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Recent Results from WMAP. Dave Wilkinson. L. Page, DESY, September, 2006. The Standard Cosmological Model. Surface of last scattering at “decoupling.”. “Reionization”. Mark Subbarao & SDSS Collaboration. The New Science. Basic model agrees with virtually all cosmological measurements.

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Recent results from wmap
Recent Results from WMAP

Dave Wilkinson

L. Page, DESY, September, 2006


The standard cosmological model
The Standard Cosmological Model

Surface oflast scattering at “decoupling.”

“Reionization”



The new science
The New Science

Basic model agrees with virtually all cosmological measurements.

The DM/DE composition is parametrized phenomenologically.

Inflation-like models, based on field theories of the t<10-20s Universe, predict the gravitational landscape to which the contents respond, differ by 5% from the historic (PHZ) phenomenological description.

WMAP observes this difference.


What s new in the measurement
What’s New in the Measurement?

Much better understanding of instrument, noise, gain, beams, and mapmaking.

Direct measurement of CMB polarization at >100 angular scales. The error bars are near 300 nK.

Three times as much data, smaller errors in maps: more than 50x reduction in model parameter space.


WMAP

A partnership between NASA/GSFC and Princeton

Science Team:

NASA/GSFC

Bob Hill

Gary Hinshaw

Al Kogut

Michele Limon

Nils Odegard

Janet Weiland

Ed Wollack

Johns Hopkins

Chuck Bennett (PI)

UCLA

Ned Wright

Brown

Greg Tucker

Chicago

Stephan Meyer

Hiranya Peiris

UBC

Mark Halpern

Princeton

Norm Jarosik

Lyman Page

David Spergel.

CITA

Olivier Dore

Mike Nolta

Penn

Licia Verde

UT Austin

Eiichiro Komatsu

Cornell

Rachel Bean

Microsoft

Chris Barnes


For temperature: measure difference in power from both sides. CMB: 30 uK rms

(>100)

For polarization: measure the difference between differential temperature measurements with opposite polarity. CMB 0.3 uK rms

)

(

*

*

<ExEx>

<ExEy>

*

*

<EyEx>

<EyEy>

(

(

A-B-A-B

B-A-B-A

)

)

=

I/2

0

+

Q/2

U/2

One of 20

0

I/2

U/2

-Q/2

Amplifiers from NRAO, M. Pospieszalski design

Intensity

Stokes Q&U

Coherency matrix


Stability of instrument is critical

Physical temperature of B-side primary over three years.

Model based on yr1 alone

3yr Model

Three parameter fit to gain over three years leads to a clean separation of gain and offset drifts.

Data based on dipole

Jarosik et al.







Power spectrum

Physical size = plasma speed X

age of universe at decoupling

Angular Power Spectrum.

Power spectrum

~10

early in inflation

~0.40

later in inflation

The overall tilt of this spectrum--- encoded in the “scalar spectral index” ns--- is the new handle on inflation.


CMB alone tells us we are on the “geometric degeneracy” line

closed

“Geometric Degeneracy”

open

{

WMAP3 only best fit LCDM

Assume flatness

Reduced


Large angular scale polarization
Large Angular Scale Polarization line

The formation of the first stars produces free electrons that:

(1) rescatter CMB photons thereby reducing the anisotropy and

(2) polarize the CMB at large angular scales.

These effects mimic a change in ns:

“the ns - tau” degeneracy

WMAP measures (2) to break the degeneracy





V Band, 61 GHz line

CMB 6 uK



From Wayne Hu line

CMB Polarization

Polarization of the CMB is produced by Thompson scattering of a quadrupolar radiation pattern.

E

2 deg

Whenever there are free electrons, the CMB is polarized.

B

The polarization field is decomposed into “E” and “B” modes.

Seljak & Zaldarriaga


Terminology e b modes

Gravitational wave line

Density wave

Terminology: E/B Modes

k

k

E-modes

B-modes


Types of cosmological perturbations
Types of Cosmological Perturbations line

Temperature

Scalars: ,

E polarization

Temperature

Tensors: h (GW strain)

E polarization

B polarization

0.3

Or less!

n and r are predicted by models of inflation.


Low l ee bb
Low-l EE/BB line

EE (solid)

BB (dash)

EE/BB model at 60 GHz

r=0.3

Since reionization is late we see it at large angular scales. This is our handle on the optical depth.


