Translation of Research Findings for Prevention and Control of NCDs
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Translation of Research Findings for Prevention and Control of NCDs Shanthi Mendis Chronic Disease Prevention and Management World Health Organization. Translation of Research Findings (Evidence) into national NCD policies and programs in low- and- middle- income countries.

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Translation of Research Findings for Prevention and Control of NCDs Shanthi MendisChronic Disease Prevention and Management World Health Organization


Translation of Research Findings (Evidence) of NCDs into national NCD policies and programs in low- and- middle- income countries

  • Does evidence exist to inform NCD policies?

  • How can evidence be translated into policies?


Global mortality of NCDs

Major NCDs = Heart disease, Stroke, Cancer, Diabetes, asthma

Communicable

maternal

infant 30%

Other NCDs, injuries

& mental health

18%

Cancer 13%

Diabetes

2%

Asthma/COPD

7%

Cardiovascular diseases 30%


What research findings do we have
What research findings do we have ? of NCDs

Research has found the causes of major NCDs.

Research findings on effective interventions that

protect the population from NCDs

address people with NCDs or at high risk

These interventions have been effectively implemented in developed countries to reverse NCD trends.


What are the evidence informed ncd policies
What are the evidence informed NCD Policies ? of NCDs

Promote physical Activity

Promote fruits/vegetables intake

Reduce salt and fat intake

Control tobacco

Early detection and management

National NCD

Policies


Potential impact of evidence based ncd policies
Potential Impact of evidence based NCD policies of NCDs

Reduce recurrent heart attacks and strokes 75%

Reduce mortality from heart disease 50%

Reduce mortality from cancer, asthma, COPD

Reduce health care costs

Reduce social and macroeconomic costs

6


Wider determinants of ncd
Wider determinants of NCD of NCDs

policies and programs

Social determinants

Primary health care

Protection of Health

Housing

Employment

Environment

For healthy living

Education & health literacy


Projected mortality trends 2000 2030
Projected Mortality Trends 2000-2030 of NCDs

Cancers

Ischaemic HD

Stroke

Acute

respiratoryinfections

Road trafficaccidents

Perinatal

HIV/AIDS

TB

Malaria

Projected global deaths (2004-2030) Global Burden of Disease 2004 data


Gap in knowledge translation
Gap in Knowledge Translation of NCDs

What are the challenges for evidence informed policy making?

What factors affect the policy environment ?

How can policy making be made more open to the influence of evidence ?

9


Challenges
Challenges of NCDs

Intersectoral nature of NCD policies

Associated with the pressures of globalization

Constraints to knowledge translation

control tobacco e.g. increase in tobacco tax

reduce salt/fat intake e.g. agreement with food industry

promote healthy eating e.g. regulate fast food chains

increase fruits/vegetable intake e.g. agriculture subsidies

10


Per capita expenditure on health international dollars
Per capita expenditure on health of NCDs (International dollars )

Expenditure Number of countries

33

25

72

24

19

18

Less than 50 $

50 – 99

100-499

500-999

1000-1999

>2000

LMIC < 5% of GDP on health aim at 10-15%



Political social economic and other factors that influence policy making
Political, Social, Economic and other Factors that influence policy making

Resource constraints

Competing interests and priorities

Agenda of donors

Governments that

encourage policy debate

Governance

Legislation,

mandatory regulations

Partnerships

Networks

13


The need for partnerships and governance
The Need for Partnerships and Governance policy making

Food labelling

  • Governance e.g. mandatory regulations or supervisory bodies

Partnership with industry

to reduce salt in processed food


Partnerships are key
Partnerships are key policy making

Causes/solutions often outside health systems

Need to look across society for the solutions

Work intersectorally across ministries

Alliances and coalitions, public/private


Evidence informed ncd policies
Evidence informed NCD policies policy making

Researchers

Technocrats and civil

Servants

Need for

Knowledgebrokers

Evidence

makers

Policy

makers

e.g. Loose networks

Lobbying NGO or civil society groups

Media

Professional associations

Community organizations

16


Empowerment of the community

Support evidence informed policy making policy making

Empowerment of the community

New ways to engage people so that they can influence policy –

  • Radio

  • Internet

  • Mobiles

  • Interactive TV

Improve Health Literacy - Helping People to:



Enable policy making

effective

use of…

Require…

Tools

Enable

effective

use of…

Skills

Require…

Staff and infrastructure

Enable

effective

use of…

Require…

Structures, systems roles

Need to Strengthen Country Capacity For Broader Intersectoral Approaches to Research and Knowledge Translation that goes beyond the health sector

Source: Potter and Brough (2004).


World health organization tools for translation of evidence into policies
World Health Organization Tools for translation of evidence into policies

  • Action Plan for Prevention and Control of NCD

  • Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

  • Global Strategy for Diet, Physical activity and Health Primary Care Package of Essential NCD interventions


Conclusions
Conclusions into policies

Requirements for prevention and control of NCDs

Broader intersectoral approaches to research

Translation of research findings into policies

Recognition of the widespread failure to implement evidence-based Health Interventions

21


Conclusions1
Conclusions into policies

For prevention and control of NCDs we need

  • To find better ways for evidence informed policy making

  • Partnerships to support intersectoral policies

  • Networks to link researchers and technocrats

  • Strong role of the State and better governance

  • Knowledge translation that goes beyond the health sector


Health in into policies all Policies


THANK YOU into policies


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