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Providing Energy within a sustainable Future Professor M.K.Gajendra Babu Centre for Energy Studies Indian Institute of Technology Delhi New Delhi 110 016 _________________________________________ For Presentation at the International workshop on Moving toward sustainable Energy Systems

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Providing Energy within a sustainable Future

Professor M.K.Gajendra Babu

Centre for Energy Studies

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

New Delhi 110 016

_________________________________________

For Presentation at the International workshop on

Moving toward sustainable Energy Systems

University of Minnesota

October 24, 2006


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Overall Production and Consumption

  • India is both a major energy producer and consumer.

  • Eleventh greatest energy producer, accounting for about 2.4% of the world’s total annual energy production

  • World’s sixth greatest energy consumer, accounting for about 3.3% of the world’s total annual energy consumption

  • Despite its large annual energy production, India is a net energy importer, mostly due to the large imbalance between oil production and consumption.


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Energy Security

  • Primary energy used globally: 9741.1 mtoe;

  • Of this 88% is fossil fuels -37% oil, 26% coal, 24% natural gas

  • Global trend is to move from fossil fuels to carbon free fuels, including renewables. Decarbonisation driven by protection of environment.

  • For India and other oil importing developing countries, energy security is the main driver for decarbonisation.


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Energy Scenario in India

  • India ranks fifth in the world in terms of energy consumption.

  • Commercial energy consumption in India 3.5% of the world consumption in 2002.

  • Average annual growth rate of energy consumption about 6% during 1981 -2002.


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Challenge of Energy Security: India

  • Commercial energy demand will grow at 4.5% per annum till 2020, as economy grows at 7 to 8% annually over this period.

  • Growing gap between demand and supply of commercial energy with increasing dependence on imported oil.

  • Oil imports expected to rise from present 70 percent to 100 percent in next fifteen years.

  • Substitution of imported oil main driver for energy security.


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Primary Commercial Energy Mix (%)

  • ResourceWorldIndia

  • Oil 37.430.1

  • Natural Gas24.37.8

  • Coal25.555.5

  • Nuclear6.51.4

  • Hydro 6.35.2


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Energy Demand and Supply Gap

  • Growing Gap between energy demand and supply requires an integrated framework for tackling this multi-dimensional problem.


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Major Concerns in Energy Sector in India

  • Growing gap between demand and supply of commercial energy: electricity, oil and gas.

  • Oil intensification of Indian economy due to declining self-sufficiency in oil and increasing oil demand.

  • Growing dependence on non-commercial energy sources like fire-wood, cow-dung and agricultural wastes in rural areas.


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Major Concerns in Energy Sector in India (contd)

  • Inadequate development of eco-friendly energy sources including hydro and renewable energy.

  • Urgency for containing environmental pollution caused by burning of fossil fuels and biomass energy.

  • Need for sustainable energy pathway for India which will ensure energy security


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Sustainable Energy Pathway for India

  • Clean coal technologies

  • Centralized production of electricity based on increasing share of hydro, nuclear and renewables.

  • Decentralized power through renewable energy -sun, wind, biomass and small hydro.


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Sustainable Energy Pathway for India

  • Alternative fuels for surface transportation –biofuels electric vehicles, hydrogen and fuel cells vehicles.

  • Sustainable energy pathway to progressively increase share of renewable energy.


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Renewable Energy India and the world

  • India has set up among the largest programs of renewable energy in the world.

  • Wind Energy -Fifth in the world

  • Solar photovoltaic -Second in the world

  • Production and utilisation Biogas -Second in the world


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Renewable Energy - Goals

- Substitution of fossil fuels by alternative renewable energy options: biofuels, synfuels, electric/hybrid vehicles, hydrogen, fuel cells.

  • 2012: 5%

  • 2020: 10%


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Renewable Energy Power Sector

  • Wind Power Program

  • Small Hydro Power Program

  • Biomass Power Program

  • Solar Power Program


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Wind Power

  • Power generation from wind has emerged as one of the most successful programs in the renewable energy sector and has started making meaningful contributions to the overall requirements of several states

  • Wind power installations worldwide have crossed 8500 MW producing about 14 billion KWh of energy annually.

