Module 2 current state analysis
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Module 2 Current State Analysis. Welcome!. Agenda for all 5. Review of Module 1. You can now:- Understand the principles of lean Appreciate the need to remove wastes and failure demand Analyse who your customers are, what they need from you and how they feel about your service.

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Module 2 Current State Analysis

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Module 2 current state analysis

Module 2Current State Analysis


Module 2 current state analysis

Welcome!


Agenda for all 5

Agenda for all 5


Review of module 1

Review of Module 1

You can now:-

  • Understand the principles of lean

  • Appreciate the need to remove wastes and failure demand

  • Analyse who your customers are, what they need from you and how they feel about your service


Lets review your homework

Lets Review Your Homework

  • Talk to your Customer

  • Complete the Project Documentation


  • Agenda

    Agenda

    • Plan Do Check Act and A3

    • Current state mapping, why, how and tips

    • The importance of Gemba

    • Root cause analysis


    You should

    You Should…

    Be able to:-

    • Understand the importance of mapping

    • Be able to create a current state map

    • Want to actively adopt Gemba

    • Have options for root cause analysis


    What is lean

    What is Lean?


    Module 2 current state analysis

    Put plans in place to standardise the process & set further review dates

    Investigate the current situation & understand fully the nature of the problem to be solved

    • Plan

    • Act

    • Do

    • Check

    Develop a future state. Implement short term fixes and long term plans to eliminate root causes

    Evaluate the effect of implementation; have actions delivered expected results?


    Module 2 current state analysis

    Put plans in place to standardise the process & set further review dates

    Investigate the current situation & understand fully the nature of the problem to be solved

    • Plan

    • Act

    • Do

    • Check

    Develop a future state. Implement short term fixes and long term plans to eliminate root causes

    Evaluate the effect of implementation; have actions delivered expected results?


    A3 problem solving

    A3 Problem Solving


    A3 is aligned to pdca

    A3 is Aligned to PDCA

    Plan

    Do

    Check

    Act


    A3 business school

    A3 – Business School


    Plan prioritise improvements

    Plan – Prioritise Improvements

    • Plan

    • Act

    • Do

    • Check


    Problem statements

    Problem Statements

    • A clear statement that describes the symptoms of the problem, the boundaries and reason for review. A good problem statement:

      • Has a desired state or goal

      • Contains measurement

      • Is short and to the point

      • Has no implied cause or solution

      • Is limited in scope


    Good problem statements

    Good Problem Statements

    • It takes 7 weeks to process an expenses form – staff would like payment within 1 week

    • The cost of replacing damaged lab equipment is excessive – we need to reduce this by 50%

    • Returned library books take days to go back on shelves. We want books on shelves within 5 hours

    • Our department wastes too much time searching for information. We need to be able to find a file on the shared drive within 45 seconds


    Module 2 current state analysis

    Develop Problem Statements

    For Your Work Area


    Lean and mapping

    Lean and Mapping


    What is a process

    What is a Process?

    • Everything that happens within the University is a process or a series of processes

    • A process may be contained within one department or may be cross- functional or university wide

    • Our success is determined by how well these processes work and work together


    What is a process map

    What is a Process Map?

    • A visual picture of everything that happens

      • Common understanding

      • Understanding outside of your immediate area

    • Issues clearly highlighted

      • Symptom and cause

    • Drawn by the people who do the job

      • Realisation

      • Buy-in to change

    • Management tool

      • Make decisions now and in the future


    Lean and mapping1

    Lean and Mapping

    CURRENT

    STATE

    FUTURE

    STATE

    FUTURE

    STATE

    FUTURE

    STATE

    IDEAL

    STATE

    21


    Why map the current process

    Why Map the Current Process?

    • Understanding - gives an overall picture of the end to end process including all activities and decisions and highlighting complexities.

    • Analysis – When all the activities are clearly visible it is easier to see the problems, errors and wastes. It directs improvement efforts to the right areas.

    • Communication – The act of creating the map helps to bring the team together and provides a common language. It allows for plenty of discussion

    • Customer Focus - details how we are meeting customer requirements . . . Or not!!


    How to map current state

    How to Map Current State

    Identify Your Process

    Establish a Process Team

    • We need people who:

      • Are enthusiastic and interested

      • Are honest and open

      • Believe that there is room for improvement

      • Play a key role in the current process


    How to map current state1

    How to Map Current State

    Establish the Environment

    • Sensitivities need to be acknowledged

    • Set rules

    • Location

    • Empowerment – Senior endorsement

    • Engage with everyone

      Set the Boundaries of the Process

      Determine the Appropriate Level of Detail


    How to map current state2

    How to Map Current State

    ownership

    process steps

    timeline

    issues

    OPTIMISM

    Identify the Activities – Post-its on a big sheet of brown paper.

    Visually capture a process from end to end on one piece of paper

    Muda

    inputs & outputs

    suggestions

    measures

    25


    Questions to ask when process mapping

    Questions to AskWhen Process Mapping

    • What triggers the process?

    • What are the inputs?

    • What is the next step?

    • What are the outputs?

    • How is information forwarded? (hardcopy, email, system updated)

    • How many people undertake this step?

    • How long does this step take?

    • What is the time delay between steps?

