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Session 10 The Rise of Christianity in the Mediterranean World… Collapse of the Western empire and Florescence of the East T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m e HST 201 - Survey of Western Civilization I The fall of Rome, the Western part…

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T h e a m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t y o f r o m e hst 201 survey of western civilization i l.jpg

Session 10The Rise of Christianity in the Mediterranean World…

Collapse of the Western empire and Florescence of the East

T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m eHST 201 - Survey of Western Civilization I


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The fall of Rome, the Western part…

Q of chapter 6> What where the principles by which Diocletian reformed the Roman empire?

> Why did the Germanic invasions succeed?

Other Qs

> How many stages can you establish in the management strategies of the Roman empire?

> An overview of the relations of the Roman Republic and Empire with its neighbors: internal relations and “international” relations.


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Hellenism…the historical context to the development of Monotheistic religions> Cosmopolitanism… > Modernity… > Degenerate Greek? > Model for Rome (transition period)? > Syncretism with Persia and other peoples? > Globalization… > Common language… > Joining in a single city diverse traditions and cultures > The liberties and advantages of the cities


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The Greek influence on Israel (p. 151)> Maccabees revolt for traditionsMulti-religious societies and the Mystery Cults of Hellenistic times (p. 162)> times of decline of the polis and rise of cosmopolitism> Demeter, Isis, Mithras, Eleusis, Magna Mater> Secret / restricted religious groups / revelations & hierarchies, initiations> Related to nature, fertility, war…role of women> Christianity fits well within the world of secret religious societies


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Qs> Role of women in the formation of ancient mystery religions?> In what ways did the image and idea of the Magna Mater influence the development of mystery cults?> What effect did mystery cults have on the practice of early Christianity? Did the belief in the Magna Mater influence Roman women?> How was paganism necessary to the development of Christianity?


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Emergence and Domination of Christianity> How did Christianity become the majority religion within the Roman empire?> Success predictable or inevitable, within the context of the Roman empire?> Persecutions aimed at taming it…> St Paul… confronts Jewish religious law… some Christian would still follow Jrl, but future on non-Jewish converts. > Who were they? Hellenism cultural context…> Interesting role of women…social origin vs other> Developing hostility Jewish vs Christian… defining their audiences… maintaining (Jewish) roots with Bible and Jesus as Messiah


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Persecutions…Christians and pagan rites> Very low rates. By 300 AD 1-5%, East, 10%...

In The Early Christian

World

Ed. Philip Francis Esler

2000

p. 296


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> Constantine and Christianity in the Imperial family… “prestigious and potentially profitable religion for ruling classes to adopt…”> Role of bishops and great conversion by 400 AD> Then becomes official.> Philosophies / confrontations within Christianism


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Important events in the history of the papacy 29 - Beginning of St. Peter's ministry as head of the Church36 - St. Peter comes to Rome64 - St. Peter martyred under Nero89-97 - Pontificate of St. Clement I (letter to the church of Corinth)110 - Martyrdom of St. Ignatius of Antioch in Rome (letter to the church of Rome)155-67 - Pontificate of St. Anicetus: 1st Paschal controversy189-99 - Pontificate of St. Victor I: 2nd Paschal controversy202-3 - Death of St. Irenaeus of Lyon ("Against the Heresies")230 - Martyrdom of Pope St. Pontian; building of the Crypt of the Popes in Catacomb of St. Callixtus, where seven martyred Popes of the 3rd century were buried.313 - Constantine's Edict of Milan, the Peace of the Church; grant of the property of the Lateran to the Church; building of the Arch basilica of the Most Holy Savior.


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325 - First Ecumenical Council at Nicea; response to the Arian heresy, then Arianism prevails, Constantius II. (Consubstantiation, Son of a different essence...very popular with newly converted Barbarians)326 - Consecration of the Basilica of St. Peter by Pope St. Sylvester I337 - Constantine dies, shortly before baptized451 - Fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon (pope St. Leo I's 'Tomus ad Flavianum'); end of the major Christological controversies (i.e., the role of Jesus as Son/Prophet/God/ Savior).476 - Fall of Rome590-604 - Reign of Pope St. Gregory I "the Great". 654 - Martyrdom of Pope St. Martin I by the Emperor Constans II (last martyred Pope)


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The Roman revival of Justinian, 527-568 AD

Reign of Justinian 527-565

Publication of the Corpus Juris Civilis529-534

J conquers the Vandal kingdom

of northwest Africa533

J conquers the Italian peninsula536

J defeats the last Gothic outposts563

J dominates the Mediterranean Basin 565

Death of J565

Germanic Lombards conquer the Italian

peninsula568


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The remaining Qs of chapter 6

> How did Christianity become the majority religion within the Roman empire?

> What major changes did Christianity undergo during the fourth century?

> What distinctive themes of western Christian thought were emerging during the 4th and 5th centuries?

> How was classical culture Christianized?

> Why did Justinian's plan to reunite the Roman empire fail?


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Structure of the paperIntroduction: presentation of the idea, hypothesis; why the idea is important and relevant in this course; the means that will be used to study it.Body: developing the arguments, evidence to support or reject hypothesisConclusions: remind us of the starting point; a brief note on the facts and the conclusions reachedReferences


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> Athenian plague (1)

> Phoenician Palermo (1)

> Judaism and Monotheism (3)

> Evolution of educational institutes in complex civilizations (1)

> Athens vs. Sparta (2)

> The Persian Wars (3)

> Agriculture in Mesopotamia (1)

> Art, early societies, politics (2)

> State and hierarchies? Democracy and state? (1)

> Persia and international relations… religion, administration (1)

> Hellenism (1)

> Neolithic Agricultural Revolution (1)

> Modes of production in political evolution (1)

> Athenian politics (1)

> How does the depiction of the human body in Greek art reflect the social-political culture of the Greeks?


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