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Chapter 1 (Rubenstein 11 th ed.). Basic Concepts of Geography. Key Issue 1. A map of the US based on movie titles & state location. How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are? . Maps. Geography = Greek word Geo = earth; graphy = to write

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chapter 1 rubenstein 11 th ed

Chapter 1(Rubenstein 11th ed.)

Basic Concepts of Geography

key issue 1
Key Issue 1

A map of the US based on movie titles & state location

How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?

  • Geography = Greek word
    • Geo = earth; graphy = to write
  • Geography is the study of where things are found on the Earth’s surface and why they are at that location

Map of Chicago’s neighborhoods

Street map of Chicago

  • Geographers think SPACIALLY
  • Where are things located on the Earth and why?
  • Maps are a geographer’s basic & most important tool
  • A map is a 2D model of the Earth
  • Cartography = study of mapmaking
  • Maps serve 2 purposes:
    • 1. Reference tool
      • Where is the lake? How do I get to Joan’s house? What is the route for the fire escape?
    • 2. Communication tool – primary use for modern maps
      • How much land is used for cattle farming? How did each county vote in the local election? Where do most college graduates live in the US?

Public transportation in Hong Kong

map scale
Map Scale
  • 1st question to ask: how much detail to include in your map?

All maps are of Saint Viator High School

map scale1
Map Scale
  • Scale can be presented in 3 ways on a map
  • Ratio or Fraction
    • Expressed as: 1:b or 1/b
    • 1 unit : b number of units (1 ft = 1 mile, 1 inch = 10 miles, 1 meter = 49 meters, etc)
    • 1:10,000; 1/10,000; 1:8500; 1/65
  • Written Scale
    • Describes distance in words
    • “1 inch equals 10,000 ft”; “1 cm equals 1 mile”
  • Graphic Scale
    • A bar line that shows distance
map scale2
Map Scale
  • Match the scale to the correct term
  • Graphic
  • Written
  • Ratio/Fraction

Large Scale

Small Scale

spatial associations @ various scales
Spatial Associations @ Various Scales

Spatial Association at Various Scales

Death rates from cancer in the U.S., Maryland, and Baltimore show different patterns that can identify associations with different factors.


Spatial Associations @ Various Scales

2012 Presidential Election

County Results

Blue = Obama

Red = Romney

Why is IL a “blue” state?

More counties voted for Romney.

  • Earth = sphere; Globe = sphere
    • Pros: accurately represent places on the earth
    • Cons: can’t add much detail, size and shape
  • Earth = sphere; Map = flat
    • Pros: can add much detail, very portable
    • Cons: image distortion
  • Projection = the scientific method of transferring locations on earth to a flat map
  • Distortion = inaccurate depiction of a place on a map
  • You Tube – West Wing “Why are we changing maps?”
  • There are 4 types of distortion
    • Shape
    • Distance
    • Size
    • Direction
geographic grid
Geographic Grid
  • Meridians = lines drawn from one pole to the other; run north-south; meet @ poles
    • Measured in longitude (max = 180o)
    • Prime Meridian = 0o longitude
  • Parallels = lines drawn parallel to the equator; run east-west; never touch other parallels
    • Measured in latitude (max = 90o)
    • Equator = 0o latitude
  • Latitude & longitude measured in:
    • Degrees
    • Minutes
    • Seconds

What is at:

N 42o 5’ 40”

W 87o 58’ 11”

