Guide to the ancient world history
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Guide to the Ancient World History. I. History and Historiography. 1. Introduction History Broadest Sense: is the totality of all past events; limited Sense: is the known past. Historiography: The written record of What is known of human lives and societies in the past;

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I history and historiography
I. History and Historiography

  • 1. Introduction

    • History

      • Broadest Sense: is the totality of all past events;

      • limited Sense: is the known past.

    • Historiography: The written record of

      • What is known of human lives and societies in the past;

      • How historians have attempted to understand them.

    • Historian:

      • To collect and record facts about the human past;

      • To discover new facts.


I history and historiography1
I. History and Historiography

  • 2. Sources and Facts

    • Sources

      • Testimony from living witnesses;

        • Narrative records

        • Previous histories

        • Memoirs

        • Letters

        • Imaginative literature;


I history and historiography2
I. History and Historiography

  • 2. Sources and Facts

    • Sources

      • Testimony from living witnesses;

      • The legal and financial records of courts, legislatures, religious institutions, or businesses;

      • The unwritten information derived from the physical remains of past civilizations

        • Architecture

        • Arts

        • Crafts

        • Burial Grounds

        • Cultivated Land.


I history and historiography3
I. History and Historiography

  • 2. Sources and Facts

    • Sources

    • Evidence & Facts

      • Sources provide the evidence

      • To decipher facts from the evidence


I history and historiography4
I. History and Historiography

  • 3. Interpretation and Form

    • Interpretation

      • Selection, arrangement, and explanation of historical facts

      • Selection of a subject

    • Historiography and Literary Art


Ii civilizations
II. Civilizations

  • 1. Definition: a developed or advanced state of human society

  • 2. Description

    • People live in urban centers

    • People have productive survival, such as agriculture and smelting metals

    • People have live in the complex political, economic and social structure, under religious and law abiding

    • People have developed a method of writing in all meanings of the word


Iii why study ancient world cultures
III. Why Study Ancient World Cultures?

  • 1. A part of a tradition of intellectual development

  • 2. To Open Our Mind

    • We must always guard against the assumption that other people think as we do -- or that they should. Reading about ancient cultures is thus reading about other people whose lives were surely different from our own. These differences may help us better to see -- and know -- the limits of our culture and the limits of our language and experience.

    • A culture includes both the dominant tradition and its transgression


Iv prehistory
IV. Prehistory

  • 1. Time before written records appeared

  • 2. The Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age

  • 3. The nature and events of prehistory can be reconstructed through archaeology


V stone age
V. Stone Age

  • 1. Introduction

    • Definition: Stone as the principal raw material for tools

    • 2 500 000 million - 5 000 years ago

    • Distinguish between human and other animals: stone tool-making and tool-using

    • Beginning of the Stone Age


V stone age1
V. Stone Age

  • 2. Study of the Stone Age

    • The Origin of the Term "Stone Age"


V stone age2
V. Stone Age

  • 2. Study of the Stone Age

    • The Origin of the Term "Stone Age"

    • General Concepts

      • Anthropology and Archaelolgy

      • Stone Artifact

        • Artifact: Objects that have been modified by human action, either intentionally or unintentionally.

        • Tool: Something that has been used by a human for some purpose.

      • Human Evolution

        • Genus Homo and Genus Australopithecus

        • Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, Homo erectus, Homo Neandertals, Homo sapiens


V stone age3
V. Stone Age

  • 2. Study of the Stone Age

    • The Origin of the Term "Stone Age"

    • General Concepts

    • Stone Age Tool-making Technology

      • Techniques

      • Core, Flakes, Retouched Piece, Hammer-stone


V stone age4
V. Stone Age

  • 2. Study of the Stone Age

    • The Origin of the Term "Stone Age"

    • General Concepts

    • Stone Age Tool-making Technology

      • Techniques

      • Core, Flakes, Retouched Piece, Hammer-stone

      • Industry


V stone age5
V. Stone Age

  • 3. Divisions of the Stone Age

    • Paleolithic: Old Stone Age, the stage in which stone tools were flaked.

    • Mesolithic: Middle Stone Age, the period is characterized by the creation of implements.

    • Neolithic: New Stone Age, the stage in which ground and polished stone tools became prevalent.


V stone age6
V. Stone Age

  • 4. Lower Paleolithic

    • Date: 2 500 000 - 200 000 year ago

    • Oldowan Industry

      • Stone Artifacts




V stone age7
V. Stone Age

  • 4. Lower Paleolithic

    • Date: 2 500 000 - 200 000 year ago

    • Oldowan Industry

      • Stone Artifacts

      • Other Tools

      • Sites

      • Hominids: Homo erectus

      • Daily Life

        • To live near water sources

        • To transport stone several kilometers to other sites

        • To Process Animals Carcass


V stone age8
V. Stone Age

  • 4. Lower Paleolithic

    • Date: 2 500 000 - 200 000 year ago

    • Oldowan Industry

      • Stone Artifacts

      • Other Tools

      • Sites

      • Hominids: Homo erectus

      • Daily Life

      • Food

        • Meat from animal carcasses

        • Hunting smaller animals

        • Plant foods


V stone age9
V. Stone Age

  • 4. Lower Paleolithic

    • Date: 2 500 000 - 200 000 year ago

    • Oldowan Industry

    • Acheulean Industry

      • Acheulean hand axe




V stone age10
V. Stone Age

  • 4. Lower Paleolithic

    • Date: 2 500 000 - 200 000 year ago

    • Oldowan Industry

    • Acheulean Industry

      • Acheulean hand axe

        • Oval-shaped form, Bifacial Flaking, Soft-hammer Technique

        • Not to replace Oldowan tools entirely

        • Most of sites in Africa, Europe and western Asia, few in East Asia

      • Sites

      • Hunting

      • Fire


V stone age11
V. Stone Age

  • 5. Middle Paleolithic (ca. 200,000-30,000 years ago)

