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第八章 篇章翻译 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第八章 篇章翻译. 一、什么是篇章. 篇章( text )是表达整体概念的语义单位 。篇章是语言在交际中,特别是在书面交际中的对象和理想单位。它不只是一连串句子和段落的集合,而是一个结构完整、功能明确的语义统一体。(陈宏薇) 篇章翻译是指高于句子层次或句以上的语言单位的翻译。(王治奎). 语篇指不完全受句子语法约束的在一定语境下表示完整意义的自然语言。它具有形式和逻辑的一致性。语篇并非是互不关联的句子的简单堆积,而是一些意义相联系的句子为达到一定交际亩的,通过各种衔接手段而实现的有机结合。因此语篇衔接手段自然成为篇章研究的重要对象之一。

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第八章 篇章翻译

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  • text


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  • textual linguistics(discourse analysis)


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  • logic copying

  • (logic reshuffling)


Cohesion and coherence

(cohesion and coherence )


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  • Cohesive ties

  • Cohesion markers


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  • Halliday & Hasan Cohesion in English

  • reference

  • substitution

  • ellipsis

  • conjunction

  • lexical cohesion


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  • I. co-reference anaphora

  • II. structural cohesion

  • III. lexical cohesion

  • IV. phonetic cohesion


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I.

  • 1. exophoric reference

  • 2. (endophoric reference

    1)anaphoric reference

    2)cataphoric reference


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  • ()


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  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.


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  • ( they, she, him his, your, its ,hers, theirs mine


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  • Kong was the only long-gowned customer to drink his wine standing. He was a big man, strangely pallid, with scars that often showed among the wrinkles of his face. He had a large unkept beard, streaked with white. Although he wore a long gown, it was dirty and tattered, and looked as if it had not been washed or mended for over ten years. (Tr. Yang Xianyi & Gladys Yang)


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  • Every year after the 20th of the lunar 12th month, inhabitants on the island would start their countdown on the Spring Festival. They would sweep their houses clean, flickering every bit of dust off the furniture. After that they begin to prepare various foods: steamed New Year cakes, fried beans, fired sweet potato chips, and baked rice cookies. On the 25th and 26th of the month, households start their New Year Thanks-giving rites to pay homage to their ancestors.


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  • In that winter, my grandma died and my father lost his job. I left for Xuzhou to join him in hastening home to attend my grandmas funeral. When I met him in Xuzhou, the sight of disorderly mess in our courtyard and the thought to my grandma started tears trickling down my cheeks. He said, Now that things have come to such a mess, its no use crying. Fortunately, heaven always leaves one a way out. ( )


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  • (proximity)

  • 270thisthat


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  • Its a tall order, your question. But you can find an answer in the next room. There you have a successful financier and a captain of industry. That little drawing room is Chinese society in miniature. (Tr. Sidney Shapiro)


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  • The painting is a masterpiece reflecting deep insight and artistic attainment; it expresses a sense of history by using specific modern artistic vocabulary.


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  • The only thing that had interested us in the ugly stone was a little pit on top of it, which is filled with water on rainy days.

  • (

  • It is an invisible force of life. So long as there is life, the force will show itself.


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  • same, so, as, such, differently, other, otherwise


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  • 1

  • Tom gets ten dollars a week for pocket money, and Bob receives a similar amount.

  • 2


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  • Its really cold here, he complained. what do you think, sir? Seeing that he was not too nasty an old man, I readily responded: It must be colder in the country, Im afraid.


Zero anaphora

zero anaphora)

  • Li & Thompson, 1979) ( )


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  • We ate half a jin of roast chestnuts, had a nap and soon arrived in Beijing.


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  • --- ()

  • He picked up the composition and began to read, The most beautiful spot on campus is not the classroom building, nor the sports-ground, nor the lawn with the fountain at the gate; the most beautiful spot on campus is our cafeteria. Look! The window panes are so clean that you scarcely notice there is glass in the He paused, ( Western Humor)


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1.

  • Lets begin with the train.

  • Lets start from the train.

  • Lets begin from the time when I was on the train.

  • Let me begin with my trip on the train.


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2.

  • (My parents ) (This is what I know about my childhood and beyond that I do not remember much else.)

  • (Six Harmonies Pagoda; Big Wild Goose Pagoda)

  • White Dagoba)


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II.


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  • pro-formHalliday Hasan


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  • May I have a look at that scarf?

  • Yes. Which one? The red or the black one

  • Look at the sunset glow. I have never seen a redder one than that.


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  • The exploding firecrackers bid farewell to the passing year and cheered for the coming of a new one. The centennial New Year is just around the corner clothed in the delightful mood.


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  • She sings better than she did last year.