  • A total capacity of about 5500 MW has been installed in Europe, 1700 MW in USA, and 992 MW in India.

  • India is now the fourth largest wind power generator in the world after Germany, USA and Denmark.


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Wind Power

  • The State of the World 1998, a world-watch Institute Report on progress toward a sustainable society, released earlier this year, has noted that renewable energy production in the world is expanding rapidly.

  • Wind generation is the fastest growing energy source in this decade and is expanding at 25% per year.

  • The Report recognizes India as a new "Wind Superpower".

  • With declining trend of cost and increase in the scale of wind turbine manufacturing, wind promises to become a major power source globally in the first few decades of the new millennium.


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Wind Energy in India

  • MNES(Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources) are implementing the world's largest wind resource assessment program, which forms the backbone of their wind exploitation efforts.

  • Preliminary estimates indicate a potential of about 20,000 MW.

  • Scientific surveys are being intensified to identify specific viable and potential sites.

  • A recent study undertaken to re-assess the potential, places it at about 45,000 MW. Assuming a grid penetration of 20%, a technical potential of about 9,000 MW is already available for exploitation in the potential States.


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Wind Energy in India

  • 60 sites have so far been identified in 13 States. Survey work is in progress in 24 States / UTs

  • The States of Rajasthan and West Bengal have also shown wind potential recently.

  • We have a wind power installed capacity of 992 MW in the country, out of which about 940 MW is accounted for by commercial installations.

  • About 3.5 billion units of electricity have been fed to the grid so far.

  • A good local production base for wind turbines now exists in the country, with 15 manufacturing companies active in this sector.


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Wind Energy in India

  • Capital cost of wind power projects range between Rs. 40 to 50 million per MW.

  • This gives a levelised cost of energy generation in the range of Rs. 2.00 to Rs. 2.50 KWh, taking into consideration the fiscal benefits extended by the Government.

  • The government has introduced a package of incentives which includes tax concessions such as 100% accelerated depreciation, tax holidays for power generation projects, soft loans, customs and excise duty relief and liberalized foreign investment procedures.

  • IREDA is playing a significant role in promoting Renewable Energy Projects, in general and Wind Energy Projects in particular


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Wind Power Potential


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Wind Energy in India

  • State-of-the-art wind power technologies are available.

  • About a dozen Manufacturers are engaged in production of wind turbine equipments either in joint venture or license production from international collaborators.

  • Annual production capacity of 500 MW has been established.

  • Wind electric generators upto 1.25 MW unit capacity are now being manufactured.

  • Indigenisation upto 80% has been achieved.

  • Blade manufacturing facilities established.

  • Capability for Testing and Certification established at Center for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET)


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RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

  • Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET) has been established as a technical focal point at Chennai.in TamilNadu

  • Wind Turbine Test Station  set up at Kayathar under C-WET.

  • Indigenous Wind Power Controller has been developed for improving the performance and quality of power.

  • NEW INITIATIVES:

  • ·Re-assessment of gross potential undertaken

  • ·Master Plans prepared for 87 potential sites in ten States

  • ·First demonstration project in West Bengal commissioned.

  • ·Wind-diesel project taken up in Sagar Islands & planned for Lakhshadweep Islands..

  • Development of advanced wind turbine for Indian conditions.

  • Public Sector Companies, central power utilities & large corporates being encouraged to set up wind power projects - NHPC, NTPC, BHEL, IPCL, BSES, etc. initiated action


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Hydro power In India

  • Hydro power is recognized as a renewable source of energy, which is economical, non-polluting and environmentally benign.

  • While there has been a continuous increase in the installed capacity of hydro power stations in India, which presently is 22,439 MW, the share of hydro power has been reduced to only 25% in the total installed for power generation from 50.62% in 1963.


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Small Hydro Power in India

  • Ministry of Power in the Government of India is responsible for the development of large hydro power projects in India.

  • Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES) has been responsible for small and mini hydro projects up to 3MW station capacity since 1989.

