Ap test review session 4 1450 1750 c e
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AP TEST REVIEW Session 4 1450 – 1750 C.E. Global Interactions. Overall Themes. Absolutism: centralized governments with a very powerful monarch Global Trade: now the Americas are involved and it is truly GLOBAL (1492 changed everything) Core-Periphery Theory on full display

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AP TEST REVIEW Session 4 1450 – 1750 C.E.

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Ap test review session 4 1450 1750 c e

AP TEST REVIEWSession 41450 – 1750 C.E.

Global Interactions


Overall themes

Overall Themes

  • Absolutism: centralized governments with a very powerful monarch

  • Global Trade: now the Americas are involved and it is truly GLOBAL (1492 changed everything)

  • Core-Periphery Theory on full display

  • Rise of Europe….Decline of China (esp. 19th century)

  • Unfree or Coercive labor (bolsters economies of core states)

  • Religious Rivalries

    • Catholic vs. Protestant in Europe; Islam vs. Christianity in SW Asia and Africa; Hinduism vs. Islam in S. Asia

  • Decline of Nomads (such as the Mongols)


What happened right before the era of 1450 1750

What happened right before the era of 1450-1750?

  • Population decline and growth

  • Black Plague caused decline, while improvements in technology and agriculture brought pop. growth

  • Feudalism in Japan and Europe

  • Yuan Dynasty in China and Kievan Russia under Mongol Rule (Golden Horde)

  • Rise of the Inca and Aztec Empires in the Americas

  • Mali (western Africa) at its height


More of what happened right before the era of 1450 1750 c e

More of what happened right before the era of 1450-1750 C.E.

  • Delhi Sultanate in India: the continuing Rise of Islam, the Decline of Buddhism, competing power bases

  • Founding of the Ottoman Empire (1281)

  • Continued decline of the Byzantine Empire

  • Trade routes in Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, South China Sea, Trans-Saharan and across the Eurasian steppes keep the world connected


Ming dynasty china

MING DYNASTY CHINA

  • 1368-1644 CE

  • Took power from Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty

  • Revival of Chinese culture & Removal of Mongol Influence

  • Neo-Confucian (strict social structure)

    • Emperor > Scholar Gentry > Farmers > Artisans > Merchants

  • Population Explosion (champa rice and irrigation methods helped population grow)

  • Silk, paper, porcelain in high demand in Europe allowing for a trade advantage for China and a trade deficit for Europe…this will come back to haunt China later!

  • Active traders in Indian Ocean and South China Sea (junk ships)

  • Traded with Europeans and Japanese for silver

  • But for a while, the Ming Dynasty provided China with another golden age


Ming china

MING CHINA


Ming china continued

MING CHINA (continued)

  • Reestablished the Civil Service Examinations to restore meritocracy

  • Censored writings

  • Continued the subordination of youth to elders and women to men (Confucian social order was revived)


The ming voyages

THE MING VOYAGES

  • Ming emperor Yongle sent out Zheng He on voyages throughout the region on huge ships (junks)

  • Then the Ming ended the explorations and destroyed the fleets; this prevented the Chinese from becoming a colonizing power and led to their isolationism (which will eventually lead to their being dominated by other powers)


Silver ming china spain

SILVER, MING CHINA, & SPAIN

  • The Ming converted to a silver-based monetary system, using Japan and then Spain for silver for their official currency

  • Made Spain (and New Spain) wealthy along with the shoguns in Japan

  • Inflation resulted because of too much silver, damaging the economy of China

  • Ming were then conquered by Manchu (Qing) after numerous rebellions and famine


Qing dynasty china

QING DYNASTY CHINA

  • Took control from the Ming in 1644 and ruled China for almost 300 years

  • Manchurians in leadership role but kept much of Chinese tradition in place

  • Civil Service examinations were vital to run the empire

  • Conquered large amounts of territory (good news in the beginning, but what goes up…)

  • Traded with Europeans but maintained power in the relationship (Macartney Mission is a prime example)


The macartney mission 1793

The Macartney Mission, 1793

  • Britain sent George Macartney to China to try and work out a more equal trade relationship (wanted to end the trade imbalance)

