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Asthma Management in School A presentation in honor of World Asthma Day 2013 thru a collaboration with Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Education. Jodie Rodriguez, RN, MS, CPNP, AE-C Children’s Asthma Center of Excellence. Asthma in Georgia’s Children.

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Jodie Rodriguez, RN, MS, CPNP, AE-C Children’s Asthma Center of Excellence

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Jodie rodriguez rn ms cpnp ae c children s asthma center of excellence

Asthma Management in SchoolA presentation in honor of World Asthma Day 2013 thru a collaboration with Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta and the Department of Education.

Jodie Rodriguez, RN, MS, CPNP, AE-C

Children’s Asthma Center of Excellence


Asthma in georgia s children

Asthma in Georgia’s Children

  • Approximately 10% have asthma, an estimated 226,000 children (approx 2-3 per class)*

  • #1 reason for inpatient admissions and emergency room visit to Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta

  • Higher morbidity and mortality rates among minority children from lower income households

  • 65% do not have a written asthma management plan

    (Georgia Asthma Surveillance Report 2007, DHR, Georgia)


Impact of uncontrolled asthma on student learning

Impact of Uncontrolled Asthma on Student Learning

  • 470,000 missed school days annually due to asthma

  • Missed class time due to frequent visits to the school clinic

  • Student fatigue due to night time symptoms


Asthma

Asthma

  • A disease of the lungs where:

  • Airway becomes swollen and inflamed in response to a trigger

  • Variable among students, seasons, and a person’s lifetime

  • Asthma episodes (attacks) can be mild, moderate or life-threatening

  • Asthma cannot be cured but it can be controlled

  • A chronic disease


Asthma triggers

Asthma Triggers

  • Allergens

    • Dust mites, pollens, cockroaches, molds, animals

  • Irritants

    • Smoke

    • Poor air quality

    • Aerosols/fumes

  • Upper Respiratory Infections, illness

  • Emotion (laughing or crying)

  • Weather or Temperature Changes

  • Exercise


What are the symptoms of asthma early signs

What Are the Symptoms of Asthma?(early signs)

  • Coughing

  • Wheezing or whistling in the chest

  • Feeling short of breath

  • Tightness in the chest

  • Waking at night with symptoms*

    *A key indicator of uncontrolled asthma


Signs of distress late signs

Can’t stop coughing or wheezing

Blue/gray color

Increased WOB/Tachypnea

Retractions

Tripod breathing

Difficulty completing a sentence without

pausing for breath

**May not hear wheeze on Auscultation in late phase due to decreased air flow through bronchioles**

If in distress…. ACT QUICKLY

Signs of Distress(late signs)


Reducing triggers in school

Reducing Triggers in School

  • Avoid exposure to tobacco smoke and other smoke

  • Avoid exposure to strong smells and odors

  • Keep temperature and humidity at appropriate settings

  • Dry up damp and wet areas immediately

  • Consider removing furred or feathered animals from the classroom

  • Use pest management techniques to control pests

  • Adjust schedule for high smog, high pollen,

    low temps

  • Allow student to pre-medicate before exercise, if needed

  • Encourage good hand washing and flu shots


Children s asthma action plan

Children’s Asthma Action Plan


Components of an asthma action plan

Components of an Asthma Action Plan

  • Prescribed daily controller and quick-relief medicines

  • Treatment guidelines for handling asthma episodes

  • Guidelines for pre-treatment before activity

  • Emergency contacts

  • List of Triggers

  • Should be on file with the school with copies for student’s teachers, PE teachers , and coaches and easily available for all on and off-site activities before, during, and after school

  • Updated annually and as needed


Asthma medication

Asthma Medication

Two Main types of inhalers:

Quick Relievers ( yellow/red zone medication)

  • Used to treat or relieve asthma symptoms

  • Should ALways have it with them (ALbuterol)

  • Open airways by relaxing the muscles that surround the airway

  • Works very quickly, but for a short period of time (3-4 hours)

  • Used every 4 hours during a flare up to prevent further exacerbation

  • This medication is used to SAVE LIVES

    (e.g., Albuterol, ProAir, Proventil, Ventolin, Xopenex)

