第八章    篇章翻译
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第八章 篇章翻译. 一、什么是篇章. 篇章( text )是表达整体概念的语义单位 。篇章是语言在交际中,特别是在书面交际中的对象和理想单位。它不只是一连串句子和段落的集合,而是一个结构完整、功能明确的语义统一体。(陈宏薇) 篇章翻译是指高于句子层次或句以上的语言单位的翻译。(王治奎). 语篇指不完全受句子语法约束的在一定语境下表示完整意义的自然语言。它具有形式和逻辑的一致性。语篇并非是互不关联的句子的简单堆积,而是一些意义相联系的句子为达到一定交际亩的,通过各种衔接手段而实现的有机结合。因此语篇衔接手段自然成为篇章研究的重要对象之一。

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一、什么是篇章

  • 篇章(text)是表达整体概念的语义单位。篇章是语言在交际中,特别是在书面交际中的对象和理想单位。它不只是一连串句子和段落的集合,而是一个结构完整、功能明确的语义统一体。(陈宏薇)

  • 篇章翻译是指高于句子层次或句以上的语言单位的翻译。(王治奎)




Cohesion and coherence
二、衔接与连贯英汉语篇在结构形态和逻辑关系上相似时,一般可以采用“临摹”的办法,按照源语的发展思路,在译语种复制或基本照搬源语行文的建构方式。这种方法称作(cohesion and coherence )

  • 衔接是篇章的有形网络

  • 连贯是篇章的无形网络。


  • Cohesive ties 英汉语篇在结构形态和逻辑关系上相似时,一般可以采用“临摹”的办法,按照源语的发展思路,在译语种复制或基本照搬源语行文的建构方式。这种方法称作衔接手段

  • Cohesion markers 连贯标记


  • Halliday & Hasan 英汉语篇在结构形态和逻辑关系上相似时,一般可以采用“临摹”的办法,按照源语的发展思路,在译语种复制或基本照搬源语行文的建构方式。这种方法称作在Cohesion in English中将英语的衔接手段分成五大类:

  • 照应 reference

  • 替代 substitution

  • 省略 ellipsis

  • 连接 conjunction

  • 词汇衔接 lexical cohesion


另一种分类法:陈宏薇英汉语篇在结构形态和逻辑关系上相似时,一般可以采用“临摹”的办法,按照源语的发展思路,在译语种复制或基本照搬源语行文的建构方式。这种方法称作

  • I. 指称衔接(照应) co-reference anaphora

  • II. 结构衔接 structural cohesion

  • III. 词汇衔接 lexical cohesion

  • IV. 语音衔接 phonetic cohesion


I. 英汉语篇在结构形态和逻辑关系上相似时,一般可以采用“临摹”的办法,按照源语的发展思路,在译语种复制或基本照搬源语行文的建构方式。这种方法称作指称衔接

  • ★按指称范围分:

  • 1. 语外照应(外指)exophoric reference

  • 2. 语内照应 (内指)endophoric reference

    1)前照应(回指)anaphoric reference

    2)后照应(下指)cataphoric reference


  • 例子:英汉语篇在结构形态和逻辑关系上相似时,一般可以采用“临摹”的办法,按照源语的发展思路,在译语种复制或基本照搬源语行文的建构方式。这种方法称作

  • 张明是我的朋友。(外指,张明存在于客观世界之中)

  • 张明是我的一个朋友。他是西安人。(内指,“他”回指“张明”)

  • 他在那边!张明。(内指,“他”下指“张明”)

  • (言者手指一件教具)那是你做的吗?

