    • we recommend using the same approach as for patients with acute proximal DVT (Grade 1B).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Choice of Initial Anticoagulant Regimen in Patients With Proximal DVT

  • In patients with acute DVT of the leg:

    • we suggest LMWH or fondaparinux over IV or SC UFH (Grade 2C)

    • we suggest once- over twice-daily LMWH administration (Grade 2C).

  • In patients with acute DVT of the leg and whose home circumstances are adequate, we recommend initial treatment at home over treatment in hospital (Grade 1B).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

  • Timing of Initiation of VKA

  • We recommend initial treatment with parenteral anticoagulation (LMWH, fondaparinux, IV UFH, or SC UFH) (Grade 1B).

  • We recommendearly initiation of VKA (eg, sameday asparenteraltherapy is started), and continuation ofparenteralanticoagulation for a minimum of 5days and until the international normalized ratio (INR) is 2.0 or above for at least 24 h(Grade 1B).

  • We recommend a therapeutic INR range of 2.0 to 3.0 (target INR of 2.5) for all treatment durations (Grade 1B).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Intervention for Patients With

Acute Proximal DVT

  • Wesuggestanticoagulant therapy alone:

    • over catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) (Grade 2C).

    • over systemic thrombolysis(Grade 2C).

    • over operative venous thrombectomy(Grade 2C).

  • If patients have had any method of thrombus removal, we recommend the same intensity and duration of anticoagulant therapy as in comparable patients who do not undergo thrombosis removal (Grade 1B).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Early Ambulation of Patients With Acute DVT

  • In patients with acute DVT of the leg:

    • we suggest early ambulation over initial bed rest (Grade 2C).

    • we suggest the use of compression stockings (Grade B2).

    • we suggest that venoactive medications (eg, rutosides, defibrotide, and hidrosmin) not be used (Grade 2C).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Choice of Anticoagulant Regimen for Long-term Therapy

  • In patients with DVT of the leg and no cancer:

    • we suggest VKA therapy over LMWH for long-term therapy (Grade 2C).

    • If not treated with VKA therapy, we suggest LMWH over dabigatran or rivaroxaban for long-term therapy(Grade 2C).

  • In patients with DVT of the leg and cancer:

    • we suggest LMWH over VKA therapy (Grade 2B).

    • If not treated with LMWH, we suggest VKA over dabigatran or rivaroxaban for long-term therapy (Grade 2B).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Duration of Long-term Anticoagulant Therapy

  • In patients with a proximal DVT(above the knee) provokedby surgery or nonsurgical transient risk factor :

    • we recommend (Grade 1B) treatment with anticoagulation for 3 months over:

      • (i) treatment of a shorter period

      • (ii) treatment of a longer time-limited period (eg, 6 or 12 months)

      • (iii) extended therapy (regardless of bleeding risk).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Duration of Long-term Anticoagulant Therapy

  • In patients with anunprovoked First DVTof the leg (isolated distal or proximal) we recommend treatment with anticoagulation for at least 3 months(Grade 1B).

  • After 3 months of treatment :

    • Proximal DVT

      • low or moderate bleeding risk, we suggest extended anticoagulant therapy over 3 months of therapy(Grade 2B).

      • high bleeding risk, we recommend 3 months of anticoagulant therapy only (Grade 1B).

    • Isolated distal DVT

      • we suggest 3 months of anticoagulant therapyonly(Grade1B).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Duration of Long-term Anticoagulant Therapy

  • In patients with a secondunprovoked VTE:

    • we recommend extended anticoagulant therapy over 3 months of therapy in those who have a low bleeding risk (Grade 1B), or moderate bleeding risk(Grade 2B)

    • we suggest 3 months of anticoagulant therapy only in those who have high bleeding risk (Grade 2B).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Asymptomatic DVT of the Leg

In patients who are incidentally found to have asymptomatic DVT of the leg, we suggest the same initial and long-term anticoagulation as for comparable patients with symptomatic DVT (Grade 2B).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Treatment of Patients With Superficial Vein Thrombosis

  • In patients with superficial vein thrombosis of the lower limb of at least5 cm in length, wesuggestthe use of a prophylactic dose offondaparinux (2.5 mg daily) or LMWH for 45 days over no anticoagulation (Grade 2B).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Pulmonary Embolism

( PE )


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Parenteral Anticoagulation Prior to Receipt of the Results of Diagnostic Workup for PE

  • In patients with alowclinical suspicion of acute PE:

    • we suggestnot treating with parenteral anticoagulants while awaiting the results of diagnostic tests, provided test results are expected within 24 h (Grade 2C).

