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第 4 章 存 储 器 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第 4 章 存 储 器. 4.1 概述. 4.2 主存储器. 4.3 高速缓冲存储器. 4.4 辅助存储器. 存储器的角色. 在现代计算机中,主存储器处于全机中心地位 当前计算机正在执行的程序和数据均存放在存储器中。 CPU 直接从存储器取指令或存取数据。 计算机系统中输入输出设备数量增多,数据传送速度加快,因此采用了直接存储器存取 (DMA) 技术和输入输出通道技术,在存储器与输入输出系统之间直接传送数据。 共享存储器的多处理机的出现,利用存储器存放共享数据,并实现处理机之间的通信,更加强了存储器作为全机中心的作用。. 存储器的挑战.

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第 4 章 存 储 器

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4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4


    • CPU

    • (DMA)


  • Memory Wall


    • Memory Hierarchy

      • Cache


4.1

1.

(1)

TTL MOS

(2)

(3)

(4)


4.1

2.

(1)

(2)


RAM

RAM

RAM

MROM

PROM

ROM

EPROM

EEPROM

4.1

3.

Flash Memory

Cache


CPU

CPU

4.1

1.


2.

10 ns

20 ns

200 ns

ms

CPU

4.1


MDR

MAR

4.2

1.


MDR

CPU

MAR

4.2

2. CPU


0

0

0

1

2

3

1

0

4

2

4

5

6

7

3

2

8

4

8

9

10

11

5

4

4.2

3.

24

224 = 16 M

16

8 M

32

4 M


4.2

4.

(1)

(2)

(3)

/


    • 600~700/TB

    • 200/GB

    • SRAM400/256KB


/

4.2

1.

10

4

1K4

14

1

16K1

13

8

8K8


1.

CS

/

CE

WE

WE

OE

4.2

/


8

16K 1

8

16K 1

8

16K 1

8

16K 1

65 535 8

4.2

16K 1 64K 8

32


0,0

0,0

0,7

0,7

0

A

3

0

0

0

A

168

2

0

A

1

15,0

15,7

15

0

A

0

0

0

7

7

/

/

/

/

D

D

D

D

7

7

0

0

4.2

2.

(1)


0

0,0

0,0

0,31

0,31

0

X

0

X

A

A

4

3

3232

0

A

2

0

31,0

31,31

31,0

A

X

1

0

31

A

D

D

0

I/O

I/O

Y

Y

Y

0

31

/

A

A

A

A

A

0

0

0

0

0

6

9

8

7

5

4.2

(2)

0,0


T

T

~

1

4

T

T

T

T

T

T

7

7

5

8

8

6

A

A

A

A

T1 ~ T4

T5

T6

T

T

7

8

DOUT

DIN

4.2

( RAM )

1. RAM (SRAM)

(1) RAM

T1 ~ T4

A

A


A

A

A

T1 ~ T4

T5

T6

T5T6

A

T7T8

VA

T6

T8

T7

T8

DOUT

DOUT

DOUT

DIN

4.2

RAM


A

A

A

A

T1 ~ T4

T1 ~ T4

T5

T6

T5T6

T7T8

T7

T8

DIN

DOUT

A

DIN

T7

T5

DIN

T8

T6

A

DIN

RAM


WE

CS

A

I/O

9

1

A

I/O

8

2

I/O

3

Intel 2114

I/O

4

A

0

VCC

GND

(2) RAM

Intel 2114

1K4


A8

0

A7

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

A6

1

A5

A4

63

A3

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

A9

0

A2

A1

15

A0

I/O1

I/O2

I/O3

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


0

0

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O2

I/O3

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


0

0

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O2

I/O3

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


0

0

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

16

32

48

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O2

I/O3

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


0

0

0

0

16

32

48

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

16

32

48

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O2

I/O3

I/O4

WE

WE

CS

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


0

0

0

0

16

32

48

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

16

32

48

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O2

I/O3

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

16

32

48

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)

0

0

0

0

16

32

48

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O2

I/O3

I/O4

WE

CS


0

0

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

16

32

48

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O2

I/O3

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)

0

16

32

48


0

0

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

16

32

48

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O1

I/O2

I/O2

I/O3

I/O3

I/O4

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)

