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1. America: Past and Present Chapter 20 POLITICAL REALIGNMENTS IN THE 1890s

3. The Party Deadlock Post-Civil War Democratic party (keep govt local and small) divides electorate almost evenly with Republicans (nation as a whole) Federal influence wanes, state control rises

4. Experiments in the States State government commissions investigate, regulate railroads, factories Munn v. Illinois (1877) private property affected with public interest must submit to being controlled by public Wabash case (1886) states could not regulate beyond their borders…prompts establishment of Interstate Commerce Commission

5. Reestablishing Presidential Power Presidency hits low under Johnson and Grant Later presidents reassert executive power Hayes ends military Reconstruction Garfield asserts leadership of his party: killed Arthur strengthens navy, civil service reform Cleveland uses veto to curtail federal activities 2/3 of bills presented to him

6. Republicans in Power: the Billion-Dollar Congress 1888--Republicans control both White House and Capitol Hill Democrats attempt to block Republicans by using “disappearing quorum” 1890--Adoption of Reed rules permits enactment of “billion dollar” program

7. Tariffs, Trusts and Silver 1890--McKinley Tariff raises duties to historic high By 1893--1 million Union pensions granted 1890--Sherman Anti-Trust Act regulates big business combinations United States v. E.C. Knight Co.: manufacturing not subject to law 1890--Sherman Silver Purchase Act backs paper money with silver

8. The 1890 Elections Republicans also assert activist government policies on state level Sunday closing laws prohibition mandatory English in public schools 1890--alienated voting blocks turn out Republican legislators

9. The Rise of the Populist Movement Discontented farmers of West and South provide base of support The National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union the result

10. The Farm Problem Worldwide agricultural economy causes great fluctuations in supply and demand Farmers’ complaints lower prices for crops (actual prosperity rising) rising railroad rates (rates actually declining) burdensome mortgages (loans permit improvement) Conditions of farmers vary by region General feeling of depression, resentment

11. The Fast-Growing Farmers' Alliance 1875—Southern Alliance begins Fed up with sharecropping, depleted lands and crop liens 1889—Southern Alliance absorbs Northwestern Alliance Alliance Captures local Democratic parties in South After 1890 Runs its own candidates in North and West

12. The Fast-Growing Farmers' Alliance: Ocala Demands System of government warehouses to hold crops for higher prices Free coinage of silver Low tariffs Federal income tax Direct election of Senators Regulation of railroads

13. The People's Party Southern Alliance splits from Democrats to form Populist party Southern Populists recruit African-Americans, give them influential positions 1892--Populist presidential candidate James Weaver draws over one million votes Alliance wanes after 1892 elections

14. The Crisis of the Depression Economic crisis dominated the 1890s due to expanding too rapidly Railroads overbuilt, companies grew beyond their markets, farms and businesses went deeply in debt

15. The Panic of 1893 February 1893--failure of major railroad sparks panic on New York Stock Exchange Investors sell stock to purchase gold Depleted Treasury shakes confidence May, 1893-1894--market hits record low, business failures displace 3 million workers…1 in 5 unemployed 1894--corn crop fails…cotton price falls

16. Coxey's Army and the Pullman Strike 1894--Jacob Coxey leads “Coxey’s Army” to Washington to demand relief-jobless to work building roads Pullman strikes by Eugene Debs’ American Railway Union close Western railroads President Cleveland suppresses strikes with federal troops

17. The Miners of the Midwest United Mine Workers strike 1894 “Old miners”--English and Irish workers, owners of small family mines (Populist: called for restrictions on immigration) “New miners”--1880s immigrants from southern and eastern Europe (much more violent) Strike pits new miners against old

18. A Beleaguered President Cleveland repeals Sherman Silver Purchase Act to remedy Panic of 1893 Repeal fails to stop depression Repeal makes silver a political issue Democrats renege on promise of lower tariff

19. Breaking the Party Deadlock Election of 1894 reduces Democrats to a sectional southern organization Republicans sweep congressional elections Republicans become majority elsewhere

20. Changing Attitudes Depression of 1893 forces recognition of structural causes of unemployment Americans accept the need for government intervention to help the poor and jobless

21. “Everybody Works but Father” Women and children paid lower wages, displace men during depression Employers retain women and children after depression to hold down costs

22. Changing Themes in Literature Depression encourages “realist” school Mark Twain’s characters speak in dialect William Dean Howells, Stephen Crane portray grim life of the poor Naturalists wrote of a cruel and merciless environment that determined human fate Frank Norris attacks power of big business Theodore Dreiser presents humans as helpless before vast social, economic forces

23. The Presidential Election of 1896 Free coinage of silver the main issue boost the money supply seen as solution to depression New voting patterns emerged and national policy shifted

24. The Mystique of Silver “Free and independent coinage of silver” set ratio of silver to gold at 16:1 U.S. mints coin all silver offered to them U.S. coins silver regardless of other nations’ policies Silverites believe amount in circulation determines level of economic activity A moral crusade for the common people

25. Republicans and Gold Candidate: William McKinley Silverite Republicans defeated on convention floor Promises gold standard to restore prosperity

26. The Democrats and Silver Candidate: William Jennings Bryan Free silver promised in "Cross of Gold" speech Democrats enthusiastic

27. Campaign and Election Populist party endorses Bryan Bryan offers return to rural, religious U.S. McKinley defends urban, industrial society Election is a clear victory for McKinley, utter rout of Populist party

28. The McKinley Administration McKinley takes office at depression’s end An activist president- “modern president” when dealing with Congress and Press Dingley Tariff raises rates to record highs Encouraged government to regulate the effects of industrialism vs. promoting economic growth. 1900--U.S. placed on gold standard 1900--McKinley wins landslide reelection against William Jennings Bryan

29. A Decade’s Dramatic Changes September, 1901--McKinley assassinated Theodore Roosevelt, “that damned cowboy”, becomes president

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