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Interaction Styles 1. Command languages. Agenda. Command languages Advantages, disadvantages Design guidelines WIMP Advantages, disadvantages Design guidelines. Dialog Styles. 1. Command languages 2. Menus 3. WIMP - Window, Icon, Menu, Pointer 4. Direct manipulation

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Interaction styles 1

Interaction Styles 1

Command languages


Agenda
Agenda

  • Command languages

    • Advantages, disadvantages

    • Design guidelines

  • WIMP

    • Advantages, disadvantages

    • Design guidelines

PSYCH / CS 6750


Dialog styles
Dialog Styles

  • 1. Command languages

  • 2. Menus

  • 3. WIMP - Window, Icon, Menu, Pointer

  • 4. Direct manipulation

  • 5. Speech/Natural language

  • 6. Gesture, pen, VR

PSYCH / CS 6750


1 command languages
1. Command Languages

  • Earliest UI interaction paradigms

    (after punch cards gave way to interaction)

  • Examples

    • MS-DOS shell

    • UNIX shell

    • dBase

    • GPSS

PSYCH / CS 6750


Command line attributes
Command Line Attributes

  • Work primarily by recall, not recognition

  • Heavy memory load

  • Little or nothing is visibleso…

  • Poor choice for novicesbut...

PSYCH / CS 6750


Command line advantages
Command Line Advantages

  • Advantages for experts

    • Speed, conciseness

      % ls (hard to beat)

    • Can express actions beyond a limited set

      Flags, piping one command to another

    • Repetition, extensibility

      Scripting, macros

    • Easier implementation, less overhead

      Abstraction, wild cards

    • Power

PSYCH / CS 6750


Command line dangers
Command Line Dangers

  • With added power, comes added responsibility and danger

    • UNIX

      • % rm -r *

      • Deletes every file that you have, and you can’t get them back

PSYCH / CS 6750


Command line reflection
Command Line Reflection

  • Command languages are often maligned

    • (for good reason)

  • But increased functionality can win out over bad UI (e.g., UNIX)

    • Try to get both

    • Avoid excess functionality (comes at cost)

PSYCH / CS 6750


Command line design goals
Command Line Design Goals

  • Consistency

    • Syntax

    • Order

    • Etc.

  • Good naming and abbreviations

  • Doing your homework in design can help alleviate some of the negatives

PSYCH / CS 6750


Consistency syntax
Consistency: Syntax

  • Pick a consistent syntax strategy

    • UNIX fails here because commands were developed by lots of different people at different organizations

      • No guidelines provided

    • Simple command list

      • e.g, vi, minimize keystrokes

    • Commands plus arguments

      • realistic, can provide keyword parameters

      • % cp from=foo to=bar

PSYCH / CS 6750


Syntax order choices
Syntax & Order Choices

  • English: SVO subject verb object

    • “Bill deletes the file”

  • CL: S is assumed to be you

    • Is VO or OV better?

    • “delete file” vs. “file delete”

  • V dO iO vs. V iO dO -- Which is better??

    • % print file calvin

    • % lpr -Pcalvin file

PSYCH / CS 6750


Ordering
Ordering

  • Keep ordering consistent

    • VO seems to be the most natural

    • Typically need to pick where options go

  • Example

    • % ln -s file1 file2 (how to remember?)

    • Think of % cp file1 file2 for parallel command

    • Or “make a link of the symbolic type, pointing to file1, and called file2”

PSYCH / CS 6750


Consistency terminology
Consistency: Terminology

  • Same concept expressed with same options

    • Useful to provide symmetric (congruent) pairings

      • forward/backward

      • next/prev

      • control/meta

PSYCH / CS 6750


Example
Example

  • vi text editor

    • w - forward word

    • b - backward word

  • Wouldn’t ‘f’ be better for forward?

    • ‘f’ already used

  • How about ‘fw’ and ‘bw’?

    • Extra keystrokes

PSYCH / CS 6750


Abbreviations
Abbreviations...

PSYCH / CS 6750


Abbreviations1
Abbreviations

  • Abbrevs. allow for faster actions

    • Expert performance begins to be dominated by motor times such as # of keystrokes

    • Not good idea for novices

    • (Allow but don’t require)

PSYCH / CS 6750


Picking good abbreviations
Picking Good Abbreviations

  • Strategies

    • Simple truncation (works best, but conflicts)

    • Vowel drop plus truncation (avoid conflicts)

    • First and last letters

    • First letters of words in a phrase

    • Standard abbrev from other contexts

      • qty, rm, bldg

    • Phonics

      • Xqt

PSYCH / CS 6750


Abbreviation guidelines
Abbreviation Guidelines

  • Use single primary rule (with single fallback for conflicts)

    • Use fallback rule as little as possible

    • Mark use of fallback in documentation

  • Let user know primary and secondary rules

  • Truncation is good but generates conflicts

  • Don’t use abbrevs. in system output

PSYCH / CS 6750



Menus
Menus

  • Many different types

    • pop-up

    • pull-down

    • radio buttons

    • pie buttons

    • hierarchies

PSYCH / CS 6750


Menus1
Menus

  • Key advantages:

    • 1 keystroke or mouse operation vs. many

    • No memorization of commands

    • Limited input set

  • Organization strategies

    • Create groups of logically similar items

    • Cover all possibilities

    • Ensure that items are non-overlapping

    • Keep wording concise, understandable

PSYCH / CS 6750


Presentation sequence
Presentation Sequence

  • Lists of related items, shown in order

  • Use natural order if available

    • Time

      • e.g. Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner

    • Numeric ordering

      • e.g. Point sizes for font

    • Size

      • e.g. USA > Georgia > Fulton Co. > Atlanta

  • Other Choices

    • Alphabetical; Group related items

    • Frequently used first; Most important first

PSYCH / CS 6750


Presentation sequence1
Presentation Sequence

  • User studies

    • Novices: alpha > functional > random

    • Experts: categorization

  • How would you do it in general?

PSYCH / CS 6750


Example yast
Example: YaST

PSYCH / CS 6750


Example yast1
Example: YaST

PSYCH / CS 6750



WIMP

  • Focus: Menus, Buttons, Forms

  • Predominant interface paradigm now (with some direct manipulation added)

  • Advantages:

    • ?

PSYCH / CS 6750


Interaction styles 4

Interaction Styles 4

Direct manipulation


Agenda1
Agenda

  • Direct manipulation

    • Definition

    • Advantages & disadvantages

    • Another characterization

PSYCH / CS 6750


Dialog design
Dialog Design

  • 1. Command language

  • 2. Menus

  • 3. WIMP

  • 4. Direct manipulation

  • 5. Pen, gesture, VE

  • 6. Speech, audio

PSYCH / CS 6750


Direct manipulation essence
Direct Manipulation Essence

  • Representation of reality that can be manipulated

  • The user is able to apply intellect directly to the task

  • The tool itself seems to disappear

PSYCH / CS 6750


Direct manipulation details
Direct Manipulation Details

  • 1) Continuous visibility of the objects and actions of interest

  • 2) Rapid incremental actions whose effect is immediately noticeable

  • 3) Reversibility of all actions to encourage experimentation

  • 4) Syntactic correctness of all actions—every action is syntactically legal

  • 5) Replacement of command language syntax by direct manipulation of object of interest (physical actions, buttons, etc.)

PSYCH / CS 6750


Direct manipulation examples
Direct Manipulation Examples

  • WYSIWYG editors and word processors

  • VISICALC - 1st electronic spreadsheet

  • CAD

  • Desktop metaphor

  • Video games

  • …drag and drop

PSYCH / CS 6750


DM

PSYCH / CS 6750


Dm advantages
DM Advantages

  • Easier to learn & remember, particularly for novices

  • Direct WYSIWYG

  • Flexible, easily reversible actions helps reduce anxiety in users

PSYCH / CS 6750


Dm advantages1
DM Advantages

  • Provides context & instant visual feedback so user can tell if objectives are being achieved

  • Exploits human use of visual spatial cues

  • Limits types of errors that can be made

PSYCH / CS 6750


Dm problems
DM Problems

  • Screen space intensive (info not very dense)

    • (does this always apply?)

  • Need to learn meaning of components of visual representation

  • Visual representation may be misleading

  • Mouse ops may be slower than typing

  • Not self-explanatory (no prompts)

    • …but wait a minute…(?)

PSYCH / CS 6750


Dm problems1
DM Problems

  • Not good at

    • Repetition, scripting

    • History-keeping (harder)

    • Certain tasks (Change all italics to bold)

    • Abstract elements (variables)

    • Macros harder

PSYCH / CS 6750


More psychological view
More Psychological View

  • What is directness? (not always done well)

  • Related to two things:

    • Distance

    • “Gulfs” between user’s goals & system image

    • Engagement

Hutchins, Hollan, Norman ‘86

PSYCH / CS 6750


Distance two gulfs

Execution

Goals

System

Evaluation

Distance: Two “Gulfs”

  • Gulf of execution

    • Distance between user’s goals and means of achieving them in system

      • Does the system allow the user to do what the user wants to do?

  • Gulf of evaluation

    • Amount of effort person must expend to interpret system state and judge if intention was achieved

      • Can user perceive if progressing favorably?

PSYCH / CS 6750


Directness and distance
Directness and Distance

  • Two types

    • Semantic - Relation between what user wants to express and what is available in interface

      • Can I say what I want (concisely)?

    • Articulatory - Relation between meanings of expressions and their physical form(s)

      • Is the way to perform an action expected and clear (appropriate)?

PSYCH / CS 6750


Engagement
Engagement

  • Feeling that you are directly manipulating the objects of interest

  • Promoted by

    • Unobtrusive interface

    • Minimizing gulfs of execution and evaluation

    • Appropriately responsive system

PSYCH / CS 6750


Ultimately
Ultimately...

  • In end, must characterize direct manipulation by feeling of directness and illusion of manipulating objects at hand

PSYCH / CS 6750


Example cad
Example: CAD

PSYCH / CS 6750


Example photoshop
Example: Photoshop

PSYCH / CS 6750


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