0

16

32

48


A8

0

A7

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

A6

1

A5

A4

63

A3

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

A9

0

A2

A1

15

A0

I/O1

I/O2

I/O3

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


0

0

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O2

I/O3

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


0

0

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O2

I/O3

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


0

0

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

16

32

48

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O2

I/O3

I/O4

WE

WE

CS

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


0

0

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

16

32

48

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O1

I/O2

I/O2

I/O3

I/O3

I/O4

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


0

0

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

16

32

48

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O1

I/O2

I/O2

I/O3

I/O3

I/O4

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


0

0

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

16

32

48

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O1

I/O2

I/O2

I/O3

I/O3

I/O4

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


0

0

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

16

32

48

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O1

I/O2

I/O2

I/O3

I/O3

I/O4

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


0

0

0

0

16

32

48

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

1

0

0

63

0

0

15

16

31

32

47

48

63

0

16

32

48

0

0

0

15

0

0

I/O1

I/O1

I/O2

I/O2

I/O3

I/O3

I/O4

I/O4

WE

CS

Intel 2114 RAM (64 64)


t

t

t

t

t

RC

OTD

OHA

CO

A

A

CS

D

OUT

tRC

tA

tOTD

tOHA

tCO

(3) RAM


t

t

t

t

t

WR

DH

WC

W

AW

A

CS

WE

D

OUT

t

DW

D

IN

tWC

tAW

tDHWE

tWR

tDW

WE

tW WE

(4) RAM (2114)


SRAM

    • 409614096

    • 1640961409616


SRAM


SRAM

    • CPU


SRAM

    • n2n

    • n4 241616


SRAM

      • 3-84-16

8+8=168X8


SRAM

    • X/Y

    • n22n/2

    • 2n/22n/2=2n

    • n=12212=4096226=128

n


SRAM

/

I/O

X


10

4

CS

WE

SRAM

2114

  • 2114SRAM1K4

    • /cs/we

    • /cs/we

    • /cs

A9A0

D3D0


SRAM

    • 410246416

    • 6-644-16


MOS

W

(1) 10

(2)

(3) MOS

Z

T

CS

CD


V

V

DD

DD

T2

T2

T

T4

T1

T1

T3

T3

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

C

C

s

g

4.2

2. RAM ( DRAM )

(1) RAM

T

1

CS 1 0


0

0

A9

0

0

A8

1

0

A7

1

0

A6

31

31

0

A5

D

D

0

0

0

1

31

0

0

0

0

0

0

A4

A0

A3

A2

A1

(2) RAM

4.2

RAM (Intel 1103)


0

A9

0

A8

1

1

A7

A6

31

31

A5

D

0

1

31

A4

A0

A3

A2

A1

4.2

RAM (Intel 1103)


1

0

A9

0

1

A8

1

1

1

A7

1

A6

31

31

1

A5

D

0

1

31

A4

A0

A3

A2

A1

4.2

RAM (Intel 1103)


1

0

A9

0

1

A8

1

1

1

A7

1

A6

31

31

1

A5

D

0

1

31

A4

A0

A3

A2

A1

4.2

RAM (Intel 1103)


1

0

A9

0

1

A8

1

1

1

A7

1

A6

31

31

1

A5

D

0

1

31

0

0

0

0

1

A4

A0

A3

A2

A1

4.2

RAM (Intel 1103)


1

0

A9

0

1

A8

1

1

1

A7

1

A6

31

31

1

A5

D

1

0

1

31

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

A4

A0

A3

A2

A1

4.2

RAM (Intel 1103)


1

0

A9

0

1

A8

1

1

1

A7

1

A6

31

31

1

A5

D

D

0

1

31

1

0

0

0

0

1

A4

A0

A3

A2

A1

4.2

RAM (Intel 1103)


1

0

A9

0

1

A8

1

1

1

A7

1

A6

31

31

1

A5

D

D

0

1

31

1

0

0

0

0

1

A4

A0

A3

A2

A1

4.2

RAM (Intel 1103)


1

0

A9

0

1

A8

1

1

1

A7

1

A6

31

31

1

A5

D

D

0

1

31

1

0

0

0

0

1

A4

A0

A3

A2

A1

4.2

RAM (Intel 1103)


