Logical fallacies
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Logical Fallacies. Rhetorical Moves. Repetition Rhetorical question Ethos, pathos, and logos Foreseeing opposition and answering to it Concisely and accurately summarizing others’ arguments and dialoguing with them. Either-Or.

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Rhetorical moves
Rhetorical Moves

  • Repetition

  • Rhetorical question

  • Ethos, pathos, and logos

  • Foreseeing opposition and answering to it

  • Concisely and accurately summarizing others’ arguments and dialoguing with them

Either or

  • A conclusion which oversimplifies the argument by reducing it to two choices

  • “Either you support my proposal to build a cheese house OR you all hate me.”

Hasty generalization
Hasty Generalization

  • A conclusion based on insufficient evidence, i.e. rushing to a conclusion

  • “I have seen a lot of Hawkeye t-shirts on campus; thus, everyone in Iowa City must support them.”

Red herring
Red Herring

  • A diversionary tactic that avoids key issues by refusing to address opposing arguments rather than engage with them.

  • “I believe that monkeys are the most evil creatures ever. Some other scientists have said something – but their opinion doesn’t really matter.”

Ad hominem
Ad Hominem

  • Attack on the character of the person rather than the argument.

  • “Bill’s opinion on global warming can’t be trusted – he’s been sleeping around with Lucy.”

Post hoc ergo propter hoc
Post hoc ergo propter hoc

  • Conclusion that assumes if A occurred after B, then B must have caused A

  • “Rhetoric students go on to have great jobs; thus, rhetoric students’ success must be a result of this class (and my teaching, obviously).”

Slippery slope
Slippery Slope

  • Conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then eventually, through a series of small steps (B, C, D, etc.), X, Y, Z will happen too. Thus, you are basically equating A and Z. If we don’t want Z to occur, A must not be allowed to occur either.

  • “If we let teenagers run the world, they will refuse to insititute laws and eventually the world will be in chaos. Thus, if we want to avoid chaos, we must avoid a teenage-ocracy.”

Straw man
Straw Man

  • Move that oversimplifies an opponent’s viewpoint and then attacks that hollow argument

  • “Obama believes hope will get us through any crisis. This is absurd.”

Putting logical fallacies to the test
Putting logical fallacies to the test

  • You are in the process of receiving a parking ticket at the UI meters (of course, only 5 seconds after your meter expired). You now have to argue with policeman and try to get out of the ticket.

  • Some of you will have to make your argument by respectable rhetorical moves and others with logical fallacies. Your classmates will have to determine argument uses which.

Cunningham s why women smile
Cunningham’s “Why Women Smile”

  • What is the purpose of the argument?

  • What kind of argument?

  • What occasions/moves does she use?

Amy cunningham s why women smile
Amy Cunningham’s “Why Women Smile”

  • Although this article has been anthologized a great deal, Cunningham dismisses a majority of her article.

  • Did you find Cunningham’s article convincing? Why or why not? Who is her audience? Does she make any logical fallacies?