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Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakartat Punang Amaripuja Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta [email protected] Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia General Context Enormous population base (+/- 220 M) Scattered through 16.000 islands

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Punang amaripuja muhammadiyah university of yogyakarta p amaripuja@yahoo com l.jpg

Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakartat

Punang AmaripujaMuhammadiyah University of [email protected]

Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia


General context l.jpg
General Context

  • Enormous population base (+/- 220 M)

  • Scattered through 16.000 islands

    • Limited physical infrastructure in outer islands

    • Low access to communication lines

  • Java centric

    • Human capital

    • Knowledge base


Education in general l.jpg
Education in General

  • Pre-Elementary: 1-2 years, optional

  • Elementary: 6 years (compulsary)

  • Junior High: 3 years (compulsary)

  • High School: 3 years

    • General

    • Vocational

  • Higher Education:

    • General (Universities, 4 yrs)

    • Vocational (Academies, Polytechnics, 2-3 yrs)

  • Others:

    • Informal

    • Non Formal


Current issues in education l.jpg
Current Issues in Education

  • Ammended Constitution orders 20% of National Budget for Education (not including salaries, etc.), while current budget is only 11%  outruled by Constitutional Court

  • Certification of Teachers and Lecturers with up to 3x current salaries

  • Some state universities converted to State Owned Education Corporations


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Some Facts on Education

(Directorate General of Higher Education, 2005)


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NUMBER OF TEACHERSBASED ON EDUCATION IN 2007




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Government Support for Private Universities

  • Competitive Research Grants

  • Competitive Departmental & University Level Grants

  • Competitive University Unit level Grants

  • The grants are competed between public and private universities

  • Some private university lecturers (and teachers) become government officials

  • Both public and private univ lecturers are licensed and promoted through the Ministry of Education

  • Certification of public and private university lecturers

  • Domestic Scholarships


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Ministry of Education Strategic Plan

Vision

A Smart and Competitive Indonesia

Mission

Establish and education system that could

develop a smart and competitive Indonesia

which is just, qualified, and relevant with

the needs of the local and global community

  • Strategic Policy

  • Equity and Extension of Access

  • Quality, Relevance, and Competitiveness

  • Governance, Accountability, and Public Image


Slide11 l.jpg

Targets of the DGHE

2005 -2010

Capacity building and modernization

2010 - 2015

Services Improvement

2015 - 2020

Regional Competitiveness

2020 - 2025

International Competitiveness


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Indonesian Higher Education Vision 2010

  • On 1 April 2003 the DGHE has proclaimed HELTS 2003 - 2010 (the Higher Education Long Term Strategy 2003 – 2010)

  • Which incorporates the Indonesian Higher Education Vision:

  • In order to contribute to the nation’s competitiveness, the national higher education has to be organizationally healthy, and the same requirement also applies to institutions. A structural adjustment in the existing system is, however, needed to meet this challenge. The structural adjustment aims, by the year of 2010, of having a healthy higher education system, effectively coordinated and demonstrated by the following features :

  • Quality

  • Access and Equity

  • Autonomy


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Strategic Issues

in the HELTS 2003 - 2010

One of the strategic issues described in the HELTS 2003 – 2010 point E is Quality Assurance as stated below:

In healthy organizations, continuous quality improvement should become its primary concern. Quality assurance should be internally driven, institutionalized within each organization’s standard procedure, and could also involve external parties. However, since quality is also a concern of all stakeholders, quality improvement should aim at producing quality outputs and outcomes as part of public accountability.


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The New Paradigm

Assurance/

Evaluasi

Quality

Autonomy

Accountability

Accreditation

The purpose of evaluation is not to prove but to improve.