1

0

A9

0

1

A8

1

1

1

A7

1

A6

31

31

1

A5

D

D

0

1

31

1

0

0

0

0

1

A4

A0

A3

A2

A1

4.2

RAM (Intel 1103)


RAS

CAS

WE

'

'

A

A

6

6

~

~

DIN

DIN

'

'

A

A

0

0

I/O

DOUT

DOUT

RAM 4116 (16K 1)


0

C

128

s

1

127

/

C

s

0

63

64

127

128

D

D

OUT

OUT

D

I/O

I/O

IN

4116 (16K 1)

0

0

0

63


4.2

0

C

128

s

1

127

/

C

s

0

63

64

127

128

D

OUT

D

D

I/O

I/O

I/O

IN

IN

4116 (16K1)

0

63


RAS

RAS

WE ()

WE ()

CAS

CAS

4.2

(3) RAM

DIN

DOUT


(4) DRAM

  • 1

  • 2ms


    • 2ms


1024200ns2ms 10 000 1024 8976(2ms/200ns)-1024=8976


/tRC100ns200ns2ms10000


2ms

12815.6sCPU

DMA


4000-32=3968R/W

32

  • 10243232500ns500ns3232

2ms/500ns=4000


0

1

31

32s

  • 10243232500ns500ns3232

500ns500ns1s


  • 10243232500ns500ns3232

2ms3232

2ms/32=62.5s

62s

0.5s

62.5s

2ms


  • CPU


DRAM

SRAM

4.2

3. RAM RAM


(RAM)

  • SRAM

  • DRAM

    • MOS


DRAMSRAM

DRAM

1.SRAM4SRAMSRAM4

2.DRAMSRAM1/4

3.DRAMSRAM1/6

DRAM

1.SRAM

2.DRAM

DRAM SRAM


  • DRAM

  • EDO RAMExtended Data Out RAM

  • BEDO RAMBurst

  • SDRAMSynchronous DRAMEDO50%

  • DDRDual Data RateSDRAM IISDRAMSDRAM2

  • CDRAM(Cached)SDRAMDRAMDRAM

  • RDRAM(Rambus DRAM)


VCC

0

1

ROM

1. ROM ( MROM )

MOS 1

MOS 0

2. PROM ()


SiO

S

G

D

G

2

D

S

G

_ _ _

D

+ + + + +

S

P

+

+

N

N

D

S D 0

D

S D 1

3. EPROM ( )

(1) N MOS


DO0

DO7

VCC

A7

1

24

PD/Progr

PD/Progr

A8

A9

CS

VPP

A10

CS

Y

A10

Y

2716

A7

A1

PD/Progr

A0

A6

DO7

DO0

X

DO1

DO2

128 128

VSS

12

13

DO3

A0

/

PD/Progr

(2) 2716 EPROM


4. EEPROM ( )

5. Flash Memory ()

EPROM

EEPROM

EEPROM

RAM


  • CSCS/

  • /WE01

CPU

  • RAM

    RAMRAM

    • Ai

    • Di


1RAM16K8

1

2

116K=2141488

14 + 8 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 26

/

20000H~3FFFH

01


Vcc A7 A8 A9 D0 D1 D2 D3 WE

18

10

21141K4

1

9

A6 A5 A4 A3 A0 A1 A2 CS GND

  • SRAM21141K4

A9A0

D3D0/

= 0

CS

= 1

= 0

WE

= 1


1

()

()

()

//


(1)

10

A

9

8

A

0

2114

2114

CS

D

7

WE

D

4

D

0

1.

2

1K4 1K8


8K1RAM8K8

8


CS

WE

A0

A12

D0

D7

8K1RAM8K8

I/O

I/O

I/O

I/O

I/O

I/O

I/O

8K1

I/O


64K1b64K8b64KB

= 8

16A0 A15

8A15A0CPUA15A088CPUD7D0

CPU168 CPU /8



  • <

  • CS


11

8

A10

1

A9

A1

A0

CS0

CS1

1K 8

1K 8

D7

D0

WE

(2)

2

1K8 2K8


16K8RAM64K8

64K16K44RAM

2


CS

WE

CS

WE

CS

WE

CS

WE

CS

WE

16K8RAM64K8

10


64K8b512K8b512KB

= 8

16A0 - A1520

A0-A19

8A15A0CPU20

A15 A0

4 A16 A19

16888

88CPUD7D0


  • :


M N

L K

  • MNLK


12

8

A11

A10

CS0

CS1

CS2

CS3

A9

A8

...

