Ecology & Biodiversity. Unit 3 AP Environmental Science. Terminology. Ecology : the study of how species interact with one another & their surrounding environment. Biodiversity : the variety of the Earth’s species
AP Environmental Science
Photosynthesis: Converting light energy (from the sun) into usable chemical energy
Cellular Respiration: The process of breaking down simple sugars to release energy.
Producers & Consumers
Aerobic: oxygen present
Anaerobic: oxygen not present (fermentation)
The Sun is the ultimate source of energy on Earth
Species: all organisms of the same kind that are genetically similar to breed in nature and produce fertile, live offspring.
Population: all members of the same species living in a given area at the same time.
Community: all populations interacting together in a given area at the same time.
Ecosystem: a community and its environment (abiotic – nonliving factors) (biotic – living factors)
Consumers that feed at all levels:
Scavengers & Decomposers
ONLY 10% of Energy moves to the next trophic level!
Pyramid of Numbers
Hydrologic Cycle (aka water cycle):
nitrogen by plants
combine N with H to form
ammonia into nitrates (NO3)
convert NO3 into N2
more lush plant growth
but also more water
Tolerance Limits: each factor has a minimum and maximum level in beyond which a species would not be able to survive or reproduce.
Mutualism: relationship between two organisms benefit each other.
Commensalism: one organism benefits, but the other organism in not affected.
Parasitism: one organism benefits and the other organism is harmed.
Population Growth & Increasing resource use
Threatened: still has enough living members to survive short term but could easily become an endangered species.
Biomagnification: Levels of toxins are concentrated up the food chain