    Long-term Controllers(green zone medication)

  • Used for daily control and prevention

  • Reduce inflammation on the inside of the airway and helps to prevent future episodes

  • Will NOT work for quick relief of symptoms

    (e.g. Flovent, Pulmicort, Qvar, Asmanex, Advair, Dulera, Symbicort)

    AN AEROCHAMBER IS NECESSARY WITH ALL MDI USE


Questions

Questions


Managing an exacerbation yellow zone

Managing an Exacerbation – Yellow Zone

  • Early recognition of symptoms and/or triggers critical

    • Pre-treatment before exercise/exposure to known trigger

    • Don’t have to hear a wheeze to be asthma (cough, early signs URI, increased allergic symptoms)

  • Proper use of Albuterol; one vial nebulized or FOUR puffs every 3-4 hours for 24-48 hours or until 24 hours after symptoms subside

  • Student may come to school in yellow zone; every four hour Albuterol is crucial to managing exacerbation and/or decreasing severity even if symptoms not present.


Managing an attack red zone

Managing an Attack – Red Zone

  • Evaluate breathing: increased breathing rate, short of breath, color, signs of distress

  • Immediately administer 4-6 Puffs MDI Albuterol or Albuterol nebulizer. Evaluate response.

  • Implement your school’s emergency protocol (EMS, parents, administrator) if needed

  • Continue 4-6 Puffs MDI Albuterol or Albuterol nebulizer every 20 minutes x3 if needed


Exercise induced asthma eia

Exercise Induced Asthma (EIA)

  • 10-15% of General Population

  • 90% of all Asthmatics have some component

    Watch for:

  • Cough after exercise

  • Shortness of Breath

  • Wheezing/ Chest tightness

  • “Out of shape”

  • Tend to avoid play/Cannot keep up

  • May need pre-treatment before exercise or strenuous activity

  • Beware of dizziness- reflects cardiac issue


Signs of poor control

Signs of Poor Control

  • A persistent cough

  • Coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, or shortness of breath after vigorous physical activity on a recurring basis

  • Low level of stamina during physical activity or reluctance to participate

  • Frequent use of quick relief medication

    *may be using an empty inhaler

    (Source: Asthma & physical activity in the school, NHLBI, 2006)


Senate bill 472 sb 472

Senate Bill 472 (SB 472)

Self-administration of Asthma Medication by Minor Children at School

  • Effective on July 1, 2002

  • Also known as the “Kellen Bolden Act”

    Any student who is authorized for self-administration

    of asthma medication:

    1.while in school

    2.at a school sponsored activity

    3.while under supervision of school personnel

    4.while in before-school or after-school care on school property


School asthma management

School Asthma Management

Key components:

  • Identify students with asthma

  • Obtain asthma management/emergency plans

  • Educate staff and students on asthma

  • Implement policies to promote asthma control

  • Teamwork is essential to create a healthy school environment


Resources

Resources

  • Asthma Awareness Month: Event Planning Kit

    • http://www.epa.gov/asthma/pdfs/awm/event_planning_kit.pdf

  • Georgia School Health Resource Manual 2013

    • http://www.choa.org/Health-Professionals/Nurse-Resources/School-Nurses/~/media/CHOA/Documents/Health-Professionals/2013-School-Health-Manual/Manual-Chapters/Ch-5-Chronic-Health-Conditions.pdf


References

References

  • The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (2007). Pediatric Asthma: Promoting Best Practice, Guide for Managing Asthma in Children.

  • The National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (2007). Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma.

  • The National Institutes of Health, (2007). Practical Guide for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma.

  • Plaut, T. (2005). One Minute Asthma: What You Need to Know, Seventh Edition. Amherst: Pediapress, Inc.

  • Fanta C.H., Carter, E.L., Stieb, E.S., Haver, K.E. (2007). The Asthma Educator’s Handbook, McGraw - Hill.

  • Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2008.

  • CDC, EPA: (2009). Help Your Child Gain Control Over Asthma.

  • Georgia Asthma Surveillance Report 2007


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