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Guide to the Ancient World History. I. History and Historiography. 1. Introduction History Broadest Sense: is the totality of all past events; limited Sense: is the known past. Historiography: The written record of What is known of human lives and societies in the past;

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i history and historiography
I. History and Historiography
  • 1. Introduction
    • History
      • Broadest Sense: is the totality of all past events;
      • limited Sense: is the known past.
    • Historiography: The written record of
      • What is known of human lives and societies in the past;
      • How historians have attempted to understand them.
    • Historian:
      • To collect and record facts about the human past;
      • To discover new facts.
i history and historiography1
I. History and Historiography
  • 2. Sources and Facts
    • Sources
      • Testimony from living witnesses;
        • Narrative records
        • Previous histories
        • Memoirs
        • Letters
        • Imaginative literature;
i history and historiography2
I. History and Historiography
  • 2. Sources and Facts
    • Sources
      • Testimony from living witnesses;
      • The legal and financial records of courts, legislatures, religious institutions, or businesses;
      • The unwritten information derived from the physical remains of past civilizations
        • Architecture
        • Arts
        • Crafts
        • Burial Grounds
        • Cultivated Land.
i history and historiography3
I. History and Historiography
  • 2. Sources and Facts
    • Sources
    • Evidence & Facts
      • Sources provide the evidence
      • To decipher facts from the evidence
i history and historiography4
I. History and Historiography
  • 3. Interpretation and Form
    • Interpretation
      • Selection, arrangement, and explanation of historical facts
      • Selection of a subject
    • Historiography and Literary Art
ii civilizations
II. Civilizations
  • 1. Definition: a developed or advanced state of human society
  • 2. Description
    • People live in urban centers
    • People have productive survival, such as agriculture and smelting metals
    • People have live in the complex political, economic and social structure, under religious and law abiding
    • People have developed a method of writing in all meanings of the word
iii why study ancient world cultures
III. Why Study Ancient World Cultures?
  • 1. A part of a tradition of intellectual development
  • 2. To Open Our Mind
    • We must always guard against the assumption that other people think as we do -- or that they should. Reading about ancient cultures is thus reading about other people whose lives were surely different from our own. These differences may help us better to see -- and know -- the limits of our culture and the limits of our language and experience.
    • A culture includes both the dominant tradition and its transgression
iv prehistory
IV. Prehistory
  • 1. Time before written records appeared
  • 2. The Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
  • 3. The nature and events of prehistory can be reconstructed through archaeology
v stone age
V. Stone Age
  • 1. Introduction
    • Definition: Stone as the principal raw material for tools
    • 2 500 000 million - 5 000 years ago
    • Distinguish between human and other animals: stone tool-making and tool-using
    • Beginning of the Stone Age
v stone age1
V. Stone Age
  • 2. Study of the Stone Age
    • The Origin of the Term "Stone Age"
v stone age2
V. Stone Age
  • 2. Study of the Stone Age
    • The Origin of the Term "Stone Age"
    • General Concepts
      • Anthropology and Archaelolgy
      • Stone Artifact
        • Artifact: Objects that have been modified by human action, either intentionally or unintentionally.
        • Tool: Something that has been used by a human for some purpose.
      • Human Evolution
        • Genus Homo and Genus Australopithecus
        • Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, Homo erectus, Homo Neandertals, Homo sapiens
v stone age3
V. Stone Age
  • 2. Study of the Stone Age
    • The Origin of the Term "Stone Age"
    • General Concepts
    • Stone Age Tool-making Technology
      • Techniques
      • Core, Flakes, Retouched Piece, Hammer-stone
v stone age4
V. Stone Age
  • 2. Study of the Stone Age
    • The Origin of the Term "Stone Age"
    • General Concepts
    • Stone Age Tool-making Technology
      • Techniques
      • Core, Flakes, Retouched Piece, Hammer-stone
      • Industry
v stone age5
V. Stone Age
  • 3. Divisions of the Stone Age
    • Paleolithic: Old Stone Age, the stage in which stone tools were flaked.
    • Mesolithic: Middle Stone Age, the period is characterized by the creation of implements.
    • Neolithic: New Stone Age, the stage in which ground and polished stone tools became prevalent.