Raw vs cleaned maps
Raw vs. Cleaned lineMaps

Galaxy masked in analysis


Low l ee bb1
Low-l EE/BB line

EE

BB

BB Polarization: null check and limit on gravitational waves.

EE Polarization: from reionization by the first stars

r<2.2 (95% CL) from just EE/BB

Just Q and V bands.


Degeneracy
Degeneracy line

1yr WMAP

No SZ marg

L

WMAP1+ACBAR+CBI

3yr WMAP

Knowledge of optical depth breaks the degeneracy


TT line

TE

EE

Approx EE/BB foreground

BB inflation

BB r=0.3

BB Lensing (not primordial)


What does the model need to describe the data

Model needs , 8 line

Model needs not unity, 8

Model needs dark matter, 248

Model does not need: “running,” r, or massive neutrinos, < 3.

What Does the Model Need to Describe the Data?

changing one of the 6 parameters at a time….

{

(“2.8 sigma”)

….but Eriksen & Huffenberger

0.959+/-0.016 WMAP

0.947+/-0.015 (all)

(“15 sigma”)

The data are, of course, less restrictive when there are more parameters.


Equation of state curvature
Equation of State & Curvature line

Interpret as amazing consistency between data sets.

WMAP+CMB+2dFGRS+SDSS+SN



Maps of multipoles
Maps of Multipoles line

Too aligned?

Too symmetric?


What s next
What’s Next? line

The CMB is still a scientific gold mine.

Small scale anisotropy

Polarization at all angular scales

Better known parameters

W not -1?

Neutrino mass?

Non-gaussanity?

Something new?

Non-adiabatic modes ?

Formation and growth of cosmic structure.

Tests of field theories at 10-35 s.


Selected Bolometer line-Array and SZ Roadmap

ACT

(3000 bolometers)

Chile

BRAIN

SCUBA2

SZA

QUAD

QUIET

(12000 bolometers)

(Interferometer)

Owens Valley

BiCEP

CLOVER

2006

2007

2008

2005

SPT

(1000 bolometers)

South Pole

Polarbear-I

APEX

(~400 bolometers)

Chile

(300 bolometers)

California

Planck

(50 bolometers)

L2


“large scale” line

(unique to satellite)

2 bumps

R=0.01


ACT line

Science:

Observations:

CMB: l>1000

Growth of structure

Eqn. of state

Cluster (SZ, KSZ

X-rays, & optical)

Atacama Cosmology Telescope

Neutrino mass

Diffuse SZ

Ionization history

OV/KSZ

Inflation

Lensing

Power spectrum

X-ray

Optical

Theory

Collaboration:

Cardiff

Columbia

Haverford

NIST

CUNY

Princeton

INAOE

NASA/GSFC

Rutgers

UBC

UPenn

U. Toronto

U. Catolica

U. KwaZulu-Natal

UMass

U. Pittsburgh


More simulations of mm-wave sky. line

Survey area

High quality area

150 GHz

SZ Simulation

MBAC on ACT

PLANCK

Burwell/Seljak

1.5’ beam

WMAP

ACT

Target Sensitivity (i.e. ideal stat noise only)

PLANCK

SPT & APEX as well.

/ Diffuse KSZ

/ Diffuse KSZ

de Oliveira-Costa


Completed “close-packed” 12x32 bolometer array line

Torsional yoke attachment

Linear array after folding

Arrays of bolometers

S. Staggs is lead

Moseley et al, NASA/GSFC

3.2 mm

Need picture

SHARC II 12x32 Popup Array

PI D. Dowell

Irwin et al.

SCUBA

1 mm

Warm electronics based on SCUBA2

One element of array

Halpern et al. UBC


Camera mbac layout
Camera (MBAC) Layout line

0.6K

Pulse Tube

3He Fridge

D. Swetz

40K Shield

3 feet

AR Coated Si lenses.

Filters: Cardiff


New type of telescope
New Type of Telescope line

M. Devlin is lead

Telescope at AMEC in Vancouver. Ship to Chile in 2006.


First light dec 05
First Light Dec 05 line

CCAM

Moon

Measured from Jadwin Hall at 150 GHz with x11 attenuation.

CCAM: A 1x32 muxed TES array prototype on the WMAP spare.


Thank you1
THANK lineYOU



Q u maps
Q&U Maps line


Foreground model
Foreground Model line

  • Template fits (not model just shown).

  • Use all available information on polarization directions.

  • Sync: Based on K band directions

  • Dust: Based on directions from starlight polarization.

