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Geographical Characteristics of the State . The Cultural Mosaic Fellman, and Notes from D.J. Zeigler of Old Dominion. State Sovereignty Nation Nation-State Part-nation State Binational State Multinational State Multistate Nation Stateless Nation Nationalism. Functional Region MDC

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Geographical characteristics of the state l.jpg

Geographical Characteristics of the State

The Cultural Mosaic

Fellman, and Notes from

D.J. Zeigler of Old Dominion


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State

Sovereignty

Nation

Nation-State

Part-nation State

Binational State

Multinational State

Multistate Nation

Stateless Nation

Nationalism

Functional Region

MDC

LDC

Postindustrial

Sectors of the Economy

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Vocab Review


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New Vocab

  • Wallerstein’s World Systems Theory: proposes that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world

    • Core – Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery countries in the world economy

    • Semi-Periphery – Places where core & periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery

    • Periphery – Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; and generate less wealth than core countries in the world economy


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New Vocab

  • Brandt Line



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Territoriality

  • The modern state is an example of a common human tendency: the need to belong to a larger group that controls its own piece of the earth, its own territory.

  • AP Central: How earth’s surface should be organized

  • This is called territoriality: a cultural strategy that uses power to control area and communicate that control, subjugating inhabitants and acquiring resources.


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Shapes of States

  • Compact States

    • Efficient

    • Theoretically round

    • Capital in center

    • Shortest possible boundaries to defend

    • Improved communications

    • Ex. Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Poland, Uruguay


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Shapes of States

  • Elongated States

    • States that are long and narrow

    • Suffer from poor internal communication

    • Capital may be isolated

    • Ex. Chile, Norway, Vietnam, Italy, Gambia


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Shapes of States

  • Fragmented States

    • Several discontinuous pieces of territory

    • Technically, all states w/off shore islands

    • Two kinds: separated by water & separated by an intervening state

    • Exclave –

    • Ex. Indonesia, USA, Russia, Philippines, Azerbaijan, Angola


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Shapes of States

  • Prorupted States

    • w./large projecting extension

    • Sometimes natural

    • Sometimes to gain a resource or advantage, such as to reach water, create a buffer zone

    • Ex. Thailand, Myanmar, Namibia, Mozambique, Cameroon, Dem. Rep. of Congo


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Proruption Examples

  • Dem. Rep. of Congo – when Belgians colonized included Zaire River to Atlantic Ocean

  • Afghanistan – when British ruled, created a 200 mi. proruption to prevent Russia from sharing border with Pakistan

  • Namibia – Germans carved a proruption known as Caprivi Strip to gain access to the Zambezi River


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Shapes of States

  • Perforated States

    • A country that completely surrounds another state

    • Enclave – the surrounded territory

    • Ex. Lesotho/South Africa, San Marino & Vatican City/Italy


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Enclaves and exclaves

  • An enclave is an area surrounded by a country but not ruled by it.

    • It can be self-governing (Lesotho) or an exclave of another country.

    • Can be problematic for the surrounding country.

    • Pene-enclave—an intrusive piece of territory with a tiny outlet such as Gambia.


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An exclave is part national territory separated from the main body of the country to which it belongs.

Example: Kaliningrad, separated from Russia, Cabinda from Angola, Alaska from US

Very undesirable if a hostile power holds the intervening territory.

Defense and supplies are problematic.

Inhabitants may develop separatist ideas.

Example: Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Exclave


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Distribution of territory— main body of the country to which it belongs. geographic characteristics of states

  • The more compact the territory, the easier it is to govern.

  • Ideal shape is round or hexagonal.

  • Types of shapes: compact, prorupt, elongated, fragmented and perforated (which contains an enclave).

  • The most damaging territorial distributions affect a country’s cohesiveness and stability: enclaves and exclaves.


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Landlocked States main body of the country to which it belongs.

  • No access to major sea or ocean

  • Must negotiate rights to move resources through other countries – problems exist when countries do not agree on fundamental policies


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Location main body of the country to which it belongs.

  • Relative location: Some states are landlocked.


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Boundaries main body of the country to which it belongs.

  • Natural or Physical Boundaries

    • Mountains

    • Deserts

    • Water – rivers, seas, lakes, oceans


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Boundaries main body of the country to which it belongs.

  • Physical / Natural Boundaries

  • Geometric Boundaries


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Boundaries main body of the country to which it belongs.