v stone age6
V. Stone Age
  • 4. Lower Paleolithic
    • Date: 2 500 000 - 200 000 year ago
    • Oldowan Industry
      • Stone Artifacts
v stone age7
V. Stone Age
  • 4. Lower Paleolithic
    • Date: 2 500 000 - 200 000 year ago
    • Oldowan Industry
      • Stone Artifacts
      • Other Tools
      • Sites
      • Hominids: Homo erectus
      • Daily Life
        • To live near water sources
        • To transport stone several kilometers to other sites
        • To Process Animals Carcass
v stone age8
V. Stone Age
  • 4. Lower Paleolithic
    • Date: 2 500 000 - 200 000 year ago
    • Oldowan Industry
      • Stone Artifacts
      • Other Tools
      • Sites
      • Hominids: Homo erectus
      • Daily Life
      • Food
        • Meat from animal carcasses
        • Hunting smaller animals
        • Plant foods
v stone age9
V. Stone Age
  • 4. Lower Paleolithic
    • Date: 2 500 000 - 200 000 year ago
    • Oldowan Industry
    • Acheulean Industry
      • Acheulean hand axe
v stone age10
V. Stone Age
  • 4. Lower Paleolithic
    • Date: 2 500 000 - 200 000 year ago
    • Oldowan Industry
    • Acheulean Industry
      • Acheulean hand axe
        • Oval-shaped form, Bifacial Flaking, Soft-hammer Technique
        • Not to replace Oldowan tools entirely
        • Most of sites in Africa, Europe and western Asia, few in East Asia
      • Sites
      • Hunting
      • Fire
v stone age11
V. Stone Age
  • 5. Middle Paleolithic (ca. 200,000-30,000 years ago)
    • Levallois Produced Tools
    • Neandertals
v stone age12
V. Stone Age
  • 5. Middle Paleolithic (ca. 200,000-30,000 years ago)
    • Levallois Produced Tools
    • Neandertals
    • Sites
      • Germany: Neander Valley
      • Iraq: Shānidār
      • Israel: Tabun, Amud
      • China: Dali, Maba
      • South Africa: Florisbad
v stone age13
V. Stone Age
  • 5. Middle Paleolithic (ca. 200,000-30,000 years ago)
    • Levallois Produced Tools
    • Neandertals
    • Sites
    • Hunting
    • Dailylife
      • Fire use and Fire-making
      • Evidence of housing
    • Hominids’ Spread: Australia, by 40,000 years ago
    • Culture: burials, ornaments
v stone age14
V. Stone Age
  • 6. Upper Paleolithic (c.a. 40,000 – 10,000 years ago)
    • Characteristics of Upper Paleolithic
      • Stone Artifacts
      • Human’s Spread: American Continents (12,000-10,000 years ago)
      • Cro-Magnon Man
v stone age15
V. Stone Age
  • 6. Upper Paleolithic (c.a. 40,000 – 10,000 years ago, Paleo-Indian Period, Later Stone Age)
    • Characteristics of Upper Paleolithic
    • Innovations of the Upper Paleolithic
      • Tools
        • Tools of bone, antler and ivory
        • Lamps
        • Bow and arrow
        • Composite technology
      • Hunting and gathering
v stone age16
V. Stone Age
  • 6. Upper Paleolithic (c.a. 40,000 – 10,000 years ago, Paleo-Indian Period, Later Stone Age)
    • Characteristics of Upper Paleolithic
    • Innovations of the Upper Paleolithic
    • Upper Paleolithic Culture
      • Housing: hut or tent
      • Trade and transport
      • Burial
    • Upper Paleolithic Art
v stone age17
V. Stone Age
  • 7. Mesolithic (ca 10,000 – 7,000 years ago)
    • Foodstuffs
    • Technological Innovations
v stone age18
V. Stone Age
  • 8. Neolithic (ca 9,000 – 5,000 years ago)
    • Revolution in the history of human
      • More permanent settlements
      • Much Larger Populations
      • Accumulation of surpluses and wealth
      • Development of more profound status and rank differences within populations
      • Rise of specialized crafts
v stone age19
V. Stone Age
  • 8. Neolithic (ca 9,000 – 5,000 years ago)
    • Revolution in the history of human
    • Tool-making
      • Blade and bladelet technologies
      • Ground and polished axes
      • Grinding Stones for the Processing of Cereal Foods
      • Use of Pottery for Surplus Food Storage and Cooking
      • Construction of Granaries for Storage of Grains
      • Use of Plant for Textile
      • Weaving Technology
v stone age20
V. Stone Age
  • 8. Neolithic (ca 9,000 – 5,000 years ago)
    • Revolution in the history of human
    • Tool-making
    • The Rise of Farming
      • The reasons of farming
        • Population pressure or changes in environment
        • Region where it was relatively easy to domesticate wild plants and animals
        • Function of social change
v stone age21
V. Stone Age
  • 8. Neolithic (ca 9,000 – 5,000 years ago)
    • Revolution in the history of human
    • Tool-making
    • The Rise of Farming
      • The reasons of farming
      • Crops
        • Near East: wheat, barley, legumes, grapes, and olives
        • China: millet and rice
        • Africa: millet, African rice, and yams
        • Southeast Asia: Rice, bananas, coconuts, and yams
        • Americas: corn, squash, beans, potatoes, peppers, sunflowers
v stone age22
V. Stone Age
  • 8. Neolithic (ca 9,000 – 5,000 years ago)
    • Revolution in the history of human
    • Tool-making
    • The Rise of Farming
      • The reasons of farming
      • Crops
      • Domesticated animals
        • Eurasia: dogs, sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, chickens, ducks, and water buffalo
        • Americas: dogs, turkeys, llamas, alpacas
        • Africa: cattle, sheep, and goats
      • Architectural developments
v stone age23
V. Stone Age
  • 8. Neolithic (ca 9,000 – 5,000 years ago)
    • Revolution in the history of human
    • Tool-making
    • The Rise of Farming
    • Neolithic Social Change
      • Wealth for some individuals
      • Social differentiation
      • Trade between different areas
      • More complex social organization
v stone age24
V. Stone Age
  • 9. The End of the Stone Age
    • Metal tools: copper, Bronze
    • The rise of the earliest state societies and civilizations
vi bronze age
VI. Bronze Age
  • 1. Bronze Age, the time in the development of any human culture, when most tools and weapons were made of bronze.
  • 2. Bronze came into use, and was again replaced by iron, at different times in different parts of the world.
    • Middle East: 4500 BC
    • Asia Minor: 3000 BC
    • Greece: 3000 BC
    • China: 1800 BC
    • Americas: AD 1000
vii iron age
VII. Iron Age
  • Iron Age, period in the development of any culture, when iron was commonly used for making tools and weapons.
slide50
What are the reasons for the late beginning of agriculture?
  • What forced the change to agriculture between 10,000 and 2,000 years ago?
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