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Private Sector’s Role in Education The Case of Republic of Korea Gwang-Jo Kim Director of UNESCO Bangkok Public-Private Partnership in Education 17 March 2010, Bangkok, Thailand Outline Education in Korea at a Glance Evolution of Private Education Regulations and Governance

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Private sector s role in education the case of republic of korea l.jpg

Private Sector’s Role in EducationThe Case of Republic of Korea

Gwang-Jo Kim

Director of UNESCO Bangkok

Public-Private Partnership in Education

17 March 2010, Bangkok, Thailand


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Outline

  • Education in Korea at a Glance

  • Evolution of Private Education

  • Regulations and Governance

  • Finance and Incentives

  • Lessons Learned


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I. Education in Korea at a Glance

Russia

North Korea

South Korea

China

Japan


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Republic of Korea in Brief

  • Area: 100,140 km2 (Thailand: 513,120 km2)

  • Population: 48.5 million (Thailand: 65.9 million)

  • Social Development

    • High HDI(0.937, 26th), particularly high in Education Index (7th)

  • Economy

    • World 13th economy (2008, IMF), GNI per capita: US$ 27,791 (PPP, 2009, IMF)

    • Global Innovation Index (2009, 1st)

    • OECD member economy in 1996, DAC member in 2009

    • Broadband access per capita(1st)

    • Strong in manufacturing(2009): Car manufacturing (5th), ship-building(2nd), semiconductor production(1st)


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History/Culture

  • Brief History: “Country of Morning Calm”

    • Three Kingdoms (BC 1C-AD 7C) – Shilla (7C-10C) – Koryo (10C-14C) – Chosun (14C-20C)

    • Japanese Colonial Rule (1910-1945) – Korean War (1950-1953)

    • Authoritarian Regime (until 1980s) – Democratization (1990s)

  • Cultural Features

    • Homogeneous people & language: prevalence of egalitarianism

    • Confucian tradition: high regard for learning & zeal for education

    • Traditional hierarchy of professions: scholars – farmers – engineers/scientists – merchants: preferences for “generalists”


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Education System

  • Formal Education

    • Primary(6) – Middle(3) – High(3) – Universities/Colleges(4)

    • Basic: 11K schools, 7.6M students, 403K teachers

    • Tertiary: 405 HEIs, 3.5M students, 73K full time teachers

  • Vocational Education & Training

    • VE: Vocational high schools – junior colleges/polytechnic colleges(2-3) and polytechnic universities(4)

    • VT: Public/private job training institutions, in-plant training institutions

  • Non-formal Education & Training

    • Public/private job institutions; private tutoring institutions; adult education centers; in-plant training institutions, etc


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GER

Advancement rate

EducationalExpansion


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Share of Private Education

Students Enrollment Share (No of schools/institutes, 2009)

Source extracted from: MEST (2009), Statistical Yearbook of Education 2009


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Quality

  • K-12 education: comparable to world standard & OECD average

  • No discernable difference in achievement across different SES group

    International Student Assessments



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Before Modernization

  • Private Education as a Substitute for Public Ed

    • Established by retired scholar-officials or local Confucian scholars since AD 5C in Goguryeo

    • To provide preparatory courses for the State Civil Service Examination or cater the need for basic literacy education

  • At the end of 19C, first modern private schools were established by Korean nationalists and foreign missionaries


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Colonial Period: 1910 - 1945

  • Restricted educational opportunities

    • Existing private schools were forced to become public and establishment of new private schools was prohibited

      <Gross Enrollment Ratio in 1942>


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Universalization of Primary Ed

  • After Independence: 1945 – early 1960s

    • Policy focus on primary education to complete 6-year compulsory ed.

    • More than 77% of total MOE budget was spent on primary education between 1948 to 1960

      < Gross Enrollment Ratio in Primary School Level>

  • Encourage to Establishment Private Schools

    • Lenient and minimal regulation to open and manage private schools, until the enactment of “Private School Act” in 1963

    • Main incentives were tax break for properties owned and run by school corporations along with the right to raise funds and donations from parents


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Expansion of Secondary Ed

  • Unmet/excess demand for SE after UPE

    • Extreme competition to enter middle schools; severe stress of students and excessive private tutoring became social issues

  • Abolishment of Entrance Exam for Middle Schools in 1969

    • Introduce a lottery system for school selection within school district based on student’s residence

