Testing the efficacy of an intensive yogic meditation course for wellness
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TESTING THE EFFICACY OF AN INTENSIVE YOGIC MEDITATION COURSE FOR WELLNESS Manoj Sharma, MBBS, Ph.D. Yoga Derived from Sanskrit word meaning ‘union’ Physical & Psychic practice First written records in Yogasutra of Patanjali (200 B.C.)

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Testing the efficacy of an intensive yogic meditation course for wellness l.jpg

TESTING THE EFFICACY OF AN INTENSIVE YOGIC MEDITATION COURSE FOR WELLNESS

Manoj Sharma, MBBS, Ph.D.


Slide2 l.jpg
Yoga FOR WELLNESS

  • Derived from Sanskrit word meaning ‘union’

  • Physical & Psychic practice

  • First written records in Yogasutra of Patanjali (200 B.C.)

  • Systematic practice of developing harmony in body, mind and environment around oneself


Asthangayoga l.jpg
Asthangayoga FOR WELLNESS

  • All schools of yoga use some or all of the steps of Asthangayoga:

    • Yama (Rules for living in society)

    • Niyama (Self-restraining rules)

    • Asaana (Low physical impact postures)

    • Pranayama (Breathing techniques)

    • Pratihara (Detachment of mind from sense objects)

    • Dharana (Concentration)

    • Dhyana (Meditation)

    • Samadhi (Complete union with Super consciousness)


Kundalini yoga l.jpg
Kundalini Yoga FOR WELLNESS

  • Hallmark is start from the seventh step in Asthangayoga that of meditation

  • Fundamental technique is one of “formless” internal contemplation on Pituitary and Hypothalamus glands

  • In addition asanas for strain relieving, pranayama for enhancing vital capacity of the lungs, and relaxation for stress relief are used


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Benefits of Yoga FOR WELLNESS

  • Wellness/Health Promotion: Improved body flexibility, performance, stress reduction, attainment of inner peace, self-realization

  • Complementary treatment: Depression, anxiety disorders, coronary heart disease, bronchial asthma, extensive rehabilitation requiring disorders

  • Behavioral therapy: Smoking cessation and substance abuse treatment


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Purposes of the study FOR WELLNESS

  • Develop a replicable intensive Kundalini yoga training intervention

  • Develop psychometric tools for ascertaining changes in behavioral antecedents and yoga-related behaviors

  • Pilot test the intensive intervention in a sample of healthy volunteers

  • Assess the changes in behavioral antecedents and yoga-related behaviors


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Intervention FOR WELLNESS

  • Week end course with overnight stay

  • Implemented at a Dance Laboratory of a Midwestern University

  • Techniques:

    • Candle gazing (Lau dharana)

    • Mirror gazing (Pritibimb dharana)

    • Recitational meditation (Mantra dharana)

    • Primordial sound meditation (Nada dhyana)

    • Primordial energy meditation (Kundalini dhyana)

    • Absolute meditation (Thuriyateeth dhyana)


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Instrumentation FOR WELLNESS

  • 30 item self-report instrument

  • Perceived knowledge about yoga (Range 0-20)

  • Outcome expectations from learning Kundalini Yoga (Range 0-96)

  • Self-efficacy to perform yoga related behaviors (Range 0-24)

  • Past week performance of yoga-related behaviors of asanas, relaxation, and meditation

  • Demographic data: age, gender, race, and education

  • Rating of instruction, master teacher, facilities, food, willingness for future participation, & recommendation to others


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RESULTS FOR WELLNESS

  • 20 participants completed the entire course (Valid entries=17)

  • Age Range: 21-67 years (Mean = 45 years)

  • Gender: 9 men (52.9%) and 8 women (47.1%)

  • Education: College education (82.4%), High school (17.6%)

  • Race: White Caucasian (70.6%), Asian (29.4%)


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Construct FOR WELLNESS

n

Mean score (std. dev.)

at pre-test

Mean score (std. dev.)

at post-test

p-value

Perceived knowledge

17

9.23

(3.15)

11.88

(2.59)

0.003

Outcome expectations

15

55.00

(22.76)

56.67

(15.95)

0.760

Self-efficacy for meditation

15

9.13

(4.69)

13.93

(3.90)

0.001

Changes in mean scores between pre-test and post-test for perceived knowledge, outcome expectations from learning meditation, and self-efficacy for meditation practice


Conclusions l.jpg
Conclusions FOR WELLNESS

  • Practical and statistical significant increase in perceived knowledge

  • No significant increase in outcome expectations

  • Practical and statistical significant increase in self-efficacy and its components

  • Instruments are useful for process and impact evaluation in future efficacy trials

  • Intervention is replicable and can be applied for efficacy testing


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Limitations FOR WELLNESS

  • Pilot test with no long term follow-up data

  • No comparison group

  • Instruments not tested for reliability and validity

  • Sample predominantly white (Caucasian)


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