(Stufflebeam et al., Educational Evaluation and Design Making, 1997)


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The Definition of

Higher Education Quality Assurance

Higher Education Quality Assurance is the process of defining and fulfillment of Higher Education Quality Management Standards in a consistent and sustainable manner in order to satisfy all its stakeholders (students, parents, industry, government, lecturers, supporting staff, and other relevant parties)


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Mechanism for identifying

HE Quality Standards

This example assumes that all HE Institutions are Educational Legal Bodies

  • Recruitment

  • Probation period

  • Permanent staff status

  • Work performance appraisal

  • Mutations, Promotions, Demotions

  • Work schedules

  • Overtime and paid leave

  • Compensations and Rewards

  • Social security and welfare

  • Development and trainings

  • Work health and safety

  • Discipline

  • Field work compensation

  • Work separations

Vision

Standards

Stakeholder

Needs


Slide17 l.jpg

HE Quality Assurance Structure

Higher Education

Accredi-

tation

External

Quality Assurance

Q

Internal

Quality Assurance

IQA

Program Evaluation

(Self Evaluated)

EPS

BED

Self Evaluation


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Sustainable Higher Education

Quality Assurance Activities

ACTIVITY

GOAL

STATUS

INSTITUTION

ACREDITATION

External HE

Quality Control

and Audit

Facultative

(optional)

HE National

Acreditation Board

BAN – PT

and / or others

SELF EVALUATED

PROGRAM EVALUATION

(EPSBED)

Extension of

Operational Permit

Compulsary

Directorate General

of Higher Education

INTERNAL

QUALITY ASSURANCE

Internal

improvement

of HE Quality

Self Innitiated

HE Institution


Overview of he quality assurance l.jpg

  • Community services

  • Information Systems

  • Alliances & Cooperations

  • Student affairs

  • 5. Academic atmosphere

  • 6. Financial resources

  • 7. Others (Inst. based)

Overview ofHE Quality Assurance

Other standards

(above the National

Education Standard)

Internally

Driven

(HELTS)

A Smart and

Competitive

Indonesia

1. Content

2. Process

3. Graduate Competence

4. Academic staff

5. Infrastructure

6. Operations

7. Financial

8. Academic Appraisal

8

Minimal Standard

(NED)

Compul-

sary

T.Frame

2015 2020 2025

HE Quality Assurance


Slide20 l.jpg

Standards Improvement Strategy

EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE / ACCREDITATION (HE-NAB)

ASSISTANCE

100

INDEPENDENCY

Higher Education

INTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE

Acquire AUN Standard

100 best in

Asia / World

Acquire

Internasional

Standard

100 best in

Asia / World

Surpass NES,

AUN Quality

Label,

Acquire

AUN Standard

ASSISTANCE

LAW OBEDIENCY

NASIONAL

REGIONAL

INTERNASIONAL

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2015

2020

2025


Slide21 l.jpg

Quality Assurance Process

  • a. The HE Institution defines its vision and mission

  • b. Every program defines its vision and mission based on the institution’s vision and mission

  • c. The program’s vision is broken down into a set of quality standards

  • d. The HE Institution sets the organization and mechanism of quality assurance

  • e. The HE Institution implements quality assurance through quality control management

  • f. The HE Institution evaluates and revises its quality standard through ongoing benchmarking


Self evaluated items lraise l.jpg

Leadership

Relevance

Environmental sensitivity

Graduate quality

Industry acceptance

Academic Atmosphere

Lecturer – student, lecturer – lecturer,

& student - student interactions

SOP Discipline

Internal Management & Organization

Decision making processes

Budget priorities

Internal and external evaluations

Sustainability

Assure institutional existance

Assure quality level

Resources

Efficiency and Productivity

Length of study, length of thesis, etc.