  • Increase errors in map for subtraction.

  • Examine power spectrum l by l and frequency.

  • Examine results with different bands.

  • Examine the results with different models.

Band

Pre-Cleaned

Cleaned

Table of

Ka 2.14 1.096

Q 1.29 1.02

V 1.05 1.02

W 1.06 1.05

4534 DOF


High l te
High l TE line

Crittenden et al.


Frequency space
Frequency space line

“Spikes” from correlated polarized sync and dust.


The standard cosmological model1

Abbreviated line

The Standard Cosmological Model

At a very early time a “quantum field” impressed on the universe a gravitational landscape.

This is literally a picture of a quantum field from the birth of the universe.

Matter fell into the valleys to form eventually “structure.” But only 1/6 of this matter is familiar to us.

The dynamics of the universe is now driven not so much by the matter but by a new form of energy: “The Dark Energy.”


Compare spectra
Compare Spectra line

First peak

Cosmic variance limited to l=400.

Window function dominates difference


Foreground model1
Foreground Model line

  • Template fits (not model just shown).

  • Use all available information on polarization directions.

  • Sync: Based on K band directions

  • Dust: Based on directions from starlight polarization.

  • Increase errors in map for subtraction.

  • Examine power spectrum l by l and frequency.

  • Examine results with different bands.

  • Examine the results with different models.

Band

Pre-Cleaned

Cleaned

Table of

Ka 2.14 1.096

Q 1.29 1.02

V 1.05 1.02

W 1.06 1.05

4534 DOF


Low l te
Low-l TE line

New noise, new mapmaking, pixel space foreground subtaction, different sky cut, different band combination.

New results consistent with original results.

New results also consistent with zero!

4 to model


Low l ee bb2
Low-l EE/BB line

EE (solid)

BB (dash)

BB model at 60 GHz

r=0.3


Frequency space1
Frequency space line

“Spikes” from correlated polarized sync and dust.


Spectrum of foreground subtraction
Spectrum of Foreground Subtraction line

Pre-cleaned error bars do not include 2NF term.

Recall, foreground subtraction is done on maps, not spectra.

We use QV for analysis, check with other channels.


Low l ee bb3
Low-l EE/BB line

EE

BB

BB Polarization: null check and limit on gravitational waves.

EE Polarization: from reionization of first stars

r<2.2 (95% CL) from just EE/BB

Just Q and V bands.



Optical depth1
Optical Depth line

Knowledge of the optical depth affects the determination of the cosmological parameters, especially ns

Bands

EE only

EE +TE only

KaQV

QV

QVW

KaQVW

0.111 +/- 0.022

0.100 +/- 0.029

0.111 +/- 0.021

0.107 +/- 0.018

0.111 +/- 0.022

0.092 +/- 0.029

0.101 +/- 0.023

0.106 +/- 0.019

Best overall with 6 parameters

=0.088 +/- 0.031


New cosmological parameters
New Cosmological Parameters line

Knowledge of optical depth breaks the n-tau degeneracy.

New analysis based primarily on WMAP alone.

Take WMAP and project to other experiments to test for consistency.


Degeneracy1
Degeneracy line

1yr WMAP

3yr WMAP

Knowledge of optical depth breaks the degeneracy


Add 2dfgrs sdss cmb sn wl
Add 2dFGRS, SDSS, CMB,SN,WL line

The general trend is:

drops to 0.945-0.950 +0.015/-0/017

drops when CMB added & rises when galaxies added

A “working number” is 0.26

The scalar spectral index is 0.97+/- 0.02 Seljak et al. and 0.98+/-0.03 (Tegmark et al.) for WMAP-1 +SDSS.


Gravitational waves
Gravitational Waves line

WMAP alone, r<0.55 (95% CL)

WMAP+2dF, r<0.30 (95% CL)

WMAP+SDSS, r<0.28 (95% CL)

In all cases, n_s rises to compensate.

WMAP-1+SDSS Tegmark et al

Similar behavior:

WMAP-1+SDSS+Lya Seljak et al


Final bits
Final Bits line

Sum of mass of light neutrinos is <0.68 eV (95% CL). Has not changed significantly.

No evidence for non-Gaussanity in any of our tests: Minkowski functionals, bispectrum, trispectrum…..


New ilc

However, some non-Gaussanity persists! line

New ILC

Now can be used for l=2,3!


TT line

TE

EE

Approx EE/BB foreground

BB inflation

BB r=0.3

BB Lensing


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