  • In patients with anintermediateclinical suspicion of acute PE:

    • we suggest treatment with parenteral anticoagulants, if the results of diagnostic tests are expected to be delayed for more than 4 h (Grade 2C).

  • In patients with ahighclinical suspicion of acute PE:

    • we suggest treatment with parenteral anticoagulants

    • while awaiting the results of diagnostic tests (Grade 2C).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Systemic Thrombolytic

  • Acute PE not associated with hypotension:

    • we recommend against systemically administered thrombolytic therapy (Grade 1C).

    • In selected patients with a low bleeding risk whose initial clinical presentation, or clinical course after starting anticoagulant therapy, suggests a high risk of developing hypotension, we suggest administration of thrombolytic therapy (Grade 2C).

  • Acute PE with hypotension: (eg, systolic BP < 90 mm Hg)

    • we suggest systemically administered thrombolytic therapy(Grade 2C).

    • when a thrombolytic agent is used we suggest short infusion times (eg, a 2-h infusion) over prolonged infusion times (eg, a 24-h infusion) (Grade 2C).

    • we suggest administration through a peripheral vein over a pulmonary artery catheter (Grade 2C).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Acute PE Associated with Hypotension

  • In patients with acute PE associated with hypotension and who have:

    • contraindications to thrombolysis,

    • failed thrombolysis, or

    • shock that is likely to cause death before systemic thrombolysis can take effect (eg, within hours)

    • we suggest catheter-assisted thrombus removal(Grade 2C).

  • If catheter-assisted embolectomy failed, we suggest surgical pulmonary embolectomy provided surgical expertise and resources are available (Grade 2C).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Length Of The Treatment

  • Patients with afirst unprovoked PE:

    • we recommend treatment with anticoagulation for at least 3 months(Grade 1B).

    • After 3 months of treatment, patients should be evaluated for the risk-benefit ratio of extended therapy:

      • who have a low or moderate bleeding risk, we suggest extended anticoagulant therapy over 3 months of therapy (Grade 2B).

      • who have a high bleeding risk, we recommend 3 months of anticoagulant therapy only (Grade 1B).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Length Of The Treatment

  • Patients with a second unprovoked PE:

    • low bleeding risk, we recommend extended anticoagulant therapy over 3 months of therapy (Grade 1B)

    • moderate bleeding risk, we suggest extended anticoagulant therapy (Grade 2B).

    • high bleeding risk, we suggest 3 months of therapy only (Grade 2B).

  • In patients who are incidentally found to have asymptomatic PE, we suggest the same initial and long-term anticoagulation as for comparable patients with symptomatic PE (Grade 2B).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Length Of The Treatment

  • If PE provoked by surgery or nonsurgical transient risk factor:

  • we recommend treatment with anticoagulation for 3 months over (Grade 1B)

    • treatment of a shorter period,

    • treatment of a longer time-limited period (eg, 6 or 12 months), or

    • extended therapy.


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Vena Cava Filters for the Initial Treatment of

Patients With PE or DVT

  • Patients with acute PE or DVT who are treated with anticoagulants, we recommend against the use of an IVC filter (Grade 1B).

  • Patients with contraindication to anticoagulation, we recommendthe use of an IVC filter (Grade 1B).

  • In patients who has IVC filter inserted as an alternative to anticoagulation,

    • we suggest a conventional course of anticoagulant therapy if their risk of bleeding resolves (Grade 2B).

    • We do not consider that a permanent IVC filter, of itself, is an indication for extended anticoagulation.