  • The subject of small hydro between 3-25 MW has been assigned to MNES w.e.f. November 1999.

  • In order to maintain the balance between hydro power and thermal power, Ministry of Power has announced a Policy for accelerated development of hydro power in the country.

  • Development of small hydro power at an accelerated pace is one of the tasks in the Policy.


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Small Hydro in India

  • Small and mini hydel projects have the potential to provide energy in remote and hilly areas where extension of grid system is un-economical.

  • Realizing this fact, Government of India is encouraging development of small and mini hydro power projects in the country.

  • India has 420 small hydro power projects up to 25 MW station capacity with an aggregate capacity of over 1423 MW.

  • Over 187 projects in this range with aggregate capacity of 521 MW are under construction.


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Small Hydro Potential

  • An estimated potential of about 15,000 MW of small hydro power projects exists in India.

  • Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources has created a database of potential sites of small hydro and 4096 potential sites with an aggregate capacity of 10,071 MW for projects up to 25 MW capacity have been identified.

  • Small hydro power development is one of the thrust areas of power generation from renewables in the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources.


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Small hydro power in India

  • The Ministry is encouraging development of small hydro projects in the State sector as well as through private sector participation in various States.

  • In the last 10-12 years, the capacity of Small hydro projects up to 3 MW has increased 4 fold from 63 MW to 240 MW.

  • From 1994 onwards, the thrust of SHP programme is to encourage private sector for setting up of commercial SHP projects.


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Small hydro power

  • 13 potential States have announced their policies for private sector participation in SHP sector.

  • The main thrust areas are nation-wise resource assessment, setting up of commercial SHP projects, renovation and modernization of old SHP projects, development and up-gradation of water mills and industry based research and development


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Small hydro power

  • In order to accelerate development of small hydro power in the country, MNES is giving incentives for detailed survey and investigation, detailed project report preparation, Interest subsidy for commercial projects, capital subsidy for SHP projects in the North-Eastern region, renovation & modernization of old SHP stations and for development / up-gradation of water mills.


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Commercial SHP Projects

  • 13 States in India namely, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Rajasthan have announced policies for setting up commercial SHP projects through private sector participation.

  • The facilities available in the States include wheeling of power produced, banking, attractive buy-back rate, facility for third party sale, etc.


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Commercial SHP Projects

  • Over 760 sites of about 2000 MW capacity have already been offered / allotted in these States.

  • Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA), the financial institution under MNES, provides soft loans for setting up of SHP projects upto 25 MW capacity in the commercial sector

  • Other activities under the program include renovation and modernization of SHP projects, setting up of portable micro hydel sets, development/upgradation of water mills.


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Manufacturing Base in India

  • India has a reasonably well-established manufacturing base for the full range and type of small hydro equipment.

  • There are over 8 manufacturers in the country in the field of small hydro manufacturing/ supplying various types of turbines, generators, control equipment, etc.


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Biomass Power

  • India is one of the largest producer of cane sugar and the Ministry is implementing the world’s largest co-generation program in the sugar mills.

  • There exists an established potential of 3,500 MW of power generation through bagasse based co-generation in sugar mills.

  • Biomass power generation from surplus agricultural residues is also being actively promoted.


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Biomass Power

  • Notable initiatives for acceleration of the Biomass Power generation program include:

  • Finalization of demonstration projects in cooperative sector sugar mills.

  • Proposal for a US $ 65 million UNDP Biomass Power Program.

  • New program on advanced biomass gasification for development and application of advanced technologies, such as, Biomass Integrated Gasification-cum-Gas Turbine Combined Cycle technology.

  • A capacity of 537 MW has so far been commissioned and 536 MW is under installation.


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Solar Power Program

  • Solar Thermal Power Program

  • Solar Photovoltaic Power Program

  • Solar Thermal Power Generation - 35 MW per Sq. Km


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Solar Power Program

  • Under the Solar Power Program grid quality power generation based on solar thermal technologies is being supported.

  • A 140 MW Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) Power Project is being given final shape for setting up at Mathania near Jodhpur in Rajasthan.