A0

1K4

1K4

1K4

1K4

1K4

1K4

1K4

1K4

D7

D0

WE

(3)

1K4 4K8

8


2. CPU

(1)

(2)

(3) /

(4)

(5)

(6)


1 2K8

0 1 1 0

0 1 1 0

0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

ROM

2K8

0 1 1 0

0 1 1 0

0 1 1 1

1 0 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1K8

RAM

21K4

4.1:

(1)

A15A14A13 A11 A10 A7 A4 A3 A0

(2)


A15 A13 A11 A10 A7 A4 A3 A0

1 ROM

0 1 1 0

0 1 1 0

1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

2K8

0 1 1 0

0 1 1 0

0 1 1 1

1 0 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

2RAM

1K4

C

B

A

(3)

A10~ A0 2K8 ROM

A9 ~ A0 1K4 RAM

(4)


A14

G1

Y5

G2A

A15

&

G2B

A13

MREQ

C

Y4

A12

B

A11

A

A10

A9

A0

2K8

PD/Progr

1K4

1K4

ROM

RAM

RAM

D7

D4

D3

D0

WR

4.1 CPU


4.2 4K

8K

(1)

(2)

1 4K8 ROM 2 4K8 RAM

(3)

A11~ A0 ROM RAM

(4)


4.3 CPU 20 8

IO/M RD

WR 2764 EPROM ( 8K 8 ),

A12

A0

CE

CE

OE

PGM

OE

PGM

D7

D0

138 CPU 2764 F0000H~FFFFFH ,

2764


21141K4SRAM4K8

4

21141K4SRAM4K8

1

2

3


21141K4SRAM 24

2CS4CS

21141K4SRAM4K8

1.

=48/ 14=8

21K4

1K8

8

41K8

4K8


21141K4SRAM4K8

2.

()

4KB16(64KB


64KB

1K4

1K4

1K4

1K4

1K4

1K4

1K4

1K4

21141K4SRAM4K8

A11 A10 A9A0

0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 0

0 1 1 1

4KB

1 0 0 0

12

1 0 1 1

1 1 0 0

A11A0

1 1 1 1

21141K410A0~A9


21141K4SRAM4K8

1K

A9A0

CS0

A11A10

1K

A9A0

CS1

A11A10

1K

A9A0

CS2

A11A10

1K

A9A0

CS3

A11A10

000H~FFFH

4

000H~3FFH

400H~7FFH

800H~BFFH

C00H~FFFH


11

10

01

00

21141K4SRAM4K8

3.

1

2

3

4


  • 4K82KEPROM27162K82KSRAM21141K4/A15A0D7D0


  • 1271642114

  • 8

    • 1/A11

    • 2A11/A10

    • 3A11A10

4K8

2K8

1K4 1K4

1K4 1K4

0000

07FF

0800

1K8

0BFF

1K8

0C00

0FFF


    • 4K12A15~A12

    • 10000~07FFA10~A0A110A111/A11

    • 20800~0BFFA9~A0A111 A100A11 /A10

    • 30C00~0FFFA9~A0A111 A101A11 A10


2K8

1K4 1K4

1K4 1K4

0000

    • 111A10A0 A11

    • 2310A9A0A11A10

07FF

0800

0BFF

0C00

0FFF


D7~4

D3~0

R/W

2716

2114

2114

CS0

CS2

CS1

2114

2114

A10~0

A9~0

A9~0

A11

A11

A10

A11

A10


    • /CS

    • 8ROMRAM21144D7D4D3D08

    • /R/W2716R/WR/WRAM2114


ROMWE

RAM

8K8ROM8K4RAMRAM2000H~7FFFHROMC000H~FFFFHCPU


1.