  • The Qing emperor rebuffed Macartney and the relationship between China and Europe grows strained


Tokugawa japan

TOKUGAWA JAPAN

  • Prior to the Tokugawa Shogunate, Japan had opened up trade with Portugal and the Dutch

  • Christianity was brought in along with muskets

  • Eventually Japan would turn against Christianity and Western influences and become isolationist for centuries, fearing a loss of their traditional ways and their autonomy


Tokugawa japan continued

TOKUGAWA JAPAN continued

  • In 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu created new capital at Edo (Tokyo) and took power from the emperor, instituting a strict social hierarchy

  • Seclusion of Japan began, fearing a takeover by the more powerful Europeans

  • Some trade continued but Japanese contact with the outside world was very limited

  • Christianity outlawed, as were certain books

  • Buddhism and Shinto were big religions as Christianity was persecuted for being foreign


The islamic gunpowder empires ottoman safavid mughal

THE ISLAMIC GUNPOWDER EMPIRESOttoman, Safavid, Mughal


Ottoman empire 1281 1914

OTTOMAN EMPIRE1281 - 1914

  • Osman and the Turks invade and establish empire to challenge the Byzantine Empire (conquered them)

  • Ruled over Greece, Turkey, North Africa and Middle East

  • Constantinople becomes Istanbul

  • Hagia Sofia becomes a mosque

  • Jews and Christians allowed to practice faith, but…

  • As the empire grew, so did religious persecution (Janissaries were children of conquered Christians who were turned into military slaves)

  • Under Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire experienced a “Golden Age” due to artistic accomplishments

  • Competed with the Safavids to their east


Ottoman empire continued

OTTOMAN EMPIRE continued

  • Land based empire (no navy, reliant on Europe for naval protection and sea trade…this is NEVER a good idea.)

  • Led by Sultan (absolute monarch with both political and religious authority)

  • Bureaucracy in place (viziers had power)

  • Declined due to sultans neglecting power, too much growth, corruption, inability to innovate with military and technology

  • Janissaries were used for military


Safavid empire 1502 1722

SAFAVID EMPIRE1502-1722

  • Rivals of the Ottomans, ruled in modern day Iran (Persia)

  • Shia Islam dominates after their leader, Ismail, forced the conversion from Sunni Islam to Shi’ite Islam

  • “Hidden Imam” expectation (like a savior/messianic figure)

  • Reliant on Europe for naval support (ask the Ottomans how that played out…)

  • Nomads from Central Asia threatened and then conquered the Safavid Empire


Mughal empire 1526 1739

MUGHAL EMPIRE1526 - 1739

  • Islamic leader Babur invaded and conquered Northern India (Delhi Sultanate was ruling at the time)

  • Muslim Empire based on military strength and strong economy (textiles)

  • Akbar the Great stressed religious tolerance, needing to win over largely Hindu population

  • Akbar married a Hindu princess and then even tried creating a new religion based on himself

  • Relied on Europeans for naval support

  • Taj Mahal built during Mughal Empire


Ap test review session 4 1450 1750 c e

Seriously, you mean to tell me that all three Gunpowder Empires let European powers handle all their naval support and sea trade in an era of unprecedented global maritime trade and imperialism?


Western europe on the rise

Western Europe on the Rise

As the Ming are pulling back and becoming isolationist in nature, the powers of the West are just beginning to explore their world in order to conquer it…


Explorers

Explorers


Portugal

PORTUGAL

  • Prince Henry the Navigator explores western coastline of Africa along with other explorers (seeking routes to Asia)

  • Interested in trading ports as opposed to territorial gains

  • Dominant in Indian Ocean trade as a result

  • Major player in Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade early on

  • Advanced naval technology: astrolabe, caravels, compass


Spain

SPAIN

  • Reconquista had booted Islam from Iberian Peninsula

  • Power consolidated by Isabella’s marriage to Ferdinand

  • Backing of the Catholic Church (reciprocal relationship)

  • Looking to become dominant in trade (overcome Islamic domination of Mediterranean), Spain backed Columbus in voyages which led to “discovery” of New World


