UTILITARIANISM. MILL. Ansay | Baniaga | CHUA | Harder | RAMA. John Stuart Mill. - English Philosopher - Born 20 May 1806 in London - Educated by his father, James Mill - Began a career at India house under his father in 1823 - Became a member of a small utilitarian society
Ansay | Baniaga | CHUA | Harder | RAMA
- English Philosopher
- Born 20 May 1806 in London
- Educated by his father, James Mill
- Began a career at India house under his father in 1823
- Became a member of a small utilitarian society
- Took part in various discussions
- Became a frequent orator in London Debating Society
- Best known for his essay On Liberty
- Published Utilitarianism in 1863
- Died in 8 May 1873
Greatest Happiness Principle
Holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness
Pleasure and theAbsence of Pain
are the only things inherently good.
Any experience is desirable only because
it is a source for such pleasure.
Actions are good when they lead to a higher level
of general happiness
Utilitarianism takes into account not just the quantity but also
the quality of pleasures resulting from it.
“Happiness couldn’t be the rational aim of human life because it is unattainable.”
“Happiness is not a life of rapture, but moments of such, in an existence made up of few transitory pains, many and various pleasures [sic]”
“Utilitarianism is a godless doctrine.”
“... the question depends upon what idea we have formed of the character of the Deity.”
“Utilitarianism is immoral because of Expediency.”
“But the Expedient, in the sense in which
it is opposed to the Right, generally means that which is expedient for the particular interest of the agent himself... is expedient for some immediate object, some temporary purpose, but which violates a rule whose observance expedient in a much higher degree.”
Principle of utility has all the sanctions of any other moral system
“Conscientious feelings of mankind”
Basis of powerful natural sentiment: social feeling of mankind
“desire to be in unity with our fellow creatures”
“It does not present itself to their minds as a superstition of education, or a law despotically imposed by the power of society, but as an attribute which would not be well for them to be without.” - Mill
Significant because happiness deals with everyone
Utilitarianism is social in nature
-It puts happiness at the forefront directing people
-assume people want happiness as the ends
Twist: Other family members were involved
> Utilitarianism would either have:
a. called for a family vote
b. determined organs were for the greater good
Recall last scene: “Because he’s the hero Gotham deserves, but not the one it needs right now…”
- A Utilitarian would agree
- But... was it “just”?
Family’s happiness vs. personal happiness
(context: well-off family)
- A Utilitarian would probably say follow your parents
* Happiness of one vs. many
* Parents (supposedly) know best
Could one’s happiness be a negative end for others?
If everyone seeked their own happiness, there would be consequences.
“Utilitarianism seems to be selfish. At some point in your life, you also have to prioritize and think about yourself.” -Maymay
It seems to be too flexible.
Agent-neutrality is bothering.
It’s very economical.