RAM 0010 0000 0000 0000

0010 0000 0000 0000

RAM8K=213

0111 1111 1111 1111

0111 1111 1111 1111

A15A14A13001~011RAM8K3=24K

8K4RAM6

ROM=FFFFH C000H=3FFFH

ROM214=16K8K8ROM2

ROM

1100 0000 0000 0000

1111 1111 1111 1111

A15A14A13110~111


64KB

8K4

8K4

8K4

8K4

1 1 1

1 1 1

0 1 1

0 1 1

0 1 0

0 1 0

8K4

8K4

8K8

8K8

CS2 A15A14A13

CS1 A15A14A13

CS6 A15A14A13

CS3 A15A14A13

A15A14A13A12A0

0 0 1 0 0

RAM

40KB

16

0 0 11 1

1 1 00 0

ROM

1 1 01 1

A15A0

3:874LS138

CS7 A15A14A13


L 1 = D + C ( DC )

L = 3

1 .

L

D

C


2i ( i = 012 3 )

2 .

2kn + k + 1


C1 g1 1357911

C2 g2 23671011

C4 g3 45671213

C8 g4 8910111213141524

Ci

gi 2i1

gi gj 2i1 + 2j1

gigj gl 2i1 + 2j1 + 2l1


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0

1 0 1

4.4

0101

n = 4

2k n + k + 1

k = 3

:

C1 C2 C4

0

1

0

0101 0100101


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

C1= 3 5 7 = 1

0

0 1 1

C2= 3 6 7 = 0

C4= 5 6 7 = 0

1

0011

n = 4 2k n + k + 1

k = 3

C1 C2 C4

1 0 0

0011 1000011


P1 = 1 3 5 7

P2 = 2 3 6 7

P4 = 4 5 6 7

3.

Pi

3 k = 3

P4 P2 P1

k = 3 Pi

C1

C2

C4

P1= 0P2 = 0P4 = 0


0100111

?

P1= 1 3 5 7 = 0

P2= 2 3 6 7 = 1

P4= 4 5 6 7 = 1

4.5

P4P2P1 = 110

6 0100101

0101


0101101

P4 = 4 5 6 7 = 1

P2 = 2 3 6 7 = 0

P1 = 1 3 5 7 = 0

3

0011

2

4

P4 P2 P1 = 100

0101011


W

W

W

W

W

. . .

. . .

  • Cache

1.


M0

M1

M2

M3

00 0000

01 0000

10 0000

11 0000

00 0001

01 0001

10 0001

11 0001

00 1111

01 1111

10 1111

11 1111

2.

(1)


M0

M1

M2

M3

n

2n

3n

0

n+1

2n+1

3n+1

1

n1

2n1

3n1

4n1

(1)


M0

M1

M2

M3

0000 00

0000 01

0000 10

0000 11

0001 00

0001 01

0001 10

0001 11

1111 00

1111 01

1111 10

1111 11

(2)


M0

M1

M2

M3

0

1

2

3

5

6

7

4

4n4

4n3

4n2

4n1

(2)


0

1

2

3


T T 4

4 T(41)


Q

Q

CM

(3)

CPU


3.

(1) SDRAM ( DRAM)

CPU

(2) RDRAM

Rambus

(3) CacheDRAM

DRAM SRAM Cache


CPU

4.3

1.

CPU

CPU DRAM


Cache

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

2c1

2m1

M1

C1

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

n

m

b

c

b

M

C

B

B

2. Cache

4.3

(1)

B


C

M

4.3

(2)

M >> C


4.3

(3) Cache

CPU Cache

Cache

4 ~ 8

CRAY_1 16 16

IBM 370/168 4 4

644=256


Cache

e = 100%

tc

e = 100%

htc+ (1h) tm

4.3

(4) Cache

e

Cache h Cache tc

tm


4.3

3. Cache

CPU

Cache

Cache

Cache


CPU

Cache

Cache

CPU

CPU

Cache

4.3

4. Cache


4 -40 cache

Cache

    • CPUCache/

    • Cache

    • CPUCache

Cache

Cache


4. Cache

4.3

Cache

  • Write through

Cache

  • Write back

Cache

Cache

Cache

Cache

Cache


4.3

5. Cache

(1) Cache

Cache

Cache

(2)