      • Allowing all the primary school graduate to enter middle schools

      • Providing a momentum for private middle schools to expand

    • Middle school education become compulsory since 1980

      • Government began to subsidize private middle schools and provide additional facilities and staff to accommodate a growing number of students


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Development of Middle School Education

Number of Middle Schools by Founders and GER in Middle School Level

Source: KEDI (2005), Analysis on the Growth of Korean Education for 60 Years


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High School Equalization

  • Increased demand for high school education

    • Issues of the middle school “3rd Year Syndrome”

    • Soaring private tutoring expenses for the preparation of high school entrance exams

    • Education disparity between regions and socio-economic groups

  • High School Equalization Policyin 1974

    • Replace individual schools’ own entrance exam with the local standardized achievement test

    • School lottery selection in Seoul and Busan in 1974 followed by in other metropolitan cities in 1975


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HSEP (cont’d)

  • Random assignment (lottery) of students to schools based on;

    • Minimum level of achievement (local standardized achievement test)

    • Residence (school district)

  • Subsidies to private schools to ensure that each school gets comparable school inputs

    • Teachers, facilities, equipments, textbooks etc.


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Exceptions to HSEP

  • Vocational high schools

    • Students apply for schools regardless of the school district/catchment area

    • Schools administer their own selection process

  • Special purpose HS to meet specific needs

    • Science, arts, foreign language, sports

    • Before HSEP local test, each school administers own selection test

  • Autonomous private high schools (1990s-)

    • No government subsides with limited autonomy in school fees, curriculum, teachers, etc.


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Universalization of High School Education

Number of High Schools by Foundation and GER in High School Level

Source: KEDI (2005), Analysis on the Growth of Korean Education for 60 Years


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RecentPolicy Initiative to wide students’ school choice: Case of Seoul


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Summary

  • Sequential expansion of education opportunity

    • Achieve the universal primary and secondary education within 50 years after the colonial occupation and the Korean War

    • Key role of private schools to provide educational opportunities

  • Automatic progression and HSEP provided an important momentum to private schools to expand

    • However, student’s right to choose school or the other way around was compromised



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Legal Framework of PE

  • Guiding Principles by Private School Act

    • Serve the public, hence are not for profit; and should maintain autonomy

  • Governance

    • Supervised by Provincial Education Office (Primary and Secondary); or by MOE (Tertiary)

  • Governmental norms

    • Establishment, teaching staff, facilities, curriculum, eligibility for entrance and student selection, etc.


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Establishment of Private School

  • Under the regulation of Private School Act

    • ‘School Corporation’ (legal entity) should be set up to establish a private school

    • Should meet the rigorous standard on school facilities, teaching equipment , library, faculty and other inputs


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Teaching Staff

  • Qualification

    • Same qualifications as public school teachers are required by law (Article 52 of PSA)

  • Recruitment and Working condition

    • Each private school hires its own teachers among the qualified pool

    • Various laws and regulations exist to secure an appropriate level of working condition for private school teachers


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Curriculum and Textbooks

  • National curriculum

    • National curriculum is imposed on all secondary schools including private schools

    • Both public and private schools can choose some of elective courses set by the National curriculum

      (as part of decentralization and a SBM initiative)

    • All secondary schools use text books for core subjects that are either published or accredited by the government



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Source of Funding

< Composition of Revenue in Private Secondary Schools (%) >

Source extracted from: MEST (2009), Statistical Yearbook of Education 2009


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Public Funding

  • Direct Subsidies for Private Secondary Schools

    • Since 1970s, private schools receive government subsidies determined by the difference between standard budget requirement and their revenue

  • Funding Flows

    • MOE (block grant since 1991)  Provincial education office (formula funding)  District education office/ Schools


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Other Incentives

  • Tax Incentives

    • Exemption of corporation tax, VAT, property tax and other internal and local tax on schools

    • Reduction of tax rate on the businesses and assets owned by school corporations

  • Students enrolled in private schools are entitled to student loan programmes subsidized by the government



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Lessons learned

  • Supply-driven approach with excessive demand for more & better education

    • Sequential approach to expand educational opportunities

    • Egalitarian philosophy to underpin education policies

  • Importance of policy framework

    • Balance between regulation and incentives


Thank you gj kim@unesco org l.jpg
Thank you![email protected]


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