563 11 1 zigbee
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563.11.1 ZigBee. Samuel Nelson University of Illinois Fall 2007. What is ZigBee?. A low data rate, low power specification ZigBee Alliance is

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563.11.1 ZigBee

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563 11 1 zigbee

563.11.1 ZigBee

Samuel Nelson

University of Illinois

Fall 2007


What is zigbee

What is ZigBee?

  • A low data rate, low power specification

  • ZigBee Alliance is

    • “an association of companies working together to enable reliable, cost-effective, low-power, wirelessly networked, monitoring and control products based on an open global standard.“

ZigBee Alliance Homepage

2


Zigbee s place

ZigBee’s Place

WWAN

IEEE 802.22

IEEE 802.20

WMAN

WiMax

IEEE 802.16

Range

WLAN

WiFi

802.11

ZigBee

802.15.4

15.4c

802.15.3

802.15.3c

Bluetooth

802.15.1

WPAN

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

1000

Data Rate (Mbps)

Heile, B. Wireless Sensor and Control Networks (PPT), 2006


History of zigbee

History of ZigBee

  • No adequate solution for:

    • Smart badges

    • Home Automation

    • Interactive toys

  • IEEE 802.15.4 taskgroup set out to designa standard with:

    • Low data rate

    • Long battery life

    • Very low complexity

  • In 2003, a standard was completed

IEEE 802.11.4 Website


History of zigbee1

History of ZigBee

  • October 2002

    • ZigBee Alliance is formed

  • December 2004

    • ZigBee 1.0 is released

  • Current releases

    • 802.15.4 is 2006

    • ZigBee specification is 2007


Protocol stack and responsibility

Medium Access (MAC)

Physical Radio (PHY)

Protocol Stack and Responsibility

Protocol Stack

Application

ZDO

SSP

App Support (APS)

Responsibility

NWK

Craig, W. ZigBee, 2004. Heile, B. Wireless…


Ieee 802 15 4 phy

IEEE 802.15.4 PHY

  • Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

  • Link quality measurements

    • Used by higher layers

Heile, B. Wireless Sensor and Control Networks (PPT), 2006


Ieee 802 15 4 mac

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC

  • Two addressing modes

    • 16 bit (~65,000 devices)

    • 64 bit (lots of devices)

  • CSMA/CA

  • Allows for network beaconing

    • Wake up periodically, checking for a beacon

  • Power savings

    • Nodes can sleep between beacons

    • Nodes that don’t have to route or randomly receive can sleep until needed


Network layer

Network Layer

  • Devices

    • ZigBee Coordinator

      • Network Creator

    • ZigBee Router

      • Multi-hop Routing

    • ZigBee End Device

      • Very low power

Light source (ZC or ZR)

Status: Always On

Light switch (ZED)

Status: Sleep, except when flipped


Network topologies

Network Topologies

Mesh

Star

ZigBee Coordinator

ZigBee Router

Cluster Tree

ZigBee End Device

Heile, B. Wireless Sensor and Control Networks (PPT), 2006


Routing

Routing

  • Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV)

    • Used for mesh topologies

  • Cluster-Tree Algorithm

    • Form clusters of nodes that make a tree

Ergen, S. ZigBee/802.15.4 Summary, 2004


Zigbee applications

ZigBee Applications

security

HVAC

AMR

lighting control

accesscontrol

TV

VCR

DVD/CD

remote

ZigBee

Wireless Control that

Simply Works

PC & PERIPHERALS

PERSONAL HEALTH CARE

patient monitoring

fitness monitoring

mouse

keyboard

joystick

TELECOM SERVICES

INDUSTRIAL

CONTROL

HOME CONTROL

asset mgt

process control

environmental

energy mgt

security

HVAC

lighting control

access control

irrigation

m-commerce

info services

object interaction (Internet of Things)

Heile, B. Wireless Sensor and Control Networks (PPT), 2006


Application profiles

Application Profiles

  • Profiles regulate types of messages to and from end points

  • Public Profiles

    • Interoperability

  • Vendor Profiles

    • Undergoes certificate testing

    • Shouldn’t interfere with other ZigBee networks


Example profiles

Example Profiles

  • Home Automation

    • Devices used:

      • Light switch

      • Lamp

      • Thermostat

  • Industrial Plant Monitoring

    • Devices used:

      • Pressure sensors

      • Cameras

      • Thermostat

Heile, B. Wireless Sensor and Control Networks (PPT), 2006


Application messages

Application Messages

  • Periodic

    • Use beaconing system

    • Ex) Meter systems

  • Intermittent

    • Beaconless or disconnected

    • Ex) Light switch

  • Repetitive low latency

    • Time slot allocations

    • Ex) Security system


Zigbee security

ZigBee Security

  • ZigBee is touted as “highly secure”

  • Relies on centralized infrastructure

    • Coordinator acts as trust center

  • Types of keys:

    • Master key

      • Installed out-of-band

    • Network key

      • Shared by all devices

      • No protection against “insider” attacks

    • Link key

      • Derived from master key


Trust center

Trust Center

  • Can be the coordinator or a dedicated device on the network

  • Trust during Join

    • Authenticate join requests

  • Network

    • Updates and distributes network key

  • End-to-End Configuration

    • Assists link key setup

ZigBee Alliance, ZigBee Security Specification Overview, 2005


End to end key establishment

End-to-End Key Establishment

ZigBee Alliance, ZigBee Security Specification Overview, 2005


Zigbee vs bluetooth

ZigBee vs. Bluetooth

  • Larger Range

    • 100m vs. 10m

  • Lower Data Rate

    • 20 to 250 Kbps vs. 1 Mbps

  • Lower Energy

    • Multi-year vs. multi-day battery life

  • Device numbers

    • 7 slaves per network vs. 65,000 nodes


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • ZigBee is beneficial for low data rate, low power applications

    • Control

    • Automation

    • Monitoring

  • Centralized trust center helps to manage security


References

References

  • ZigBee Alliance home page:

    • http://www.zigbee.org/en/index.asp

  • ZigBee Alliance tutorial

    • http://www.zigbee.org/en/resources/presentations.asp

  • IEEE 802.15.4 task group

    • http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG4.html


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