Cache

Cache

Pentium 8K Cache 8K Cache

PowerPC620 32K Cache 32K Cache


Cache

  • CPU

    • Temporal Locality

    • Spatial Locality


Cache

  • Pareto principle80/2080%20%

  • 80%20%90%10%20%80%


4 -40 cache

Cache

  • Cache

    • SRAM

    • CPUCache

    • Cache


Cache

    • Cache

    • Cache

    • //

Cache


Cache

Cache

?


t

Cache

0

0

0

0

0

1

*

1

1

2c1

2c

2c

2c1

2c1

t

2c+1

=

2c+11

Cache

2c+1

2c+1

=1

c

b

t

2m1

m

4.3

Cache

1.

i = jmodC

i

j


Cache

  • 1MB2048Cache8KBCache

    • 1MB512BCache8KB512B16

    • 2048/16=1281620947


i = j mod nCache

Cache

Tag

CacheCache

BS

102416101024

1110245

31018



Cache

Cache

Cache

Cache


4-1Cache53CPU8

000101100001101000010110000110100001000000000 0110001000000010010

Cache

1 Cache


Cache110N00010110Cache 110Cache110Y00010Cache00010110

2 0010110

Y

00010

00010110


Cache010

N00011010Cache

010Cache010Y

00011Cache00011010

300011010

Y

00011

00011010


4 00010110CacheCache

5 00011010CacheCache


Cache000

N00010000Cache

000Cache000Y

00010Cache0001000

6 00010000

Y

00010

00010000


Cache011

N00000011Cache

011Cache011Y

00000Cache

7 00000011

Y

00000

00000011


800010000CacheCache


900010010

Cache0100001100010

0001001000011010

00010Cache

00010

00010010


CacheCache


Cache

m=t+c

0

0

0

1

1

2c1

2c1

2m1

m = t + c

b

4.3

2.


Cache

  • 1MB2048Cache8KBCache

    • 1MB512B20119

    • Cache8KB512B169

    • Cache11



CacheCPUCache

Cache

CacheCache

CacheCache

Cache

Cache

Cache


Cache

Cache

Cache


Cache8Cache3CPU8

0001011000011010000101100001101000010000000000110001000000010010

Cache

8

222622261631618,Cache4-1

Cache4-198

Cache8418

mod 8 = 26 mod 8


18


Cache4-208Cache

22

22

26

22

26

22

26

22

26

16

22

26

16

3

22

26

16

3

22

26

16

3

18


Cache

Qr = 1)

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

2

3

1

2c-r

1

2c-r

2c-r

2c-r1

2c2

2c1

2c-r +1

q =cr

b

s = t + r

2c-r+1

2c-r+1

m

2m1

4.3

3.

i = jmodQ

j Q i


Cache

  • 1MB2048Cache8KBCache 22Cache

    • 1MB512BCache8KB512B168

    • 2048/8=256209 3 8


Cache

Cache

Cache


Cache

Cache


CacheCacheCache

Cache

Cache

CacheCache

Cache


Cache8Cache34-21CPU8 0001011022000110102600010110220001101026000100001600000011300010000160001001018

Cache

100010 11 022

85000102110

Cache822Cache30Cache6Cache6110000100


22


0 0 0 1 0

0


(2)0001101 026, 2610

Cache2

26


00011

0


(3) 00010 11 0 22

3 Cache6

000100 Cache,

Cache 110

(4) 00011 01026

100011Cache


50000100016

Cache00Cache0

6000000113

11011

Cache3

16

16

26

3

22


700010 00 016

02Cache

800010 01 018

Cache10326103

10FIFO

18


4

1

Cache(1)


CacheCache


4.3

1. FIFO

2. LRU


(1)

Dt

Db

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

4.4

1.

CPU

2.

C = n k s

+

Dr=Db V


I

I

N

S

S

N

0

1

4.4

1.


N

S

S

N

f

f

s

s

e

e

t

t

0

1

4.4

1.


T

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

RZ

NRZ

NRZ1

PM

FM

MFM

4.4

2.


0

1

1

0

0

1

0

4.4

NRZ1


4.4

1.

(1)

(2)

2.


4.4

(1)


4.4

(2)

(3)


4.4

1.


/

/

4.4

2.


4.4

1.

2.


  • :()

    • :

    • :

  • :()

    • :.

    • :

  • CPU



    • -


Cache

Cache



    • CPU324G


  • Cache

    • ----


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