  • 这件事我不清楚,我不知道他是否参加了那次会议。(内指)

  • 他参加了那次会议? 这我不清楚。 (内指)


  • 英汉语篇在结构形态和逻辑关系上相似时,一般可以采用“临摹”的办法,按照源语的发展思路,在译语种复制或基本照搬源语行文的建构方式。这种方法称作按指称手段分:

  • 1. 人称照应

  • 2. 指示照应

  • 3. 比较照应


人称照应英汉语篇在结构形态和逻辑关系上相似时,一般可以采用“临摹”的办法,按照源语的发展思路,在译语种复制或基本照搬源语行文的建构方式。这种方法称作

  • 人称照应是通过人称代词(如 they, she, him 等)、所属限定词(如his, your, its 等),和所属代词(hers, theirs, mine 等)来实现。

  • 英语人称代词以及相应的限定词的使用率大大高于汉语。




  • Every year after the 20每年农历十二月二十以后,海岛上的居民便开始进入过年倒计时。先搞卫生,掸去一年尘土。接着准备食品,做年糕,炒倭豆、炒番薯片、打米花糖。二十五、二十六起,家家户户开始“谢年”:祀祖先。th of the lunar 12th month, inhabitants on the island would start their countdown on the Spring Festival. They would sweep their houses clean, flickering every bit of dust off the furniture. After that they begin to prepare various foods: steamed New Year cakes, fried beans, fired sweet potato chips, and baked rice cookies. On the 25th and 26th of the month, households start their “New Year Thanks-giving” rites to pay homage to their ancestors.


  • 那年冬天, 祖母死了,每年农历十二月二十以后,海岛上的居民便开始进入过年倒计时。先搞卫生,掸去一年尘土。接着准备食品,做年糕,炒倭豆、炒番薯片、打米花糖。二十五、二十六起,家家户户开始“谢年”:祀祖先。父亲的差使也交卸了,正是祸不单行的日子,我从北京到徐州,打算跟着父亲奔丧回家。到徐州见着父亲,看见满院狼藉的东西,又想起祖母,不禁簌簌地流下眼泪。父亲说:“事已如此,不必难过,好在天无绝人之路!” (朱自清 《背影》)

  • In that winter, my grandma died and my father lost his job. I left for Xuzhou to join him in hastening home to attend my grandma’s funeral. When I met him in Xuzhou, the sight of disorderly mess in our courtyard and the thought to my grandma started tears trickling down my cheeks. He said, “Now that things have come to such a mess, it’s no use crying. Fortunately, heaven always leaves one a way out.” (张培基 译)


指示照应每年农历十二月二十以后,海岛上的居民便开始进入过年倒计时。先搞卫生,掸去一年尘土。接着准备食品,做年糕,炒倭豆、炒番薯片、打米花糖。二十五、二十六起,家家户户开始“谢年”:祀祖先。

  • 指示照应指说话人通过指明事物在时间和空间上的远近(proximity)来确定所指对象。

  • 王治奎(270页):“汉语的‘这’和‘那’以及英语中的this和that 都常用于指示照应粘连,在语义上基本相同,但指称功能却大不一样。汉语的‘这’往往起一种化远为近的作用,其功能负荷量大于‘那’,因此使用频率也高于‘那’。而在英语中却恰恰相反。”


  • 每年农历十二月二十以后,海岛上的居民便开始进入过年倒计时。先搞卫生,掸去一年尘土。接着准备食品,做年糕,炒倭豆、炒番薯片、打米花糖。二十五、二十六起,家家户户开始“谢年”:祀祖先。这倒难以说定。可是你只要看看这儿的小客厅,就得了解答。这里面有一个金融界的大亨,又有一位工业界的巨头;这小客厅就是中国社会的缩影。” (《子夜》)

  • “It’s a tall order, your question. But you can find an answer in the next room. There you have a successful financier and a captain of industry. That little drawing room is Chinese society in miniature.” (Tr. Sidney Shapiro)


  • 每年农历十二月二十以后,海岛上的居民便开始进入过年倒计时。先搞卫生,掸去一年尘土。接着准备食品,做年糕,炒倭豆、炒番薯片、打米花糖。二十五、二十六起,家家户户开始“谢年”:祀祖先。幅画是一部用思考和修养完成的杰作,它既有历史感又有现代艺术语言的独特性。(袁运甫 《我所认识的吴冠中及其绘画》)

  • The painting is a masterpiece reflecting deep insight and artistic attainment; it expresses a sense of history by using specific modern artistic vocabulary.


