The ingredients of language
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The Ingredients of Language. The Ingredients of Language: VERBS and ADVERBS. The Ingredients of Language. A verb expresses an action or mental or physical state: I ate a sandwich as I felt hungry. As a general rule, if you can put ‘– ing’ after it, it is a verb.

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The Ingredients of Language

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The Ingredients of Language

  • The Ingredients of Language:

  • VERBS and ADVERBS


The Ingredients of Language

  • A verb expresses an action or mental or physical state:

  • I ate a sandwich as I felt hungry.

  • As a general rule, if you can put ‘–ing’ after it, it is a verb.


The Ingredients of Language

  • Remember that most sentences contain a verb or verbs.

  • The verb lets you know what the subject of the sentence is doing or being:

  • The artistpainted as the modelsat and thought about her holiday!


The Ingredients of Language

  • The infinitive is otherwise called the ‘to’ form of the verb.

  • For example,

    • To ride

    • To jump

    • To smile

    • To be

  • Note that the infinitive does not tell us about tense or when an action is happening, nor does it tell us who is performing the action.


The Ingredients of Language

  • Activity: Think of some more infinitive verbs and write them down.

  • Remember that verbs can tell you about actions and mental and physical states.

    • To

    • To

    • To

    • To

    • To


The Ingredients of Language

  • Verbs may also be classified into finite and non-finite verbs.

  • The finite forms of a verb are the forms where the verb shows tense, person or singular/plural. In other words, a finite verb shows who is performing the action and when it was performed.

  • For example:

    • I am, She was


The Ingredients of Language

  • Non-finite verb forms have no person, tense or number and usually combine with a modal, auxiliary or infinitive.

  • For example:

    • I will be going

    • They might go

    • I want to go


The Ingredients of Language

  • Like nouns, English verbs can be sub-divided into two main classes:

    • Strong verbs - form the past tense by changing the vowel of the base form, and

    • Weak verbs - form the past tense by adding ‘–ed’ to the base form

  • Use the table which accompanies this presentation to familiarize yourself with these classes of verbs.


The Ingredients of Language

  • There are also different types of verb which perform different jobs.

  • Main or lexical verbs express the main action or state within the sentence.

  • For example:

    • I was walking to the station.

  • Write your own sentence which has a main verb.


The Ingredients of Language

  • Here is another type of verb which has a supporting role!

  • Auxiliary verbs are found in front of the main verb and can tell us about tense.

  • For example:

    • I must have beengoing the wrong way!

  • Notice that going is the main verb of this sentence.

  • Have and been are the auxiliary verbs.


The Ingredients of Language

  • The most important auxiliary verbs are different forms of the following base forms:

    • Be

    • Have

    • Do

  • Write your own sentences which contain a main verb and some auxiliary verbs.

  • Remember to indicate the different types of verb.


The Ingredients of Language

  • Modal verbs are another type of helping verb which express the possibility or probability of an event happening:

    • Can/Could

    • Will/Would

    • Shall/Should

    • May,Might and Must

  • You will just have to learn these!


The Ingredients of Language

  • Modal verbs

  • Consider the difference between the following:

    • I can go to the cinema tonight.

    • I should go shopping tonight.

    • I will go to the ball.

  • Try to put these modal verbs in order of probability.


The Ingredients of Language

  • Adverbs give us additional information about the verb . . .

    • How- manner

    • When- time

    • Where- place

      Think of some ways of using adverbs in sentences.


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