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Module 2 Current State Analysis. Welcome!. Agenda for all 5. Review of Module 1. You can now:- Understand the principles of lean Appreciate the need to remove wastes and failure demand Analyse who your customers are, what they need from you and how they feel about your service.

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review of module 1
Review of Module 1

You can now:-

  • Understand the principles of lean
  • Appreciate the need to remove wastes and failure demand
  • Analyse who your customers are, what they need from you and how they feel about your service
lets review your homework
Lets Review Your Homework
    • Talk to your Customer
  • Complete the Project Documentation
agenda
Agenda
  • Plan Do Check Act and A3
  • Current state mapping, why, how and tips
  • The importance of Gemba
  • Root cause analysis
you should
You Should…

Be able to:-

  • Understand the importance of mapping
  • Be able to create a current state map
  • Want to actively adopt Gemba
  • Have options for root cause analysis
slide9

Put plans in place to standardise the process & set further review dates

Investigate the current situation & understand fully the nature of the problem to be solved

  • Plan
  • Act
  • Do
  • Check

Develop a future state. Implement short term fixes and long term plans to eliminate root causes

Evaluate the effect of implementation; have actions delivered expected results?

slide10

Put plans in place to standardise the process & set further review dates

Investigate the current situation & understand fully the nature of the problem to be solved

  • Plan
  • Act
  • Do
  • Check

Develop a future state. Implement short term fixes and long term plans to eliminate root causes

Evaluate the effect of implementation; have actions delivered expected results?

a3 is aligned to pdca
A3 is Aligned to PDCA

Plan

Do

Check

Act

problem statements
Problem Statements
  • A clear statement that describes the symptoms of the problem, the boundaries and reason for review. A good problem statement:
    • Has a desired state or goal
    • Contains measurement
    • Is short and to the point
    • Has no implied cause or solution
    • Is limited in scope
good problem statements
Good Problem Statements
  • It takes 7 weeks to process an expenses form – staff would like payment within 1 week
  • The cost of replacing damaged lab equipment is excessive – we need to reduce this by 50%
  • Returned library books take days to go back on shelves. We want books on shelves within 5 hours
  • Our department wastes too much time searching for information. We need to be able to find a file on the shared drive within 45 seconds
slide17

Develop Problem Statements

For Your Work Area

what is a process
What is a Process?
  • Everything that happens within the University is a process or a series of processes
  • A process may be contained within one department or may be cross- functional or university wide
  • Our success is determined by how well these processes work and work together
what is a process map
What is a Process Map?
  • A visual picture of everything that happens
    • Common understanding
    • Understanding outside of your immediate area
  • Issues clearly highlighted
    • Symptom and cause
  • Drawn by the people who do the job
    • Realisation
    • Buy-in to change
  • Management tool
    • Make decisions now and in the future
lean and mapping1
Lean and Mapping

CURRENT

STATE

FUTURE

STATE

FUTURE

STATE

FUTURE

STATE

IDEAL

STATE

21

why map the current process
Why Map the Current Process?
  • Understanding - gives an overall picture of the end to end process including all activities and decisions and highlighting complexities.
  • Analysis – When all the activities are clearly visible it is easier to see the problems, errors and wastes. It directs improvement efforts to the right areas.
  • Communication – The act of creating the map helps to bring the team together and provides a common language. It allows for plenty of discussion
  • Customer Focus - details how we are meeting customer requirements . . . Or not!!
how to map current state
How to Map Current State

Identify Your Process

Establish a Process Team

  • We need people who:
    • Are enthusiastic and interested
    • Are honest and open
    • Believe that there is room for improvement
    • Play a key role in the current process
how to map current state1
How to Map Current State

Establish the Environment

  • Sensitivities need to be acknowledged
  • Set rules
  • Location
  • Empowerment – Senior endorsement
  • Engage with everyone

Set the Boundaries of the Process

Determine the Appropriate Level of Detail

how to map current state2
How to Map Current State

ownership

process steps

timeline

issues

OPTIMISM

Identify the Activities – Post-its on a big sheet of brown paper.