  • 稍稍能安慰我们的,是在每年农历十二月二十以后,海岛上的居民便开始进入过年倒计时。先搞卫生,掸去一年尘土。接着准备食品,做年糕,炒倭豆、炒番薯片、打米花糖。二十五、二十六起,家家户户开始“谢年”:祀祖先。那石上有一个不大不小的坑凹儿,雨天就盛满了水。(贾平凹 《丑石》)

  • The only thing that had interested us in the ugly stone was a little pit on top of it, which is filled with water on rainy days.

  • 这种力, 是一般人看不见的生命力,只要生命存在,这种力就要显现…… (夏衍《野草》)

  • It is an invisible force of life. So long as there is life, the force will show itself.


比较照应每年农历十二月二十以后,海岛上的居民便开始进入过年倒计时。先搞卫生,掸去一年尘土。接着准备食品,做年糕,炒倭豆、炒番薯片、打米花糖。二十五、二十六起,家家户户开始“谢年”:祀祖先。

  • 比较照应指通过形容词和副词的比较等级形式以及其它一些有比较意义的词语(如same, so, as, such, differently, other, otherwise 等)表示的照应关系。

  • 比较照应在语篇中起上下承接的作用。 因为任何比较至少要涉及两个实体或事态,语篇中如果有表达比较意义的词语出现,会话参与者或读者便会在上下文中寻找与其构成比较关系的其它词语。 比较照应的语篇衔接功能就是这样发挥作用的。


  • 每年农历十二月二十以后,海岛上的居民便开始进入过年倒计时。先搞卫生,掸去一年尘土。接着准备食品,做年糕,炒倭豆、炒番薯片、打米花糖。二十五、二十六起,家家户户开始“谢年”:祀祖先。1:

  • Tom gets ten dollars a week for pocket money, and Bob receives a similar amount.

  • 例2:

  • 天空中积满了灰色的云块,呆滞滞的不动。 他脸上的气色和天空差不多。


  • 那蹲着的黑影每年农历十二月二十以后,海岛上的居民便开始进入过年倒计时。先搞卫生,掸去一年尘土。接着准备食品,做年糕,炒倭豆、炒番薯片、打米花糖。二十五、二十六起,家家户户开始“谢年”:祀祖先。……一面抱怨这天气:“真冷呀,……先生,你说是不是?”看见他并不是个讨厌的老头子,便高兴地说道:“乡下怕更要冷些吧?” (艾芜 《冬夜》)

  • “It’s really cold here, “ he complained. “…what do you think, sir?” Seeing that he was not too nasty an old man, I readily responded: “It must be colder in the country, I’m afraid.”


Zero anaphora
零式指称(每年农历十二月二十以后,海岛上的居民便开始进入过年倒计时。先搞卫生,掸去一年尘土。接着准备食品,做年糕,炒倭豆、炒番薯片、打米花糖。二十五、二十六起,家家户户开始“谢年”:祀祖先。zero anaphora)

  • 零式指称的基本概念是在语篇中本该出现的指称词被省略了。

  • 汉语使用零式指称远比英语多;汉语的零式指称不受句法限制。(Li & Thompson, 1979) (李那 和 汤普森)



汉语没有定冠词,一路上吃了半斤炒栗子,睡了一会儿觉,就到了北京。英语则可以用定冠词来照应。

  • 他拿起作文念起来,“我们学校最美的地方,不是教室,不是操场,也不是校门口那个带喷水的小花坛,而是食堂。瞧,玻璃干净得叫你看不见它的存在--- “洋教师念到这儿…… (冯骥才:《西式幽默》)

  • He picked up the composition and began to read, “ The most beautiful spot on campus is not the classroom building, nor the sports-ground, nor the lawn with the fountain at the gate; the most beautiful spot on campus is our cafeteria. Look! The window panes are so clean that you scarcely notice there is glass in the …” He paused, … (刘士聪 Western Humor)


1. 一路上吃了半斤炒栗子,睡了一会儿觉,就到了北京。语境意识

  • 还是从火车上说起吧! 大约在我四岁多的时候,我坐过火车。当时带我坐火车的人,是我的舅舅,叫张全斌。

  • Let’s begin with the train.

