Mexican history
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Mexican History. Three Time Periods 1. Colonialism (1519-1821) 2. Independence through Revolution of 1910 3. 20 th Century after the Revolution. 1. Colonialism (1519-1821). Spanish Colonialism’s Enduring Influences Mestizo Population Blend of Spanish and native Indian (Amerindian)

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Mexican History

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Mexican history

Mexican History

Three Time Periods

1. Colonialism (1519-1821)

2. Independence through Revolution of 1910

3. 20th Century after the Revolution


1 colonialism 1519 1821

1. Colonialism (1519-1821)

Spanish Colonialism’s Enduring Influences

  • Mestizo Population

    • Blend of Spanish and native Indian (Amerindian)

    • Today: 60% of Mexican population

  • Catholicism

    • Catholic missionaries spread the faith

    • Today: 80-90% Roman Catholic

  • Spanish Language


2 independence through revolution of 1910

2. Independence through Revolution of 1910

  • 1810-1821: Mexico battles for independence

    • Fr. Miguel Hidalgo led the rebellion (executed one year later)

    • Mexican elite continued the struggle.

  • 1821: Gain independence

Mural in Guadalajara’s Palacio de Gobierno


2a characteristics of 1821 1876

2a. Characteristics of 1821-1876

  • Instability and legitimacy issues

    • Spanish took ruling hierarchy with them.

    • Power vacuum.

    • CAUDILLO (regional strongmen) battled for power.

      • 1833-1855: Thirty-six presidents

  • Rise of military power

    • Instability invited military control (i.e., General Santa Anna)


2a characteristics of 1821 18761

2a. Characteristics of 1821-1876

  • U.S. Domination

    • Took California, Texas, and most of SW U.S.

      • Mexican/American War 1848


2b the porfiriato 1876 1911

2b. The Porfiriato (1876-1911)

  • General Porfirio Diaz

    • Led a military coup

    • Became dictator (1876-1911)

  • Characteristics of this era:

    • Stability

    • Authoritarianism

    • Foreign Investment

      • CIENTIFICOS: (technocrats) advisors who pushed for entrepreneurship and FDI

    • Growing gap between rich and poor


Mexican history1

Mexican History

Three Time Periods

1. Colonialism (1519-1821)

2. Independence through Revolution of 1910

3. 20th Century after the Revolution


3 20 th century after the revolution

3. 20th Century After the Revolution

1910 Revolution

  • Caudillos (elites): Fed up with Diaz’ authoritarianism & foreign influence.

  • Peasants: Fed up with poverty

  • Various caudillos led bands of armed peasants.

    • Emiliano Zapata & Pancho Villa

  • Diaz forced from power

  • 1910-1934: Assassinations and bloody violence among caudillos and government.


Forming the institutional revolutionary party pri

Forming the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

  • 1929: Convention of caudillos

  • Goal: Create one, big political party; pass around the leadership

    • President gets only one six-year term (SEXENIO)

      • Principle of “non-reelection”

      • Then must step aside for another leader

    • Remaining caudillos get important government positions.

  • 1929-2000: PRI Controls Mexican Politics


Pri 1929 2000

PRI (1929-2000)

  • Compromise among elites.

  • Behind-the-scenes conflict resolution.

  • Political/economic rewards to those who play the game.


Comparing revolutions

Comparing Revolutions

Motivations for Revolution

  • Russia:

    • Defeat authoritarian government /tsars

    • Spread Marxist ideology

  • China:

    • Defeat authoritarian/dynastic government

    • Drive out “foreign devils.”

  • Mexico:

    • Defeat authoritarian government

    • Anti-foreign dependency

    • Elite power struggle


Characteristics of revolution

Characteristics of Revolution

  • Russia

    • Led by Lenin and Bolsheviks

    • 4-Year Civil War

  • China

    • Fighting among regional warlords, Nationalists, and Communists

    • Lengthy Civil War

  • Mexico

    • Fighting among regional caudillos

    • Lengthy period of instability and violence


Outcome of revolutions

Outcome of Revolutions

  • Russia

    • Marxist-Leninist style of Communism

    • One-party state

  • China

    • Maoist style of Communism

    • One-party state

  • Mexico

    • PRI created

    • One party-dominant state


Pri 1929 20001

PRI (1929-2000)

  • Compromise among elites.

  • Behind-the-scenes conflict resolution.

  • Political/economic rewards to those who play the game.


Pri s patron client networks clientelism

PRI’s Patron-Client Networks“Clientelism”

  • PRI “Camarillas”

    • Origins with 19th century CAUDILLOS.

