The progressive era
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The Progressive Era. 1900-1920. The Progressive Era. Greatest period of political reform in American history Wanted government to be more responsive to the people Embraced many, but not all of the goals of the Populists Emphasized government REGULATION NOT nationalization

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The Progressive Era

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The progressive era

The Progressive Era

1900-1920


The progressive era1

The Progressive Era

  • Greatest period of political reform in American history

  • Wanted government to be more responsive to the people

  • Embraced many, but not all of the goals of the Populists

  • Emphasized government REGULATIONNOT nationalization

  • Led by the emerging urban middle class

  • Motivated by intellectuals and Muckrakers

  • First reforms began at the local and state level


The progressive era2

The Progressive Era

  • Local Reforms

    • City Mayor and City Manager systems

    • Public utilities

    • Example: Sam “Golden Rule” Jones ~ Mayor of Toledo, Ohio

  • State Government Reforms

    • Business regulations

    • Laws to protect workers and consumers

    • Example: Wisconsin’s (Robert) La Follette plan

    • Example: California Worker’s Compensation ~ Gov. Hiram Johnson


  • The progressive era3

    The Progressive era

    • Political Reforms (Making government more responsive)

      • Initiatives (Voter proposed legislation)

      • Referendum (Legislation “referred” to the people for a vote)

      • Recall (The ability to remove an elected official with a special vote)

      • Primary Elections

  • Federal Amendments

    • 16th ~ Federal Income Tax (1913)

    • 17th ~ Direct Election of Senators (1913)

    • 18th ~ Prohibition of Alcohol (1919)

    • 19th ~ Women’s Suffrage (1920)


  • The progressive era4

    The progressive era

    • Social Reform Movements

      • Muckrakers (Jacob Riis, Ida Tarbell, Upton Sinclair, many more . . . )

      • Women’s Christian Temperance Union & Anti-Saloon League

      • Women’s Suffragists & Black Suffragists (Ida B. Wells)

      • Niagara Movement & NAACP

      • International Workers of the World (IWW ~ Big Bill Haywood)

      • National Consumer’s League

        • Florence Kelley led against child labor and to improve working conditions for women. Largely motivated by the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire and the Muller v. Oregon ruling


    The progressive era5

    The Progressive Era

    • Influential Muckrakers

      • Henry Demarest Lloyd, Wealth Against the Commonwealth (about Standard Oil)

      • Upton Sinclair, The Jungle (about the meat packing industry, immigrants and tenements)

      • Jacob Riis, (New York Times) “How the Other Half Lives”(series of articles about the tenements of New York City – led to their elimination)

      • McClure’s Magazine

        • Lincoln Steffens, “The Shame of the Cities”

        • Ida Tarbell, “Mother of Trusts” (Expose’ on Standard Oil)

    • Cosmopolitan

      • David Phillips, “The Treason of the Senate”


    The progressive era6

    The Progressive era

    • “Progressive” Presidents

      • Three main areas of reform were addressed to some extent

        • Regulating business

        • Protecting consumers

        • Improving working conditions

    • Theodore Roosevelt (“TR”) Republican 1901 - 1909

    • William H. Taft Republican 1909 - 1913

    • Woodrow Wilson Democrat 1913 - 1921


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