  • Let’s start from the train.

  • Let’s begin from the time when I was on the train.

  • 应该译为:Let me begin with my trip on the train.


2.一路上吃了半斤炒栗子,睡了一会儿觉,就到了北京。文化意识

  • 我现在对我原来的父母还有个模糊不清的印象……关于我个人的历史情况,我就知道这一些,再多一点都记不起来了。(My parents ) (This is what I know about my childhood and beyond that I do not remember much else.)

  • 杭州六合塔和西安大雁塔 (Six Harmonies Pagoda; Big Wild Goose Pagoda)

  • 北海公园白塔是藏式佛塔,即喇嘛塔

    (White Dagoba)


II. 一路上吃了半斤炒栗子,睡了一会儿觉,就到了北京。结构衔接

  • 结构衔接指信息结构之间的衔接,可通过主位--述位结构或替代、省略、对偶、排比、对照、顶针、回环、层递、反复等修辞格实现。


替代一路上吃了半斤炒栗子,睡了一会儿觉,就到了北京。

  • 替代指用替代形式(pro-form)去替代上下文出现的词语。它的语义要从所替代的成分去索引。Halliday 和 Hasan把替代分成三类, 即名词性替代,动词性替代和从句性替代。


名词替代一路上吃了半斤炒栗子,睡了一会儿觉,就到了北京。

  • --我能看看那条围巾吗?

  • --可以。哪一条?红的还是黑的?

  • -May I have a look at that scarf?

  • -Yes. Which one? The red or the black one?

  • 瞧那晚霞,我没见过比这更红的了。

  • Look at the sunset glow. I have never seen a redder one than that.


  • 那声声燃放的鞭炮是一路上吃了半斤炒栗子,睡了一会儿觉,就到了北京。辞旧迎新的欢呼。新世纪的新年,就在这欢跃的气氛中,一下子走近了。

  • The exploding firecrackers bid farewell to the passing year and cheered for the coming of a new one. The centennial New Year is just around the corner clothed in the delightful mood.


动词替代一路上吃了半斤炒栗子,睡了一会儿觉,就到了北京。

  • She sings better than she did last year.

  • John drinks a lot. Does his brother do so?

  • --谁原意和我们一起打篮球?

  • --我不干。

  • -Who’d like to play basketball with us?

  • -No, I won’t.



子句替代关于汉语的动词性替代,王力认为“这么着”具有替代功能,赵元任这认为汉语中最常见的替代动词为“来”。

  • --他们总是把房间搞得乱七八糟。你怎么也这样呢?

  • -They’ve always made a mess of the room. Why have you, too?


省略关于汉语的动词性替代,王力认为“这么着”具有替代功能,赵元任这认为汉语中最常见的替代动词为“来”。

  • --我想买一套家具。

  • --买大连出的(家具)吧!

  • -I want to buy a set of furniture.

  • Buy one (set of furniture ) made in Dalian.

  • --我们到那儿去春游?

  • --(我们)到云台山(去春游)

  • -Where shall we go for a spring outing?

  • -(We’ll go to) Yuntai Mountain ( for a spring outing)

  • --你决定了毕业后去西藏工作吗?

  • --当然!(我决定了毕业后去西藏工作。)

  • -Have you made up your mind to work in Tibet after graduation?

  • -Sure! (I have made up your mind to work in Tibet after graduation.)


  • 工业园区土地使用权转让的成本价目前为每亩关于汉语的动词性替代,王力认为“这么着”具有替代功能,赵元任这认为汉语中最常见的替代动词为“来”。16万人民币,年内,对符合国家产业导向,规模大、科技含量高的外商投资项目,按照每100万美元用10亩土地的比例,给予特殊价格优惠,其中注册资本在100万美元到300万美元的,每亩地价为8万元人民币;300万美元到500万美元的,每亩地价为7万元人民币;500万到1000万美元的,每亩地价为6万元人民币;1000万美元以上的每亩地价为5万元人民币。


  • Currently the cost of land use transfer in the Zone is charged at the ratio of 160 thousand yuan per Chinese mu, whereas before the end of the year, the price will be lowered down to 1 million US dollars every 10 mu for those large and technology-intensive foreign projects that are run in compliance with the industrial orientation of the country.