geographic grid1
Geographic Grid
  • 360 divided by 15 = 24
  • Each meridian = 15o wide
  • 24 total meridians around the Earth
  • Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
    • Prime Meridian
    • Reference point for all time on Earth
    • 1 meridian = 1 hour
  • International Date Line
    • Move forward or back 24 hrs (depending on route of travel)
    • Located at 180o longitude
contemporary tools
Contemporary tools
  • GIScience = geographic information science
    • Uses satellites to obtain info about Earth
  • GPS = Global positioning system
  • GIS = Geographic Information System
    • Computer system that stores & analyzes data
    • Used to produce accurate maps
    • Info collected can be stored in layers (roads, names, water, etc.)
  • Mashup = mixing of layers of GIS info
key issue 2
Key Issue 2
  • Why Is Each Point on Earth Unique?
  • Place = specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
  • Location = the position something occupies on the Earth’s surface
  • 3 ways to indentify location
    • Place name
    • Site
    • Situation
place name
Place Name
  • Toponym = name given to a place on Earth
    • St. Louis, Rocky Mountains, Gobi Dessert, Andalusia, Oakton St.
  • Names determined by any number of factors
    • Famous person (Martin Luther King High School)
    • Connection to area (Dunton St. – William Dunton = founder of Arlington Heights)
    • Natural landmarks (Nile Delta)
    • Conquest (Constantinople / Istanbul)
    • Origin of settlers (Witwatersrand = rocky hills near Johannesburg, South Africa; Dutch name)
  • Situation = location of a place in relation to other places
  • Allows comparisons between unfamiliar places with familiar ones
  • Allows understanding of importance of a location.
  • * See Site & Situation PowerPoint
  • Site = physical characteristic of a place
    • Climate, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude, elevation
  • Site factors influence settlement locations
    • protection? trade routes? natural resources?
  • Humans can modify a site

Northerly Island in Chicago is a man-made peninsula.

  • Region: an area defined by one or more distinctive characteristics
  • A place can be included in more than one region
  • Can be applied to any area smaller than the planet
    • Ex: Latin America, Bible Belt, Wrigleyville
  • Cultural landscape: combination of cultural features (ex: language, religion), economic features (ex: agriculture, industry), & physical features (ex: climate, vegetation)
  • There are 3 types of regions:
    • Formal
    • Functional
    • Vernacular
formal region
Formal Region
  • Also called “uniform region”
  • Area where everyone shares one or more distinctive characteristics
  • Can be cultural (ex: common language), economic (ex: production of one product – Detroit & cars), or environmental (ex: same climate)
  • Some regions the characteristic may be predominant, not universal. (see pg. 16 election map for example)
functional region
Functional Region
  • Also called nodal region
  • Area organized around a node or focal point
  • Central focused and importance diminishes further from epicenter
  • Ex: radio station reach – Chicagoans care about WSCR 670 AM sports talk but even though you can hear the broadcast in Indianapolis & St. Louis, those residents don’t care as much about Chicago sports
vernacular region
Vernacular Region
  • Also called perceptual region
  • Area people believe exist as a part of cultural identity
  • Drawing a mental map of a place
  • Culture: beliefs, customs, traditions, social structure, and tangible items of a group of people
  • Has two different meanings:
    • To care about: to worship
    • To take care of: to look after something
  • What people care about
    • Ideas, beliefs and values
    • Ex: language, religion, politics, race, social status
  • What people take care of
    • Production of material
    • Ex: food, clothing, art
spatial association
Spatial Association
  • Regions
  • A wide lens in viewing an area may not be accurate in describing a region
key issue 3
Key Issue 3
  • Why are Different Places Similar?
scale from local to global
Scale: From Local to Global
  • Scale: relationship between portion of Earth being studied and the Earth as a whole
  • Globalization: force or process that involves the entire world & results in making something worldwide in scope
globalization of the economy
Globalization of the Economy
  • Example: 2008 recession
  • 1st global recession
  • Housing prices increase
  • Banks giving loans @ low interest rates
  • Banks giving loans to high-risk applicants
  • Wealthy bought 2 or 3 homes as investments
globalization of the economy1
Globalization of the Economy
  • People stopped buying homes
  • People couldn’t keep up with mortgage payments
  • Value of homes drops
  • Selling a home for less than purchase price
  • People not buying furniture, tvs, pools, shower curtains, etc.
  • Companies that make household items lose money and fire workers to keep from going bankrupt
globalization of the economy2
Globalization of the Economy
  • Globalization led by transnational corporations
  • Globalization leads to specialization
    • Each place contributes a specific part based on local assets (ex: natural resources, labor, research, transportation, etc.)
  • Ex: Nike
    • HQ: Oregon
    • Shoes made in Asia
    • Charities in Africa
    • Sponsors soccer teams
    • Sold worldwide

FC Barcelona jersey