Visually capture a process from end to end on one piece of paper

Muda

inputs & outputs

suggestions

measures

25

questions to ask when process mapping
Questions to AskWhen Process Mapping
  • What triggers the process?
  • What are the inputs?
  • What is the next step?
  • What are the outputs?
  • How is information forwarded? (hardcopy, email, system updated)
  • How many people undertake this step?
  • How long does this step take?
  • What is the time delay between steps?
  • What are the issues?
remember
Remember

Current State Maps are the team’s PERCEPTION of what happens within the process

Map is produced from comments of those in session so will also need to get comments from outside

We then need to go CHECK THE FACTS

35

gemba
Gemba

Gemba = The Real Place

why do gemba walks
Why do Gemba walks?
  • Managers become more accessible - barriers to speak with them are lowered
  • Management understands what is actually happening and why - seeing not just analysing data (disconnect between understanding & decision making)
  • Management can visibly support change efforts -actively supporting not just empowering
  • Develops a culture of trust - people should not be surprised to see you
gemba rules
Gemba Rules
  • Show respect, know who people are
  • Explain to people what you have come to see
  • Build trust – gemba walks should be common place
  • Don’t be afraid to ask why (not why don’t you..?)
  • The objective of Gemba Walk is to understand the value stream and its problems rather than review results or make superficial comments.

Gemba is not a pat on the back exercise , it’s going to the actual place to see the actual work in actual time.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2jL5EUtiTJ4

a3 business school1
A3 – Business School

Plan

Root Cause Analysis

problem solving
Problem Solving

Problem solving is like pulling weeds…. Unless we address the root that causes the problem, poor results will keep coming back.

root cause analysis rca
Root Cause Analysis (RCA)
  • Root Cause Analysis seeks to identify the primary cause of a problem so that you can:
    • Determine what happened?
    • Determine why it happened?
    • Figure out what to do to reduce the likelihood of it happening again
root cause analysis
Root Cause Analysis
  • Define the problem
  • Gather evidence
  • Identify all causal factors
  • Identify the root cause using RCA tools e.g. 5 whys, Pareto charts, fishbone diagrams etc
  • Identify solutions
  • Implement
  • Observe
  • Continuously improve
5 whys
5 Whys

Why?

Why?

Why?

Why?

Why?

slide43

“The staff in the Exams and Assessment office are not getting the marks to students on time”

  • Why?Because the marks are late into the office from the lecturers

Why?Because the timescales are too tight

Why?Because there are just too many exam papers to mark

Why? There are too many courses / modules

Why?Because we keep adding new modules but don’t switchany off!

Conclusion: A strategic decision needs to be taken on the

number of modules on offer.

ishikawa
Ishikawa

aka cause and effect analysis and

fishbone analysis

  • Helps identify root causes of a problem
  • Encourages group participation & utilises group knowledge
  • Easy to understand
  • Identifies areas for further data collection
ishikawa1
Ishikawa

Identify all the factors

Problem statement

Identify all causes

Identify root cause

fishbone ishikawa
Fishbone/Ishikawa

Method

Machinery

Manpower

Temp. staff wasn’t properly trained

No policy exists about how to issue marks or what happens when it goes wrong

Recoding system makes it easy to get a whole batch of marks wrong

Exam officer on sick leave

Wrong marks issued to students

Phone rings all time

Frequent student requests

Manager not given financial budget to allocate staff training

Environment

Materials

slide47

Identify root cause

Problem statement

Factor

measles chart
Measles Chart
  • A map, picture or form with a rash of dots to identify problem areas. To complete:
    • Get a copy of form or process where problems are occurring
    • Agree timescales for recording problem
    • Mark the location of each problem on the form / diagram as it occurs
    • Identify where problems are clustered
    • Use the measles chart to inform improvement activities
measles chart example
Measles Chart Example
  • Issue – incomplete forms returned to Staff development.
    • Using a blank form the team recorded the areas of missing information
    • At the end of the month the main problem areas were identified and action taken
your homework
Your Homework

Current State Mapping

lets recap
Lets Recap!
  • What does PDCA stand for?
  • What are the elements of an A3?
  • What does OPTIMISM stand for?
  • What is an issue?
  • What is meant by GEMBA?
  • How many times should you ask “Why”?
  • What is another name for Ishikawa?
useful websites
Useful Websites
  • www.cardiff.ac.uk/lean
  • www.leanuk.org
  • http://www.systemsthinking.co.uk/home.asp
  • http://www.bobemiliani.com/
  • www.st-andrews.ac.uk/business-improvements
further reading
Further Reading

Gemba Walks (Jim Womack)

Learning to See (Mike Rother and John Shook)

Managing to Learn: Using the A3 Management Process (John Shook)

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