  • As regards those conglomerates with a registered capital ranging from 1 million () to 3 million US dollars, the price is 80 thousand yuan per mu, () 70 thousand yuan for those with that from 3 million () to 5 million (), 60 thousand () for those from 5 to 10 million () and 50 thousand () for those over 10 million().


以往过年都是打发小孩一点钱,现在 ranging from 1 million 可不这样了。

  • In the past, they would dismiss the kids with some money as a gift for the lunar New Year, but not () nowadays.


外商在开发区的投资越来越 ranging from 1 million 多,进出口贸易也随之增加。

  • Foreign investment are on the rise in the Empowerment Zone, so are imports and exports.


50 20
去年有 ranging from 1 million 50个社区获“文明社区” 称号,今年又将有20个社区获此殊荣。

  • Last year 50 communities were named as “civilized community”; this year, 20 more () will be given the title.


修辞手段 ranging from 1 million

  • 虚心使人进步,骄傲使人落后。(对偶)

  • Modesty helps one to go forward, whereas conceit makes one lag behind.

  • 燕子去了,有再来的时候;杨柳枯了,有再青的时候;桃花谢了,有再开的时候。但是,聪明的,你告诉我,我们的日子为什么一去不复返呢? (排比)

  • Swallows fly away, yet return; willows wither, yet burgeon again; peach-blossom fades, yet blooms afresh. But tell me, you who are wise, why do our days depart never to return?


  • 大红花一朵朵全被拉长了,这时是泼刺奔进的红锦大红花一朵朵全被拉长了,这时是泼刺奔进的红锦带。带织入狗中,狗织入白云中。白云织入村女中…… (顶针)

  • Each of the great crimson flowers stretched out now into rippling red silk belts. The belts interwove with the dogs, the dogs with the white clouds, and the white clouds with the country girls.

    --鲁迅《好的故事》


Palindrome
回环(大红花一朵朵全被拉长了,这时是泼刺奔进的红锦palindrome)

  • 回环又称回文,“是利用相同的词汇,造成词序回环往复的语句,表现两种事物或情理的相互依存或相互排斥的辨证关系。”

  • 我为人人,人人为我。

  • 人不犯我,我不犯人。

  • 常相知才能不相疑,不相疑才能常相知。

  • 路人行上行人路,居士隐留隐士居。

  • 雾锁山头山锁雾, 天连水尾水连天。

  • 雁飞平顶山,山顶平飞雁;僧游云隐寺,寺隐云游僧。


  • No X in Nixon. 大红花一朵朵全被拉长了,这时是泼刺奔进的红锦

  • You can cage a swallow, can’t you? But you can’t swallow a cage, can you?

  • Won’t lovers revolt now?

  • Poor Dan is in a droop.

  • Niagara, O roar again!

  • Live not on evil!

  • Step on no pets.

  • Name no one man.

  • Nurses run.

  • Able was I ere I saw Elba.

  • Ma is as selfless as I am.


Climax repetition
层递(大红花一朵朵全被拉长了,这时是泼刺奔进的红锦climax) 、反复(repetition)

  • ①一年,两年,三年, 你的望眼将穿,

    ②一年,两年,三年,我的归心似箭。

  • Year in year out you’ve been looking forward with eager expectation to my home-coming; year in year out I’ve been looking forward with great anxiety to returning home.

  • --将光慈 《写给母亲》

  • 李定坤译


  • 登鹳雀楼大红花一朵朵全被拉长了,这时是泼刺奔进的红锦

  • 白日依山尽, 黄河入海流。

  • 欲穷千里目,更上一层楼

  • Mounting the Stork Tower

    The white sun sets behind the mountains,

    The Yellow River flows into the sea.

    Go further up one flight of stairs,

    And you’ll widen your view a thousand li.