Ability to produce good output

Self Evaluated Items (LRAISE)


Self evaluation report l.jpg

Summary

I. Self Evaluation Process

II. Background

a. Department & Program History

b. Long Term Development Plans

c. External Environment

III. Academis Program Evaluation

a. Education

b. Research

c. Community Services

d. Quality Assurance Programs

IV. Management of Resources

a. Financial Management

b. Human Resources Management

c. Physical Facilities Management

1. Infrastructure (Buildings)

2. Laboratories

3. Libraries

d. Data and Information Management

V. Departmental Performance Indicators

a. Primary Performance Indicators

b. Supporting Performance Indicators

VI. Identified Problems

VII. Alternative Solutions

VIII. Appendix

Self Evaluation Report


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NATIONAL ACCREDITATION SYSTEM (Current)

Ministry of Education

HE-National Accreditation Board

HE Institution A

HE Institution B

ACCREDITATION

P 1

P 2

P 3

P 4

P W

P X

P Y

P Z


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NATIONAL ACCREDITATION SYSTEM (Alternate)

Ministry of Education

ASSOCATION OF HEI

HE-NAB

ACCREDITATION

HE Institution A

HE Institution B

P 1

P 2

P 3

P 4

P W

P X

P Y

P Z

Program Accreditation


Goals of accreditation l.jpg
Goals of Accreditation

  • Protect the community

  • Assist Quality Assurance of HE Institutions

  • Public Accountability of HEI

  • Standardization of academic credit to allow student mobilization

  • Basis for accreditation / license

  • Consideration for grants

  • Consideration for employee recruitment

  • International recognition of certificate / competence

  • Input for meta-evaluation of HE quality


Scope of accreditation l.jpg
Scope of Accreditation

  • Quality Control :

    • System and mechanism to assess comlpiance with performance indicators

  • Quality Audit:

    • Appraisal of internal Quality Control mechanisms

  • Quality Assessment:

    • System efficiency and effectiveness


Who is responsible for he quality l.jpg
Who is responsible for HE Quality?

  • HE Institutions

  • Association of HEI (self regulation)

  • Directorate General of HE

  • HE National Accreditation Board


Functions of the he nab l.jpg
Functions of the HE-NAB

  • Prepare organization

  • Formulate technical policy

  • Setup appraisal criteria

  • Collect data

  • Operate appraisals

  • Determine accreditation

  • Publish accreditation certificates

  • Announce accreditation results

  • Give recommendation for supervision

  • Assist self evaluation of HE Institutions

  • Periodic reports to the Ministry of Education

    Kepmendikbud 187/U/1998


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TYPE OF

INSTIT-UTIONS

LEVEL OF ACCREDITATION

ACCRE-DITED D-3 STUDY PROGRAMS

NUMBER OF

D-3 STUDY PROGRAMS

ACCREDITED D-3 FROM TOTAL D-3 STUDY PROGRAMS

A

B

C

D

State

Univer-sities

12

10.6%

58

51.4 %

39

34.5 %

4

3.5 %

113

16.2 %

464

17.0 %

24.4 %

Private

Univer-sities

43

8.9 %

209

43.5 %

218

45.3 %

11

2.3 %

481

89.4 %

2013

73.9 %

23.9 %

Institute for

Religious Studies

0

0 %

0

0 %

0

0 %

0

0 %

0

0 %

44

1.6 %

0 %

Service

Institutes

0

0 %

7

50.0 %

7

50.0 %

0

0 %

14

2.6 %

204

7.5 %

6.9 %

TOTAL

55

9.0 %

274

45.1 %

264

43.4 %

15

2.5%

608

2725

22.3 %

Accreditation results of Diploma (D-3) programs (25 Aug 2004)


Slide31 l.jpg

TYPE OF

INSTIT-UTIONS

LEVEL OF ACCREDITATION

ACCRE-DITED S-1 STUDY PROGRAMS

NUMBER OF

S-1 STUDY PROGRAMS

ACCREDITED S-1 FROM TOTAL S-1 STUDY PROGRAMS

A

B

C

D

State

Univer-sities

307

23.0 %

697

52.1 %

317

23.7 %

16

1.2 %

1337

25.7 %

1805

25.2 %

74.1 %

Private

Univer-sities

266 8.0 %

1537

46.3 %

1364

41.1 %

152

4.6 %

3319

63.3 %

4246

61.6 %

78.2 %

Institute for

Religious Studies

46

9.3%

250

50..6 %

157

31.8 %

41

8.3 %

494

8.4 %

807

12.7 %

61.2 %

Service

Institutes

3

8.3 %

14

55.6 %

10

33.3 %

0

2.8 %

27

0.6 %

37

0.6 %

73.3 %

TOTAL

622

12.0 %

2498

48.3 %

1848

35.7 %

209

4.0 %

5177

6895

75.1 %

Accreditation results of S-1 programs (25 Aug 2004)


