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# Standardized Testing PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Standardized Testing Norm-referenced tests : are standardized, have information about reliability and validity, and can be used to compare an individual or groups performance on a test to individuals or groups in the standardization population, often called a “formal” test.

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Standardized Testing

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### Standardized Testing

• Norm-referenced tests: are standardized, have information about reliability and validity, and can be used to compare an individual or groups performance on a test to individuals or groups in the standardization population, often called a “formal” test.

• Criterion-referenced tests: are not standardized, often do not have reliability and validity data, a person or group is compared to a fixed standard, often labeled an “informal” test.

### Basic Measurement Terms

• Scales of Measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio

• Measures of Central Tendency: mean, median, mode

• Measures of Dispersion: range, variance, standard deviation

• Normal Curve:a common type of distribution

### Basic Measurement Terms continued

• Correlations: tell us about the degree of relationship between two variables, including the strength and direction of the relationship.

• Multiple Correlation: a statistical technique for determining the relationship between one variable and several other variables

### Basic Measurement Terms (3)

• Types of Scores:

Percentile rank-derived scores that permit us to determine an individual’s position relative to the sample.

Standard scores- raw scores that have been transformed to have a designated mean and standard deviation.

Grade equivalent or age-equivalent scores-average score obtained on a test by different groups of children who vary in age or grade placement.

### Basic Measurement Terms (4)

Normal curve equivalents- standard scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 21.06

Stanines-a single digit scoring system with a mean of 5 and a SD of 2. (1-9)

### Interpreting Test Scores

• Reliability: the consistency of measurements

Test-retest reliability - consistency of scores on two separate administrations of a test.

Alternate-form reliability- consistency of scores on two equivalent forms of a test.

Split-half reliability – degree to which individual test items are related or measure the same abilities.

### Interpreting Test Scores continued

• True score: hypothetical mean of all scores if test were administered many times.

• Standard error of measurement: estimate of the amount of error associated with the obtained score.

• Confidence interval or precision range: a range within which true scores might be found.

### Interpreting Test Scores (3)

• Validity: the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.

Content validity -whether the items on a test

represent the domain that the test is supposed to

Measure.

Criterion-related validity- the relationship

between test scores and some type of criterion or

outcome.

### Interpreting Test Scores (4)

Concurrent validity and predictive validity –are test scores related to a current criterion or future performance on a relevant criterion?

Construct validity – the extent to which a test measures a psychological construct.

• The relationship between reliability and validity: to be valid, a test must be reliable.

### Types of Standardized Tests

Format

• Screening, Diagnostic, Placement

• Group Versus Individual

• Multiple Skill Versus Single Skill

• Formal Versus Informal

Function or Domain

• Achievement

### Types of Standardized Tests continued

• Cognitive ability/intellectual ability-

• Social/ Emotional-objective versus projective

• Behavioral- rating scales, observations

### Major Issues in Assessment

• What is the difference between assessment and testing?

• How are tests being used in the United States: readiness, national progress, minimal competency, accreditation

• Advantages in taking tests: bias, culture-fair tests.

• Coaching and test-taking skills: special training, familiarity with procedures, study skills

### New Directions in Assessment

National, State and Local Levels:

• Assessing learning potential: LPAD, ELP, etc.

• Authentic assessment: performance based, portfolios, constructed response formats.

• Curriculum-based assessment and measurement.