    • Supporters received political/economic/social favors.

    • Hierarchical network

    • Offices and benefits exchanged among politicians

    • Citizens receive perks for loyalty


Mexican lives

Mexican Lives

  • What is Miguel’s job?

  • Describe the patron-client hierarchy.

    • What does Miguel give? (identify 2 things)

    • What does he receive? (list 3 specific examples)

  • Describe 2 specific examples from Miguel’s childhood of the PRI’s patron-client network in action.

  • Describe one example from Miguel’s time as a factory worker of the PRI’s patron-client network in action.


Lazaro cardenas 1934 1940

Lazaro Cardenas (1934-1940)

  • Stabilized and radicalized (socialism) Mexican politics

  • Champion of the peasants

    1. Agrarian Reform

  • EJIDOS

    • Created Collective/Cooperative Lands

    • Taken from foreigners and landlords

    • Worked by peasants

    • 50 million acres of land


Lazaro cardenas 1934 19401

Lazaro Cardenas (1934-1940)

  • Formation of Unions & Peasant Organizations

  • Organizations became part of PRI machine

  • Influence in public policy

    • State Corporatism

      3. Nationalized Oil Industry

  • PEMEX created.

  • Diaz’ foreign investors were kicked out.

  • Legitimacy to New Government/PRI

  • Stepped aside after 6 years.


1934 2000 11 pri presidents

1934-2000: 11 PRI Presidents


Gradual erosion of pri s monopoly on power

Gradual erosion of PRI’s monopoly on power


Erosion of pri s monopoly on power

Erosion of PRI’s Monopoly on Power

POLITICAL CHANGES

  • PRI Progressives believed changes in politics=greater legitimacy

    • (1964) Legislature began proportional representation

      • Low 2.5% Threshold

      • 1998: 240 of lower houses 500 deputies were PRI opposition

    • (1990) Federal Election Institute

      • Independent organization to control elections

      • Greatly reduced voter fraud

    • Permit some fair local/regional elections


Erosion of pri s monopoly on power1

Erosion of PRI’s Monopoly on Power

Governors by Party (1960-2000)


Erosion of pri s monopoly on power2

Erosion of PRI’s Monopoly on Power

Presidential Elections by Party (1964-2000)


Erosion of pri s monopoly on power3

Erosion of PRI’s Monopoly on Power

ECONOMIC ISSUES

  • Several economic crises between 1980-2000

    • 1980s: oil prices plunged; Mexico=recession

    • Mid-1990s: peso lost half its value

      • Bailed out by the U.S.

      • Mexico=severe austerity measures


Election of 2000

Election of 2000


Election of 2006

Election of 2006


Obrador to be parallel president

“Obrador to be ‘Parallel President’”

  • Lisa Adams in Mexico City and Associated Press

  • The Guardian, Sunday 17 September 2006

    Hundreds of thousands of supporters of Mexico's leftwing leader, Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, elected him head of a parallel government that plans to oppose president-elect Felipe Calderon's administration for the next six years.

    The weekend "vote" - a show of hands in the capital's vast Zocalo plaza -follows weeks of dispute over the July 2 national election. Mr Lopez Obrador claims that fraud and illegal government spending were responsible for the conservative Mr Calderon's narrow poll victory.

    The crowd agreed not to recognise Mr Calderon as the nation's leader, and to create a parallel government in Mexico City, complete with its own cabinet. Mr Lopez Obrador will be sworn in as "legitimate president" on November 20, the Mexican Revolution holiday. Mr Calderon will be inaugurated on December 1.


Political parties of mexico

Political Parties of Mexico


National action party pan

National Action Party (PAN)

  • Established in 1939

    Platform

  • Economic liberalization

  • Regional autonomy

  • Free and fair elections

  • Strong support of Catholic Church

  • Party on the right


Democratic revolutionary party prd

Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD)

  • Established 1986

  • Broke away from PRI

    Platform

  • Populist (favor the people over the elite)

  • Nationalist

  • Arguably “won” in 1988.

  • Barely lost in 2006.

  • Party on the left


Voter identification

Voter Identification

PRI

  • Small town and rural

  • Less educated/poorer

  • Older

PAN

  • Urban

  • Better educated

  • Professionals/Business

  • Less church/state separation

  • PRD

  • Small town or urban

  • Some education

  • Younger/politically active


2000 election

2000 Election

Blue=PAN

Green=PRI

Yellow=PRD

2006 Election


Election of 2012

Election of 2012


Election of 20121

Election of 2012

  • Green=PRI

  • Yellow=PRD

  • Blue=PAN


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