  • Physical / Natural Boundaries

  • Geometric Boundaries

  • Cultural Boundaries

    • Antecedent Boundaries

      • Malaysia/Indonesia

      • Canada/US

    • Consequent Boundaries

      • Religious Boundaries

        • between Ireland & N. Ireland

      • Language Boundaries

    • Subsequent Boundaries

      • Yugoslavia

    • Superimposed Boundaries

      • Indonesia/Papua New Guinea


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Boundaries main body of the country to which it belongs.

  • Physical / Natural Boundaries

    • Median-Line Principle - approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the mid-point between two places.

  • Geometric Boundaries

  • Cultural Boundaries

  • Relict Boundaries –

    • North & South Vietnam


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Fortified Boundaries main body of the country to which it belongs.

  • Great Wall of China

  • Berlin Wall

  • Morocco/Western Sahara – earth berms


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Cultural Regions main body of the country to which it belongs.


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  • Boundary definition main body of the country to which it belongs. – determining the boundary by a treaty-like agreement through actual points, latitude/longitude, or landscape

  • Boundary delimitation – the boundary is drawn on the map

  • Boundary demarcation – the boundary is established by steel posts, concrete pillars, fences, etc. to mark the boundary on the ground


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Boundary Disputes main body of the country to which it belongs.

  • Definitional: focus on legal language (e.g. median line of a river: water levels may vary)

  • Locational:  definition is not in dispute, the interpretation is; allows mapmakers to delimit boundaries in various ways

  • Operational: neighbors differ over the way the boundary should function (migration, smuggling) (e.g., US/Mexico)

  • Allocational: disputes over rights to natural resources (gas, oil, water) (e.g., Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, in part, due to a dispute over oil rights regarding the Ramallah oil field (mostly in Iraq but straddling into Kuwait)


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Ethnicities main body of the country to which it belongs. of Africa


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Politics of Geography main body of the country to which it belongs.

Effect of place on politics

Example:

Political Borders


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Iguazu Falls, Argentina / Paraguay main body of the country to which it belongs.


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Mexico-Guatemala Border Region main body of the country to which it belongs.


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Deforestation in Bolivia main body of the country to which it belongs.

  • http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/content/ess05.sci.ess.earthsys.bolivia/


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Spatial Organization of Territory-- main body of the country to which it belongs.


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How states organize their territory for administrative purposes.

Governments decide where power is localized so there is a locus of power within the state.

Power can be highly concentrated or widely diffused.

The two basic ways governments are administered are unitary and federal.


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Unitary purposes.

Countries where the capital is associated with the core, and all power is concentrated in a single place, the capital.

  • Centralized governments, relatively few internal contrasts and a strong sense of national identity, little provincial power.

    • Examples: France, China and newly independent states developed out of former colonies.


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Power is shared between a central government and the governments of provinces.

Acknowledges and gives some powers to its constituent parts; have strong regional government responsibilities.

Examples: the US, Canada, Germany, Australia.

--One result of federalism is to lessen public support for something so radical as secession (as in Canada).

Federal


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Confederate governments of provinces.


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Devolution governments of provinces.

  • The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.

    • Example: the Soviet Union


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Regional or asymmetric federalism governments of provinces.

  • Gives some authority to subdivisions while keeping central authority in monetary policy, defense, foreign policy, etc. within the capital.

    • Canada: establishment of the self-governing Nunavut territory

    • United Kingdom: separate status for Scotland, Wales and Ireland.

    • Spain: Catalonia, Basque country.


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Capital moves governments of provinces.

  • The capital may be newly created or moved from another city: Karachi to Islamabad, Istanbul to Ankara.

  • Forward-thrust capital city: One that is purposely placed in the interior of a country to show government’s desire to encourage more uniform development:

    • Brazil moved its capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia in the 1950’s.


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Nigeria governments of provinces.

  • 100 million people speak more than 400 different languages:

  • Hausa – 35 mil

  • Yoruba – 25 mil

  • Ibo – 20 mil

  • Rest spoken by less than 1 mil

Abuja: New Capital

Lagos: Old Capital

School instruction in English


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Capital of Turkey governments of provinces.


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Brazil governments of provinces.


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Size: a classification system governments of provinces.


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Ministates governments of provinces.


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Core-Periphery governments of provinces.

  • Many states have grown to their present shape over a long time, from an original core area, which hadgood resources and was easily defensible.

  • This area usually contains the most economically developed base, densest population and largest cities, and most developed transportation and the resources that originally supported the economy.

  • Core area often is where the capital is located. It becomes the node of a functional culture region.


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  • The outlying area or governments of provinces. periphery is directed toward the core, but friction can exist between the two.

  • Countries which have developed from core areas are usually fairly stable countries.

  • But the absence of a core can weaken a country’s national identity.

  • Countries with competing core areas, such as Spain, can have problems too.


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