连接关系大红花一朵朵全被拉长了,这时是泼刺奔进的红锦

  • “Conjunctive elements are cohesive not in themselves but indirectly, by virtue of their specific meanings; they are not primarily devices for reaching out into the proceeding (or following) text, but they express certain meanings which presupposes the presence of other elements in the discourse.” (Halliday & Hasan, 1976: 226)



1992 86 87
廖秋忠(连接成分本身就具有明确含义,通过在语篇中使用这类连接性词语,“人们可以了解子句之间的语义联系,甚至可经前句从逻辑上预见后续句的语义。(胡壮麟,1992:86-87)的分类

  • 表示添加信息:and, also, too, furthermore, besides, moreover, in addition, what is more…

  • 表示因果关系:because, for. For this reason. Since, as a result, thus, therefore, so, consequently, of course, accordingly…

  • 表示文章意义的转折或对比:although, however, on the contrary, still, but, otherwise, despite, nevertheless, though, in fact, on the other hand, as a matter of fact…


  • 表示文章中事件发生的时空顺序:连接成分本身就具有明确含义,通过在语篇中使用这类连接性词语,“人们可以了解子句之间的语义联系,甚至可经前句从逻辑上预见后续句的语义。(胡壮麟,first, second, third… after this/that, meanwhile, suddenly, and so on, then, before, next, formerly, later, finally in the end, at last…

  • 表示列举:firstly, secondly…, for one thing…, for another; first of all, to begin with, then, last , in conclusion, last of all, to conclude…

  • 表示举例、解释:for example, for instance, that is, namely, to illustrate…

  • 表示总结:in short, to sum up, in conclusion, briefly, on the whole, to conclude, to summarize…



  • It has been more than 20 years since I started my career in Hong Kong, where I have weathered through various hardships . My modest achievements in business also go along with multitudinous pains and tears. As a result, every time when I return to my hometown, where I am given warm receptions by the local government leaders, my heart will be over flown with tenderness and affection, for it gives me a feeling of home.







III. 为此,本市将继续以集装箱运输为主攻方向,开发穿山、大榭和梅山深水岸线。词汇衔接

  • 词汇衔接指通过词的重复、同义、反义、上下义、互补、同现等词汇间的语义关系来实现语篇连贯。

  • 运用这些词可以产生很强的粘合力,形成一张“词汇网”(lexicon network), 赋予语篇连贯性。

  • 分为两大类:

  • 1. 复现 (reiteration)

  • 2. 同现 (collocation)


1. 为此,本市将继续以集装箱运输为主攻方向,开发穿山、大榭和梅山深水岸线。复现(同词重复或异词重复)

  • 1) 原词复现

  • 2) 同义词或近义词复现

  • (synonyms & antonyms)

  • 3) 上义词和下义词 复现

    (superordinate & subordinate)

  • 概括词 general word

  • 具体词 specific word


原词复现为此,本市将继续以集装箱运输为主攻方向,开发穿山、大榭和梅山深水岸线。

  • During all the years of my life, until that moment, I had carried the menacing, the hostile killing world with me everywhere. No matter what I was doing or saying or feeling, one eye had always been on the world --- that world which I had learnt to distrust almost as soon as I learnt my name, that world on which I knew one could never turn one’s back, the white man’s world. ( This Morning, This Evening, So Soon by James Baldwin)


汉语中重复运用某一词的情况很多,翻译时应注意适当调整。

  • 老金奔过去一看,原来是一只不到500克中的羽毛刚长齐的猫头鹰。 他把猫头鹰小心翼翼装进笼子里,然后骑自行车送往离家7.5 公里的城区林业局。 林业局的工作人员把猫头鹰放归大自然。


  • Lao Jin hastened over and found it was a young fledgling owl no more than 500 grams in weight. He picked the bird up and placed it into a cage with much care. Then he cycled the bird all the way to the Municipal Forestry Bureau, 7.5 kilometers off his home. There the staff members set the creature free into the embrace of the forest.


  • 乡镇工业 园区已经成为我市乡镇企业“二次创业”的有效载体,极大地改善了企业的发展环境。目前已有3772家企业进驻园区。

  • Township industrial zones provide solid vehicles for the city’s enterprises in running new businesses and greatly improve the setting for the development of such entities. So far, 3772 establishments have found home in these quarters.