    • Levallois Produced Tools

    • Neandertals




V stone age12
V. Stone Age

  • 5. Middle Paleolithic (ca. 200,000-30,000 years ago)

    • Levallois Produced Tools

    • Neandertals

    • Sites

      • Germany: Neander Valley

      • Iraq: Shānidār

      • Israel: Tabun, Amud

      • China: Dali, Maba

      • South Africa: Florisbad


V stone age13
V. Stone Age

  • 5. Middle Paleolithic (ca. 200,000-30,000 years ago)

    • Levallois Produced Tools

    • Neandertals

    • Sites

    • Hunting

    • Dailylife

      • Fire use and Fire-making

      • Evidence of housing

    • Hominids’ Spread: Australia, by 40,000 years ago

    • Culture: burials, ornaments


V stone age14
V. Stone Age

  • 6. Upper Paleolithic (c.a. 40,000 – 10,000 years ago)

    • Characteristics of Upper Paleolithic

      • Stone Artifacts

      • Human’s Spread: American Continents (12,000-10,000 years ago)

      • Cro-Magnon Man


V stone age15
V. Stone Age

  • 6. Upper Paleolithic (c.a. 40,000 – 10,000 years ago, Paleo-Indian Period, Later Stone Age)

    • Characteristics of Upper Paleolithic

    • Innovations of the Upper Paleolithic

      • Tools

        • Tools of bone, antler and ivory

        • Lamps

        • Bow and arrow

        • Composite technology

      • Hunting and gathering



V stone age16
V. Stone Age

  • 6. Upper Paleolithic (c.a. 40,000 – 10,000 years ago, Paleo-Indian Period, Later Stone Age)

    • Characteristics of Upper Paleolithic

    • Innovations of the Upper Paleolithic

    • Upper Paleolithic Culture

      • Housing: hut or tent

      • Trade and transport

      • Burial

    • Upper Paleolithic Art




V stone age17
V. Stone Age

  • 7. Mesolithic (ca 10,000 – 7,000 years ago)

    • Foodstuffs

    • Technological Innovations




V stone age18
V. Stone Age

  • 8. Neolithic (ca 9,000 – 5,000 years ago)

    • Revolution in the history of human

      • More permanent settlements

      • Much Larger Populations

      • Accumulation of surpluses and wealth

      • Development of more profound status and rank differences within populations

      • Rise of specialized crafts


V stone age19
V. Stone Age

  • 8. Neolithic (ca 9,000 – 5,000 years ago)

    • Revolution in the history of human

    • Tool-making

      • Blade and bladelet technologies

      • Ground and polished axes

      • Grinding Stones for the Processing of Cereal Foods

      • Use of Pottery for Surplus Food Storage and Cooking

      • Construction of Granaries for Storage of Grains

      • Use of Plant for Textile

      • Weaving Technology


V stone age20
V. Stone Age

  • 8. Neolithic (ca 9,000 – 5,000 years ago)

    • Revolution in the history of human

    • Tool-making

    • The Rise of Farming

      • The reasons of farming

        • Population pressure or changes in environment

        • Region where it was relatively easy to domesticate wild plants and animals

        • Function of social change


V stone age21
V. Stone Age

  • 8. Neolithic (ca 9,000 – 5,000 years ago)

    • Revolution in the history of human

    • Tool-making

    • The Rise of Farming

      • The reasons of farming

      • Crops

        • Near East: wheat, barley, legumes, grapes, and olives

        • China: millet and rice

        • Africa: millet, African rice, and yams

        • Southeast Asia: Rice, bananas, coconuts, and yams

        • Americas: corn, squash, beans, potatoes, peppers, sunflowers


V stone age22
V. Stone Age

  • 8. Neolithic (ca 9,000 – 5,000 years ago)

    • Revolution in the history of human

    • Tool-making

    • The Rise of Farming

      • The reasons of farming

      • Crops

      • Domesticated animals

        • Eurasia: dogs, sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, chickens, ducks, and water buffalo

        • Americas: dogs, turkeys, llamas, alpacas

        • Africa: cattle, sheep, and goats

      • Architectural developments


V stone age23
V. Stone Age

  • 8. Neolithic (ca 9,000 – 5,000 years ago)

    • Revolution in the history of human

    • Tool-making

    • The Rise of Farming

    • Neolithic Social Change

      • Wealth for some individuals

      • Social differentiation

      • Trade between different areas

      • More complex social organization


V stone age24
V. Stone Age

  • 9. The End of the Stone Age

    • Metal tools: copper, Bronze

    • The rise of the earliest state societies and civilizations


Vi bronze age
VI. Bronze Age

  • 1. Bronze Age, the time in the development of any human culture, when most tools and weapons were made of bronze.

  • 2. Bronze came into use, and was again replaced by iron, at different times in different parts of the world.

    • Middle East: 4500 BC

    • Asia Minor: 3000 BC

    • Greece: 3000 BC

    • China: 1800 BC

    • Americas: AD 1000


Vii iron age
VII. Iron Age

  • Iron Age, period in the development of any culture, when iron was commonly used for making tools and weapons.



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