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Upper Extremity DVT

( UEDVT )


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

ACCP Guidelines for Patients With UEDVT

  • In patients with UEDVT that involves the axillary or more proximal veins:

    • we recommend acute treatment with parenteral anticoagulation (Grade 1B)

    • we suggest LMWH or fondaparinux over IV or SC UFH (Grade 2B).

    • we suggest anticoagulant therapy alone overthrombolysis(Grade 2C).

    • we suggest a minimum duration of anticoagulation of 3 months over a shorter period (Grade 2B).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Thrombolytic Therapy for the Initial Treatment of

Patients With UEDVT

In patients with UEDVT who undergo thrombolysis, we recommend the same intensity and duration of anticoagulant therapy as in similar patients who do not undergo thrombolysis(Grade 1B).


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

UEDVT and Central Venous Catheter

  • Patients with UEDVT that is associated with a central venous catheter:

    • we suggest that the catheter notbe removed if it is functional and there is an ongoing need for the catheter (Grade 2C).

    • we recommend that anticoagulation is continued as long as the central venous catheter remains over stopping after 3 months of treatment(Grade 1C).

    • If the central venous catheter was removed, then we recommend3 months of anticoagulation over a longer duration of therapy in patients(Grade 1B)


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

Splanchnic

&

Hepatic Veins


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

ACCP Guidelines

  • In patients with symptomaticsplanchnic vein thrombosis (portal, mesenteric, and/or splenic vein thromboses), we recommend anticoagulation over no anticoagulation (Grade 1B).

  • In patients with symptomatic hepatic vein thrombosis, we suggest anticoagulation over no anticoagulation (Grade 2C).

  • In patients with incidentally detected splanchnic vein or hepatic vein thrombosis, we suggestno anticoagulation over anticoagulation (Grade 2C).


Renal vein thrombosis rvt

Renal Vein Thrombosis (RVT)

  • Etiology

    • Idiopathic, malignancy (Renal Cell Carcinoma), nephrotic syndrome, infection, post-operative, dehydration, IBS, hormone therapy, thrombophilia

  • Presentation

    • Asymptomatic often until renal failure, abdominal pain, hematuria

  • Therapy:

    • Nephrectomy is usually not recommended

    • Anticoagulation – no RCT data, but observed CrCl improvement


Summary

Summary

  • we suggest once- over twice-daily LMWH

  • In patients with acute DVT of the leg and whose home circumstances are adequate, we recommend initial treatment at home

  • We recommendearly initiation of VKA (same day as parenteral therapy is started) over delayed initiation, and continuation of parenteral anticoagulation for a minimum of 5 days and until the (INR) is 2.0 or above for at least 24 h


Summary1

Summary

  • we recommend against the use of an IVC filter in addition to anticoagulants

  • In patients with acute DVT of the leg, we suggest early ambulation over initial bed rest

  • we recommend (Grade 1B) treatment with anticoagulation for 3 months over longer period.

  • In patients with superficial vein thrombosis of the lower limb of at least 5 cm in length, we suggest the use of a prophylactic dose of fondaparinux or LMWH for 45 days over no anticoagulation


Summary2

Summary

  • UEDVT : we suggest that the catheter not be removed if it is functional and there is an ongoing need for the catheter

  • Patients with a coronary stent who are receiving dual antiplatelet therapy and require surgery, we recommend deferring surgery for at least 6 weeks after placement of a bare-metal stent and for at least 6 months after placement of a drug-eluting stent


Summary pe

Summary: PE

Thrombolytic Therapy:

  • indicated in patients with massive PE, as shown by shock /or hypotension + RVD

  • Controversial in submassive PE ( RVD without hypotension)

  • Not indicated in patients without right ventricular overload

    Catheter Embolectomycan be used with massive PE (moderate thrombus burden) and C/I to thrombolysis

    Surgical Embolectomyis reserved for patients with massive PE (large thrombus burden) with C/I to thrombolysis and those having PTO or RV or RA thrombus


New frontier in the management of venous thromboembolic disease vte accp guidelines 2012

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