    • What are the issues?


    Example buying lunch at mckenzie house

    Example: Buying Lunchat McKenzie House

    0.5

    mins


    How do we do it now

    How Do We Do It Now?

    Issues

    Process


    Make a cup of tea and create a process map

    Make A Cup of Teaand Create a Process Map


    Mapping checklist

    Mapping Checklist


    Pre mapping workshop checks

    Pre-Mapping Workshop Checks


    Mapping workshop checks

    Mapping Workshop Checks


    Post mapping checks

    Post Mapping Checks


    Remember

    Remember

    Current State Maps are the team’s PERCEPTION of what happens within the process

    Map is produced from comments of those in session so will also need to get comments from outside

    We then need to go CHECK THE FACTS

    35


    Gemba

    Gemba

    Gemba = The Real Place


    Why do gemba walks

    Why do Gemba walks?

    • Managers become more accessible - barriers to speak with them are lowered

    • Management understands what is actually happening and why - seeing not just analysing data (disconnect between understanding & decision making)

    • Management can visibly support change efforts -actively supporting not just empowering

    • Develops a culture of trust - people should not be surprised to see you


    Gemba rules

    Gemba Rules

    • Show respect, know who people are

    • Explain to people what you have come to see

    • Build trust – gemba walks should be common place

    • Don’t be afraid to ask why (not why don’t you..?)

    • The objective of Gemba Walk is to understand the value stream and its problems rather than review results or make superficial comments.

    Gemba is not a pat on the back exercise , it’s going to the actual place to see the actual work in actual time.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2jL5EUtiTJ4


    A3 business school1

    A3 – Business School

    Plan

    Root Cause Analysis


    Problem solving

    Problem Solving

    Problem solving is like pulling weeds…. Unless we address the root that causes the problem, poor results will keep coming back.


    Root cause analysis rca

    Root Cause Analysis (RCA)

    • Root Cause Analysis seeks to identify the primary cause of a problem so that you can:

      • Determine what happened?

      • Determine why it happened?

      • Figure out what to do to reduce the likelihood of it happening again


    Root cause analysis

    Root Cause Analysis

    • Define the problem

    • Gather evidence

    • Identify all causal factors

    • Identify the root cause using RCA tools e.g. 5 whys, Pareto charts, fishbone diagrams etc

    • Identify solutions

    • Implement

    • Observe

    • Continuously improve


    5 whys

    5 Whys

    Why?

    Why?

    Why?

    Why?

    Why?


    Module 2 current state analysis

    “The staff in the Exams and Assessment office are not getting the marks to students on time”

    • Why?Because the marks are late into the office from the lecturers

      Why?Because the timescales are too tight

      Why?Because there are just too many exam papers to mark

      Why? There are too many courses / modules

      Why?Because we keep adding new modules but don’t switchany off!

      Conclusion: A strategic decision needs to be taken on the

      number of modules on offer.


    Ishikawa

    Ishikawa

    aka cause and effect analysis and

    fishbone analysis

    • Helps identify root causes of a problem

    • Encourages group participation & utilises group knowledge

    • Easy to understand

    • Identifies areas for further data collection


    Ishikawa1

    Ishikawa

    Identify all the factors

    Problem statement

    Identify all causes

    Identify root cause


    Fishbone ishikawa

    Fishbone/Ishikawa

    Method

    Machinery

    Manpower

    Temp. staff wasn’t properly trained

    No policy exists about how to issue marks or what happens when it goes wrong

    Recoding system makes it easy to get a whole batch of marks wrong

    Exam officer on sick leave

    Wrong marks issued to students

    Phone rings all time

    Frequent student requests

    Manager not given financial budget to allocate staff training

    Environment

    Materials


    Module 2 current state analysis

    Identify root cause

    Problem statement

    Factor


    Measles chart

    Measles Chart

    • A map, picture or form with a rash of dots to identify problem areas. To complete:

      • Get a copy of form or process where problems are occurring

      • Agree timescales for recording problem

      • Mark the location of each problem on the form / diagram as it occurs

      • Identify where problems are clustered

      • Use the measles chart to inform improvement activities


    Measles chart example

    Measles Chart Example

    • Issue – incomplete forms returned to Staff development.

      • Using a blank form the team recorded the areas of missing information

      • At the end of the month the main problem areas were identified and action taken


    A3 business school2

    A3 – Business School

    Plan


    Your homework

    Your Homework

    Current State Mapping


    Lets recap

    Lets Recap!

    • What does PDCA stand for?

    • What are the elements of an A3?

    • What does OPTIMISM stand for?

    • What is an issue?

    • What is meant by GEMBA?

    • How many times should you ask “Why”?

    • What is another name for Ishikawa?


    Useful websites

    Useful Websites

    • www.cardiff.ac.uk/lean

    • www.leanuk.org

    • http://www.systemsthinking.co.uk/home.asp

    • http://www.bobemiliani.com/

    • www.st-andrews.ac.uk/business-improvements


    Further reading

    Further Reading

    Gemba Walks (Jim Womack)

    Learning to See (Mike Rother and John Shook)

    Managing to Learn: Using the A3 Management Process (John Shook)


    Any problems

    Kate Hales

    02920 870445

    [email protected]

    Any Problems


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