  • Techno-economic clearance of CEA has been obtained and appraisal by World Bank/KfW who would provide US $ 49 million grant assistance and US $ 150 million loan assistance respectively, has been completed.


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Solar Power Program

  •  Government of India has accorded approval of the project as a Centrally-assisted project to be implemented by Rajasthan Renewable Energy Corporation Limited (RRECL), Jaipur.

  • An Agreement has been signed on 29th October 2001 between KfW, Germany and Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance for composite loan amount of DM 250 million for the project.


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Solar Power Program

  • The Mathania ISCC Project will be the first of its kind, and one among the largest such projects in the world.

  • The Ministry is also providing support to grid interactive solar photovoltaic projects for voltage support at the tail-ends of rural grids,  for peak shaving / demand side management in urban centres and for diesel saving in islands/remote locations.


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Solar Photovoltaic power Generation

  • Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation - 20 MW per Sq. Km

  • Ministry implemented  a scheme till 2003-04 to establish a SPV power capacity of 1 MW for the following two ‘niche’ applications viz.,

  • Voltage support at the rural sub-stations, and

  • Peak shaving in urban centres.

  • Diesel saving in island and remote location


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Implementing Agencies

  •  The scheme was implemented through State Electricity Boards, State Nodal Agencies and private electric utilities.

  • The manufacturers of solar cells and modules were also allowed to implement the project by entering into a suitable power purchase agreement (PPA) with the State Electricity Boards.

  •  40  projects of capacity aggregating to 2.9 MWp have been commissioned so far.


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Transition to Hydrogen

  • Present Scene :

  • Petrol /Diesel /CNG based Automobiles & Power Generation

  • Intermediate Stage :

  • Electric & Hybrid Vehicles; Bio-Fuel / Synthetic Fuel based Vehicles & Power Generation

  • Ultimate Objective :

  • Environment Friendly and Carbon Free Hydrogen Based Vehicles & Power Generation


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Hydrogen Energy

  • Need for intermediary link between renewable energy sources with consumers.

  • Intermediary energy system must be transportable, storable, fuel for transportation, economical to produce, renewable, pollution free and independent of primary energy sources.

  • Among all options hydrogen best fulfils these requirements -lightness, highest energy density, versatility, clean and inexhaustible.


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Importance of Hydrogen in India

  • Hydrogen has significant potential as a clean energy source for broad range of applications including power production and transportation.

  • Large areas in the country do not have access to electricity which can be provided decentralized power based on hydrogen energy.

  • Hydrogen and fuel cells vehicles can progressively replace petroleum based vehicles specifically two & three wheelers.

  • Hydrogen energy: carbon-free fuel with major promise


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Hydrogen Energy in India

  • Efficient Production Methods Developed in Laboratory Conditions

  • Successfully demonstrated utilization in

    - Motor cycles and three wheelers

    - Power generating units


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Hydrogen Energy in India

  • Biological production of hydrogen

  • From organic wastes: Demonstrated at a pilot plant scale

  • From bagasse: Demonstrated at Laboratory scale production


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National Hydrogen Energy Board

  • Constituted in October,2003 with ,Minister of Non-Conventional Energy Sources as Chairman

  • High level representation from Government, Industry, Research and Academia, Public Figures and other stakeholders.

  • Direct, coordinate and guide preparation and implementation of the National Hydrogen Energy Road Map and Program.


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Renewable Energy Options

  • Solar

  • Biomass

  • Wind

  • Tidal

  • Hydro

  • Energy from Waste


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Solar

  • Solar Photovoltaic

  • Solar Thermal


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Biomass

  • Ethanol

  • Bio-diesel

  • Fuel wood

  • Crop Residue

  • Dung

  • Biogas

  • Wood Gasifier


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Table

Capital Costs and the typical cost of Generated Electricity from the Renewable Options

< 25 MW1 Crore =107


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Acknowledgements

  • Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources, Government of India

  • Ministry of Planning, Government of India

  • Office of the Principal Scientific Advisor, Government of India

  • Tata Energy Institute, New Delhi

  • Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency

  • Research Students of Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi


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Thank you


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