同义词和近义词复现

  • We observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom --- symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning --- signifying renewal, as well as change.

  • ( Inaugural Address by John Kennedy)


  • 孔乙己便涨红了脸,额头上的青筋条条绽出,争辩道:“孔乙己便涨红了脸,额头上的青筋条条绽出,争辩道:“窃书不能算偷……窃书……读书人的事,能算偷么?”

  • At that Kong Yiji would flush, the veins on his forehead standing out as he protested, “ Taking books can’t be counted as stealing …Taking books … for a scholar … can’t be counted as stealing.”

  • 王治奎:《汉英翻译教程》第73页 建议将“窃”与“偷”这对同现词分别译作“stealing” 和 “theft”, 以充分传达其概念的同一性。修辞效果更好。充分表现了孔乙己违反同一律,窘迫至极、强词夺理的心态。


上下义词复现孔乙己便涨红了脸,额头上的青筋条条绽出,争辩道:“

  • We trotted on, we crept up Constitution Hill, we rattled down into Lamas Street, and the tailor still rang his bell and a dragon, squealing, in front of his wheels. As we clip-clopped over the cobbles that led down to the Towy Bridge, I remembered Grandpa’s nightly noisy journeys that rocked the bed and shook the walls, and I saw his gay waistcoat in a vision and his patchwork head tufted and smiling in the candlelight. The tailor before us turned round on his saddle, his bicycle wobbled and skidded “I see Dai Thomas” he cried.

    ( Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog by Dylan Thomas)


  • 普之仁领着我穿着孔乙己便涨红了脸,额头上的青筋条条绽出,争辩道:“茶花走,指点着告诉我这叫大玛瑙,那叫雪狮子,这是蝶翅,那是大紫袍,名目花色多得很。后来他攀着一株茶树的小干枝说: “这叫童子面,花期迟,刚打着朵,开起来颜色深红,倒是最好看的。” (杨朔《茶花赋》)

  • Taking me through the groves of camellias, Pu Zhiren told me the names of different varieties: Giant Agate, Snow lion, Butterfly Wing, Giant Purple Robe and many others. Then, taking hold of a small branch of a camellia tree, he said, “This is Baby Face. As it blooms late, it’s only just in bud. With deep red blossoms, it’s really most beautiful.”


General word
General word 孔乙己便涨红了脸,额头上的青筋条条绽出,争辩道:“

  • Halliday & Hasan 的书中提到的general word(范畴词category word、泛指词、概括词) 也称作“准实义词”。其特点是语义上空、泛、抽象, 其所指或含义需借助上下文推断。

  • 由于这种词的所指需依赖上下文, 因此它们和指示代词及人称代词一样, 具有所指性,可以构成篇章的整体语义结构和逻辑框架,创建语篇连贯。这类词 数量多,使用普遍。 如 problem, situation, concern, group, plan, scheme, practice, move, operation, endeavor等。

  • 汉译英时,在适当地方添加general word, 有助于译出语义连贯、逻辑严密、 条理清楚的文字。


  • 新年的漱口水, 洗脸水不可到落地,而倒入预先准备好的水盆里,当天也不扫地,谓之“积财”。

  • According to customs, a basin is especially reserved for water from tooth brushing and warship, for such water is not allowed to be splashed on the ground. Nor is the floor to be cleaned on the day. These taboos are intended for “fortune-saving.”



2 collocation
2. 的第一项任务。同现关系 collocation

  • Halliday & Hasan 认为:同现关系指词汇在语篇中共同出现的倾向性(co-occurrence tendency) 。

  • 在语篇中,围绕着一定的话题,一定的词往往同时出现,而其他一些词就不大可能出现或根本不会出现。

  • 词汇的同现关系包括:反义关系、互补关系、局部-整体关系、搭配关系等。


反义关系 的第一项任务。

  • United, there is little we can not do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.