  • John drinks a lot. Does his brother do so?

  • Whod like to play basketball with us?

  • No, I wont.


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  • Theyve always made a mess of the room. Why have you, too?


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  • I want to buy a set of furniture.

  • Buy one (set of furniture ) made in Dalian.

  • Where shall we go for a spring outing?

  • (Well go to) Yuntai Mountain ( for a spring outing)

  • Have you made up your mind to work in Tibet after graduation?

  • Sure! (I have made up your mind to work in Tibet after graduation.)


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  • 1610010100300830050075001000610005


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  • Currently the cost of land use transfer in the Zone is charged at the ratio of 160 thousand yuan per Chinese mu, whereas before the end of the year, the price will be lowered down to 1 million US dollars every 10 mu for those large and technology-intensive foreign projects that are run in compliance with the industrial orientation of the country.


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  • As regards those conglomerates with a registered capital ranging from 1 million () to 3 million US dollars, the price is 80 thousand yuan per mu, () 70 thousand yuan for those with that from 3 million () to 5 million (), 60 thousand () for those from 5 to 10 million () and 50 thousand () for those over 10 million().


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  • In the past, they would dismiss the kids with some money as a gift for the lunar New Year, but not () nowadays.


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  • Foreign investment are on the rise in the Empowerment Zone, so are imports and exports.


50 20

50 20

  • Last year 50 communities were named as civilized community; this year, 20 more () will be given the title.


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  • Modesty helps one to go forward, whereas conceit makes one lag behind.

  • (

  • Swallows fly away, yet return; willows wither, yet burgeon again; peach-blossom fades, yet blooms afresh. But tell me, you who are wise, why do our days depart never to return?


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  • (

  • Each of the great crimson flowers stretched out now into rippling red silk belts. The belts interwove with the dogs, the dogs with the white clouds, and the white clouds with the country girls.


Palindrome

palindrome)


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  • No X in Nixon.

  • You can cage a swallow, cant you? But you cant swallow a cage, can you?

  • Wont lovers revolt now?

  • Poor Dan is in a droop.

  • Niagara, O roar again!

  • Live not on evil!

  • Step on no pets.

  • Name no one man.

  • Nurses run.

  • Able was I ere I saw Elba.

  • Ma is as selfless as I am.


Climax repetition

climax) repetition)

  • Year in year out youve been looking forward with eager expectation to my home-coming; year in year out Ive been looking forward with great anxiety to returning home.


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  • ,

  • Mounting the Stork Tower

    The white sun sets behind the mountains,

    The Yellow River flows into the sea.

    Go further up one flight of stairs,

    And youll widen your view a thousand li.


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  • Conjunctive elements are cohesive not in themselves but indirectly, by virtue of their specific meanings; they are not primarily devices for reaching out into the proceeding (or following) text, but they express certain meanings which presupposes the presence of other elements in the discourse. (Halliday & Hasan, 1976: 226)


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  • 199492


1992 86 87

199286-87

  • and, also, too, furthermore, besides, moreover, in addition, what is more

  • because, for. For this reason. Since, as a result, thus, therefore, so, consequently, of course, accordingly

  • although, however, on the contrary, still, but, otherwise, despite, nevertheless, though, in fact, on the other hand, as a matter of fact


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  • first, second, third after this/that, meanwhile, suddenly, and so on, then, before, next, formerly, later, finally in the end, at last

  • firstly, secondly, for one thing, for another; first of all, to begin with, then, last , in conclusion, last of all, to conclude

  • for example, for instance, that is, namely, to illustrate

  • in short, to sum up, in conclusion, briefly, on the whole, to conclude, to summarize


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  • It has been more than 20 years since I started my career in Hong Kong, where I have weathered through various hardships . My modest achievements in business also go along with multitudinous pains and tears. As a result, every time when I return to my hometown, where I am given warm receptions by the local government leaders, my heart will be over flown with tenderness and affection, for it gives me a feeling of home.


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  • All the preparations are not completed until the lunar New Years Eve, when all the family members sit down around the table to enjoy the New Years Eve dinner.


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  • I love gazing upon kids chasing the spinning fireworks as it reminds me of my teenage glees.


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  • Today with more and more people living a better-off life, seniors in the family would give books to the children as a lunar New Year gift. As a result, in the past few days, people have beating a path to the big bookstores in the city and sales volumes for various childrens books have increased by large margins.


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  • Many staff members have thus learned to put simple daily exchanges into gestures. People working at the information desk, for example, are able to use the languages to answer inquires from those deaf-mutes who still have slips of paper clutched in their hands.


