Physical and psychological changes of pregnancy
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Physical and Psychological Changes of Pregnancy. Chapter 9. Physical Changes. Reproductive changes Uterus, cervix Ovarian, vaginal Breast tissue Cardiovascular Pulse and BP Vena Cava syndrome Hemodilution and anemia Hypercoagulation. Physical Changes.

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Physical Changes

Reproductive changes

  • Uterus, cervix

  • Ovarian, vaginal

  • Breast tissue

    Cardiovascular

  • Pulse and BP

  • Vena Cava syndrome

  • Hemodilution and anemia

  • Hypercoagulation


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Physical Changes

  • Respiratory- increase volume, pressure on diaphragm

  • GI-N/V, delay in GI emptying due to progesterone

  • Constipation and hemorrhoids

  • Urinary- frequency, GFR increase, glycosuria


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Physical Changes

Skin

  • Color

  • Striae

  • Hyperactive sebateous/ sweat glands

  • Alteration in hair growth

    Musculoskeletal

  • Teeth

  • Posture

  • Diastasis recti


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Metabolism

  • Weight gain

  • Water retention

  • Nutrient demands increase

  • Delay in gastric emptying


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Endocrine and Hormonal

  • Placental hormones

  • hCG

  • hPL

  • Estrogen

  • Progesterone

  • Relaxin


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Signs of Pregnancy

  • Presumptive/Subjective- statement

  • N/V, amenorrhea, fatigue, quickening

  • Probable/Objective-observable

  • Goodells, Chadwick’s, fundal height

  • Diagnostic/Positive

  • Heart beat, gestational sac


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Psychological Responses

  • Maternal response

  • First tri- ambivalence, disbelief, fear

  • Second tri- excited, tells others, fear abandonment, body image

  • Third tri- tired, fears delivery


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Psychological Responses

  • Spouse

  • First tri- Only one to know

  • Second tri- May be turned off by changes

  • Fetal movement= reality

  • Third tri-Couvade, observance of rituals, development of s/s of pregnancy


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Familial Responses

  • Grandparents

  • Siblings

  • Toddlers

  • School age

  • Adolescents


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Cultural Responses

  • Wellness vs. Illness

  • Food/Water

  • Hot vs. Cold

  • Herbs

  • Healers

  • Incorporate culture into care


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