    (Inaugural Speech by John F. Kennedy)


互补关系 的第一项任务。

  • 互补关系由两个对立项构成,因此,对一个词项的否定意味着对另一个词项的肯定,反之亦然。例如:

  • Discrimination is undoubtedly practiced against women in the field of scientific research. We don’t find men complaining that they are not being interviewed for positions that they are clearly qualified to fill. ( A Liberal Education by T. H. Huxley)


局部 的第一项任务。-整体关系

  • 上下义关系侧重于命名上的内涵,而局部-整体关系则是侧重实体上的“内包”,如英语中的body 与arms, legs, feet, hands, heart 等构成局部-整体关系。 例如:

  • The day was warm for April and the golden sunlight streamed brilliantly into Scarlet’s room through the blue curtains of the wide windows. The cream-colored walls glowed with light and the depth of the mahogany furniture gleamed deep red like wine, while the floor glistened as if it were glass, except where the rag rugs covered it and they were spots of gay color.

    (Gone with the Wind )


组合搭配 的第一项任务。

  • 有些在意义上相互联系的词语常常同时出现在同一语篇中,这些词语属于同一个词汇套,形成了词汇链(lexicon chain), 一个词汇套的词语倾向于在同一语篇中搭配出现,具有较强的衔接力。 如:

  • The first to be affected were the oil-tanker fleets. As oil demand was cut back, charter rates plummeted, and the estuaries of the world became jammed with the steadily increasing numbers of moth-ball tankers. (Native Son by Richard Wright)


自然搭配 的第一项任务。

  • 主语和谓语的搭配

  • 动词和名词的搭配

  • 英语短语动词的动词与介词的搭配

  • 名词与介词的搭配


  • 我爱 的第一项任务。花,所以也爱养花。我可还没成为养花专家, 因为没有工夫去做研究和试验。我只把养花当作生活中的一种乐趣,花开得大小好坏都不计较, 只要开花,我就高兴。在我的小院中,到夏天,满是花草,小猫儿们只好上房去玩耍,地上没有它们的运动场。花虽多,但无奇花异草。珍贵的花草不易养活,看着一棵好花生病欲死是件难过的事。我不愿时时落泪。

    (老舍)


  • I love flowers, 的第一项任务。which leads to my interest in growing them. However, I have not become an expert in growing flowers, because I don’t have enough time to make researches and experiments. I only regard it as a kind of pleasure in life. It doesn’t matter whether the flowers bloom big or small, bad or good, I’m content as long as they bloom.


  • When summer comes, my little yard is covered with flowers, so there is no playground for the cats, who, therefore, have to play on the roof. Many as the flowers are, there are no exotic ones. Exotic flowers can’t survive easily. It’s very sad to see a beautiful flower get ill and dying. And I don’t want to shed my tears from time to time.


Discourse analysis
三、 篇章分析 so there is no playground for the cats, (Discourse Analysis)

  • 辨别篇章的文体

  • 把握局部与整体的辨证关系

  • 借助语境理解原文,确定原文的信息、感情和审美价值


篇章语体对比 so there is no playground for the cats,

王治奎:事务文体、科技文体、政论文体

和文艺文体

王宏印:应用文体、科技文体、论述文体、

新闻文体和艺术文体

刘宓庆:新闻报刊、论述文体、公文文体、

描述及叙述文体、科技文体和应

用文体


1. so there is no playground for the cats, 应用文体:广告、启事、通知、通告、契

约、合同、公函、私信

要求: 译文格式正确,内容简明,语

言朴实

2.科技文体:科学论著、实验报告、情报资

料、设备和产品说明

要求: 术语正确,数据、公式、图表

完整无误,语言明晰无歧义


3. so there is no playground for the cats, 论述文体:社会科学论著、政治文献、演

说报告等

要求: 立场、观点、态度准确无误,

逻辑清晰,语言庄重

4.新闻文体:新闻报道、新闻电讯、新闻评

论、新闻特写等

要求: 格式正确,语言得体,行文流畅

5.艺术文体:主要指文学作品(小说、散文、 诗歌、戏剧等)

要求: 准确达意, 流畅生动, 风貌尽出


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