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  • To accomplish the goal, the city will continue to concentrate its efforts on developing its container shipment and at the same time open up a deep-water shipment route connecting Chuanshan, Daxie and Meishan.


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III.

  • (lexicon network),

  • 1. (reiteration)

  • 2. (collocation)


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1.

  • 1)

  • 2)

  • synonyms & antonyms)

  • 3)

    (superordinate & subordinate)

  • general word

  • specific word


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  • During all the years of my life, until that moment, I had carried the menacing, the hostile killing world with me everywhere. No matter what I was doing or saying or feeling, one eye had always been on the world --- that world which I had learnt to distrust almost as soon as I learnt my name, that world on which I knew one could never turn ones back, the white mans world. ( This Morning, This Evening, So Soon by James Baldwin)


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  • 500 7.5


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  • Lao Jin hastened over and found it was a young fledgling owl no more than 500 grams in weight. He picked the bird up and placed it into a cage with much care. Then he cycled the bird all the way to the Municipal Forestry Bureau, 7.5 kilometers off his home. There the staff members set the creature free into the embrace of the forest.


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  • 3772

  • Township industrial zones provide solid vehicles for the citys enterprises in running new businesses and greatly improve the setting for the development of such entities. So far, 3772 establishments have found home in these quarters.


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  • We observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom --- symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning --- signifying renewal, as well as change.

  • ( Inaugural Address by John Kennedy)


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  • At that Kong Yiji would flush, the veins on his forehead standing out as he protested, Taking books cant be counted as stealing Taking books for a scholar cant be counted as stealing.

  • 73 stealing theft


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  • We trotted on, we crept up Constitution Hill, we rattled down into Lamas Street, and the tailor still rang his bell and a dragon, squealing, in front of his wheels. As we clip-clopped over the cobbles that led down to the Towy Bridge, I remembered Grandpas nightly noisy journeys that rocked the bed and shook the walls, and I saw his gay waistcoat in a vision and his patchwork head tufted and smiling in the candlelight. The tailor before us turned round on his saddle, his bicycle wobbled and skidded I see Dai Thomas he cried.

    ( Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog by Dylan Thomas)


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  • :

  • Taking me through the groves of camellias, Pu Zhiren told me the names of different varieties: Giant Agate, Snow lion, Butterfly Wing, Giant Purple Robe and many others. Then, taking hold of a small branch of a camellia tree, he said, This is Baby Face. As it blooms late, its only just in bud. With deep red blossoms, its really most beautiful.


General word

General word

  • Halliday & Hasan general wordcategory word

  • problem, situation, concern, group, plan, scheme, practice, move, operation, endeavor

  • general word,


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  • According to customs, a basin is especially reserved for water from tooth brushing and warship, for such water is not allowed to be splashed on the ground. Nor is the floor to be cleaned on the day. These taboos are intended for fortune-saving.


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  • In 5 years, Ningbo port is to be turned into a deep-water harbor thoroughfare for international purposes along Chinas coast. Informed people say this engagement has become the top priority of Ningbos New Century Project.


2 collocation

2. collocation

  • Halliday & Hasan (co-occurrence tendency)

  • -


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  • United, there is little we can not do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.

    (Inaugural Speech by John F. Kennedy)


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  • Discrimination is undoubtedly practiced against women in the field of scientific research. We dont find men complaining that they are not being interviewed for positions that they are clearly qualified to fill. ( A Liberal Education by T. H. Huxley)


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-

  • -body arms, legs, feet, hands, heart -

  • The day was warm for April and the golden sunlight streamed brilliantly into Scarlets room through the blue curtains of the wide windows. The cream-colored walls glowed with light and the depth of the mahogany furniture gleamed deep red like wine, while the floor glistened as if it were glass, except where the rag rugs covered it and they were spots of gay color.

    (Gone with the Wind )


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  • (lexicon chain),

  • The first to be affected were the oil-tanker fleets. As oil demand was cut back, charter rates plummeted, and the estuaries of the world became jammed with the steadily increasing numbers of moth-ball tankers. (Native Son by Richard Wright)


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  • I love flowers, which leads to my interest in growing them. However, I have not become an expert in growing flowers, because I dont have enough time to make researches and experiments. I only regard it as a kind of pleasure in life. It doesnt matter whether the flowers bloom big or small, bad or good, Im content as long as they bloom.


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  • When summer comes, my little yard is covered with flowers, so there is no playground for the cats, who, therefore, have to play on the roof. Many as the flowers are, there are no exotic ones. Exotic flowers cant survive easily. Its very sad to see a beautiful flower get ill and dying. And I dont want to shed my tears from time to time.


Discourse analysis

Discourse Analysis)


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1.

2.


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3.

:

4.

: ,,

5.

: , ,


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