Spain in the americas

SPAIN IN THE AMERICAS

  • Established colonies from North America to South America and throughout Caribbean

  • Wiped out Incas, Aztecs, and other tribes due to disease, slavery, and war (remember Guns, Germs, and Steel)

  • Transformation of Mita System (Inca Empire became slaves)

  • Silver mines and relationship with China (made Spain wealthy)

  • Demographic Impact: disease, death, creation of Mestizo and Mulatto populations

  • Columbian Exchange brought plants, animals, disease to different continents, changing the world forever


Power balance shift in europe

POWER BALANCE SHIFT IN EUROPE

  • Spain overextends itself with too many colonies, lavish spending, and wars not won

  • Britain defeats the Spanish Armada

  • Britain and France are on the rise while Spain is on the way down, although Spain still had colonies around the world (Latin America, Philippines)

  • Netherlands and Portugal also in the mix with trading companies


Great britain

GREAT BRITAIN

  • King Henry VIII’s daughter Elizabeth ruled during a true golden age in which England gained colonies, defeated Spain in 1588, explored the world, and enjoyed cultural success with Shakespeare

  • Protestantism, especially Anglicanism, became favored over Catholicism

  • The Glorious Revolution peacefully replaced the Catholic James II with the Protestant William and Mary of the Netherlands, ensuring Anglican rulers for a long time to come in Britain


France

FRANCE

  • France was mostly Catholic but a Protestant group, known as Huguenots, fought the Catholics for control of France

  • 1598, Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes which created an environment of toleration

  • King Louis XIV:“I am the State.”

    • Revoked Edict of Nantes forcing many Huguenots to leave France

    • Built the impressive Palace of Versailles

    • Territorial expansion in Canada and Caribbean


King louis xiv and versailles

King Louis XIV and Versailles


The dutch netherlands

THE DUTCH (Netherlands)

  • Dutch East India Company active in North America and the Caribbean

  • Also active in Southeast Asia – spice trade


The americas

THE AMERICAS

  • Spanish Conquest of parts of North America, all of Central America, and most of South America

  • Portugal in Brazil

  • England and France in North America

  • Population Impact: disease, racial mixing creates Castas System (Peninsulares, Creoles, etc.)

  • Columbian Exchange

  • Encomienda System enslaved indigenous population (Mita)

  • Mercantilism was the dominant economic system (govt. sponsorship of private companies)


Trans atlantic slave trade

TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE


Russia

RUSSIA

  • Mongol occupation (Golden Horde) stalled Russian unification and development

  • Ivan the Terrible: absolute rule and territorial expansion; makes himself first CZAR (Caesar)

  • Multicultural empire (many different ethnic groups were conquered and this will make nationalism difficult for Russia in the future)

  • Russian Orthodox Church the only religion

  • Peter the Great speeds up the Westernization process (goal: be more like Europe in order to catch up to Europe)

  • Most people were serfs (agricultural workers tied to the land) and Russia will be the last European nation to end serfdom in the 1800’s


Peter the great

Peter the Great


Cultural and intellectual developments

CULTURAL AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTS

  • The Renaissance

  • The Scientific Revolution

  • The Enlightenment

  • Humanism

  • Patronage of the Arts


Cultural and intellectual developments continued

Cultural and Intellectual Developments (continued)

  • The Renaissance, starting in Italy, saw a rebirth in the arts and in learning in general (Michelangelo, da Vinci, etc.)

  • The Reformation (Martin Luther) caused a split in the Catholic Church and created a new denomination, Protestantism, which spawned thousands of other denominations

  • The Enlightenment (Locke, Rousseau) taught that kings did not have absolute authority due a contract between ruler and citizenry

  • The Scientific Revolution (Bacon, Newton, Galileo) changed the way people saw their universe and rationalism and scientific knowledge began to decrease the power of superstition and non-scientific traditions


Changing beliefs

CHANGING BELIEFS

  • The Protestant Reformation

  • Neo-Confucianism in China

  • Missionaries: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism spread to other lands because of missionary work


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