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TYPE OF

INSTIT-UTIONS

LEVEL OF ACCREDITATION

ACCRE-DITED S-2 STUDY PROGRAMS

NUMBER OF

S-2 STUDY PROGRAMS

ACCREDITED S-2 FROM TOTAL S-2 STUDY PROGRAMS

A

B

C

D

State

Universities

15

27.8 %

26

48.1 %

13

24.1 %

0

0 %

54

57.4 %

378

69 %

14.3 %

Private

Univer-sities

3

7.5 %

14

35.0 %

18

45.0 %

5

12.5 %

40

445.1 %

136

25 %

29.4 %

Institute for

Religious Studies

0

0 %

0

0 %

0

0 %

0

0 %

0

0 %

37

7 %

0 %

Service

Institutes

0

0 %

0

0 %

0

0 %

0

0 %

0

0 %

0

0 %

TOTAL

18

19.1 %

40

42.6 %

31

33.0%

5

5.3 %

94

551

17.1 %

Accreditation results of S-2 programs (Jan 2003 - Aug 2004)


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KOPERTIS (Coordinator of Private HE Institutions)

  • There are 12 regional offices covering all provinces

  • Their functions include:

    • Implement supporting policies towards private HE institutions in its jurisdiction

    • Support implementation of the three HE services

    • Support resources to private HE institutions

    • Technical guidance and support to private HE institutions


He system problems and constraints l.jpg
HE SystemProblems and Constraints

  • Immature system

  • Wide variety in stage of development of institutions and programs

  • Wide variety of quality within programs in different institutions

  • Wide variety of quality between programs within institutions


He quality assurance problems and constraints l.jpg
HE Quality AssuranceProblems and Constraints

  • Lack synchronization between internal HEI system and data and external requirements (Self Evaluation, NAB, Competitive Grants)

  • Limited awareness of HEI senior officials towards the impotance of accurate and complete data collection

  • Limited data utilization in the decision making process


Accreditation problems constraints l.jpg
Accreditation Problems & Constraints

  • Huge number of programs

  • Limited number of experts

  • Limited number of reviewers

  • Limited funding


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PROBLEMS IN COMPILATION OF SELF EVAL, NAB, AND QA DATA

  • Data spread out over several units and levels

  • Different data codification and stratification in each unit and HEI

  • Different content and format between Self Eval, NAB, and HE-QA data

  • Limited use of data in planning of HEI

  • Underutilization of existing units for data collection

  • Underutilization of Self Evaluation data for planning in HEI


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References

  • Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi, DGHE of MOE, Akreditasi Dalam Uu Sistem Pendidikan Nasional (Uu No. 20/2003)

  • DGHE-MOE, Kebijakan Nasional Sistim Penjaminan Mutu Perguruan Tinggi (Spm-pt), “Sub Tema: Sinkronisasi Sistim Penjaminan Mutu Internal (Spm-pt), Epsbed Dan Penjaminan Mutu Eksternal (Akreditasi)

  • Gunawan, J. Pedoman Penjaminan Mutu (Quality Assurance) Pendidikan Tinggi

  • M. K. Tadjudin, Capacity Building In Quality Assurance And Accreditation In Higher Education In The Asia Pacific Region

  • Rapat Kerja Wilayah Pimpinan Perguruan Tinggi Swasta (Pts) (2006), Kebijakan Nasional Spm-pt Untuk Sinkronisasi Sistem Penjaminan Mutu Internal (Spmpt), Penjaminan Mutu Eksternal (Akreditasi) Dan Perijinan (Epsbed)


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