Session 10 The Rise of Christianity in the Mediterranean World… Collapse of the Western empire and Florescence of the East T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m e HST 201 - Survey of Western Civilization I The fall of Rome, the Western part…
Session 10The Rise of Christianity in the Mediterranean World…
Collapse of the Western empire and Florescence of the East
Q of chapter 6> What where the principles by which Diocletian reformed the Roman empire?
> Why did the Germanic invasions succeed?
> How many stages can you establish in the management strategies of the Roman empire?
> An overview of the relations of the Roman Republic and Empire with its neighbors: internal relations and “international” relations.
Hellenism…the historical context to the development of Monotheistic religions> Cosmopolitanism… > Modernity… > Degenerate Greek? > Model for Rome (transition period)? > Syncretism with Persia and other peoples? > Globalization… > Common language… > Joining in a single city diverse traditions and cultures > The liberties and advantages of the cities
The Greek influence on Israel (p. 151) Monotheistic religions> Maccabees revolt for traditionsMulti-religious societies and the Mystery Cults of Hellenistic times (p. 162)> times of decline of the polis and rise of cosmopolitism> Demeter, Isis, Mithras, Eleusis, Magna Mater> Secret / restricted religious groups / revelations & hierarchies, initiations> Related to nature, fertility, war…role of women> Christianity fits well within the world of secret religious societies
Qs Monotheistic religions> Role of women in the formation of ancient mystery religions?> In what ways did the image and idea of the Magna Mater influence the development of mystery cults?> What effect did mystery cults have on the practice of early Christianity? Did the belief in the Magna Mater influence Roman women?> How was paganism necessary to the development of Christianity?
Emergence and Domination of Christianity Monotheistic religions> How did Christianity become the majority religion within the Roman empire?> Success predictable or inevitable, within the context of the Roman empire?> Persecutions aimed at taming it…> St Paul… confronts Jewish religious law… some Christian would still follow Jrl, but future on non-Jewish converts. > Who were they? Hellenism cultural context…> Interesting role of women…social origin vs other> Developing hostility Jewish vs Christian… defining their audiences… maintaining (Jewish) roots with Bible and Jesus as Messiah
In The Early Christian
Ed. Philip Francis Esler
> Constantine and Christianity in the Imperial family… “prestigious and potentially profitable religion for ruling classes to adopt…”> Role of bishops and great conversion by 400 AD> Then becomes official.> Philosophies / confrontations within Christianism
Important events in the history of the papacy “prestigious and potentially profitable religion for ruling classes to adopt…”29 - Beginning of St. Peter's ministry as head of the Church36 - St. Peter comes to Rome64 - St. Peter martyred under Nero89-97 - Pontificate of St. Clement I (letter to the church of Corinth)110 - Martyrdom of St. Ignatius of Antioch in Rome (letter to the church of Rome)155-67 - Pontificate of St. Anicetus: 1st Paschal controversy189-99 - Pontificate of St. Victor I: 2nd Paschal controversy202-3 - Death of St. Irenaeus of Lyon ("Against the Heresies")230 - Martyrdom of Pope St. Pontian; building of the Crypt of the Popes in Catacomb of St. Callixtus, where seven martyred Popes of the 3rd century were buried.313 - Constantine's Edict of Milan, the Peace of the Church; grant of the property of the Lateran to the Church; building of the Arch basilica of the Most Holy Savior.
325 - First Ecumenical Council at Nicea; response to the Arian heresy, then Arianism prevails, Constantius II. (Consubstantiation, Son of a different essence...very popular with newly converted Barbarians)326 - Consecration of the Basilica of St. Peter by Pope St. Sylvester I337 - Constantine dies, shortly before baptized451 - Fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon (pope St. Leo I's 'Tomus ad Flavianum'); end of the major Christological controversies (i.e., the role of Jesus as Son/Prophet/God/ Savior).476 - Fall of Rome590-604 - Reign of Pope St. Gregory I "the Great". 654 - Martyrdom of Pope St. Martin I by the Emperor Constans II (last martyred Pope)
The Roman revival of Justinian, 527-568 AD Arian heresy, then Arianism prevails, Constantius II. (Consubstantiation, Son of a different essence...very popular with newly converted Barbarians)
Reign of Justinian 527-565
Publication of the Corpus Juris Civilis 529-534
J conquers the Vandal kingdom
of northwest Africa 533
J conquers the Italian peninsula 536
J defeats the last Gothic outposts 563
J dominates the Mediterranean Basin 565
Death of J 565
Germanic Lombards conquer the Italian
The remaining Qs of chapter 6 Arian heresy, then Arianism prevails, Constantius II. (Consubstantiation, Son of a different essence...very popular with newly converted Barbarians)
> How did Christianity become the majority religion within the Roman empire?
> What major changes did Christianity undergo during the fourth century?
> What distinctive themes of western Christian thought were emerging during the 4th and 5th centuries?
> How was classical culture Christianized?
> Why did Justinian's plan to reunite the Roman empire fail?
Structure of the paper Arian heresy, then Arianism prevails, Constantius II. (Consubstantiation, Son of a different essence...very popular with newly converted Barbarians)Introduction: presentation of the idea, hypothesis; why the idea is important and relevant in this course; the means that will be used to study it.Body: developing the arguments, evidence to support or reject hypothesisConclusions: remind us of the starting point; a brief note on the facts and the conclusions reachedReferences
> Athenian plague (1) Arian heresy, then Arianism prevails, Constantius II. (Consubstantiation, Son of a different essence...very popular with newly converted Barbarians)
> Phoenician Palermo (1)
> Judaism and Monotheism (3)
> Evolution of educational institutes in complex civilizations (1)
> Athens vs. Sparta (2)
> The Persian Wars (3)
> Agriculture in Mesopotamia (1)
> Art, early societies, politics (2)
> State and hierarchies? Democracy and state? (1)
> Persia and international relations… religion, administration (1)
> Hellenism (1)
> Neolithic Agricultural Revolution (1)
> Modes of production in political evolution (1)
> Athenian politics (1)
> How does the depiction of the human body in Greek art reflect the social-political culture of the Greeks?