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POLITICAL PARTIES JANDA, 7 TH ED. 2003 Political analysts discount third parties because the structure and dynamics of U.S. politics work strongly for the operation of a two-party system. However, third parties can affect elections, ex. 2000 presidential election.

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POLITICAL PARTIES

JANDA, 7TH ED. 2003


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POLITICAL PARTIES pair of parties in any other democratic government.and their FUNCTIONS

  • Although many people regard political parties with suspicion, parties are an essential component of democratic government.

  • Elections are the primary means through which citizens control their government.

  • Could not have elections without parties.

  • However, citizens remain suspicious and distrustful of parties.


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INTEREST pair of parties in any other democratic government.GROUPS

  • Distinct from parties.

  • Interest groups may support candidates but never sponsor them as their representatives.

  • Influence decisions from the outside


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What is a POLITICAL PARTY? pair of parties in any other democratic government.

  • A POLITICAL PARTYis a an organization that sponsors candidates for political office under the organizations name.

Surrender!


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Both the candidate and the organization acknowledge the same label, and the label conveys significant meaning throughout the electorate.


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Parties perform important functions for the political system label, and the label conveys significant meaning throughout the electorate..

  • They NOMINATE...

  • They STRUCTURE ...

  • They PROPOSE …

  • They Coordinate…


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They SIMPLIFY label, and the label conveys significant meaning throughout the electorate.…


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They SHAPE public opinion label, and the label conveys significant meaning throughout the electorate..

  • Give cues to voters on how to vote.

Fool's

poll


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A HISTORY OF U.S. PARTY POLITICS label, and the label conveys significant meaning throughout the electorate.

  • American political parties have a long and complex history.

  • Parties were not mentioned in the Constitution and did not exist in any recognizable form in the Pre-party period, which lasted through Washington’s first term of office.



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George Washington, in his farewell address, warned the country against formation of political parties.


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Federalists, led by Hamilton, country against formation of political parties.

Demo.- Republicans, led by Jefferson.

FIRST PARTY SYSTEM


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SECOND PARTY SYSTEM Democratic-Republicans had split into factions seeking office within the party.

  • Involved what became the Democratic party and the Whig party.

  • The Democratic party originated in 1828 among southerners and westerners who supported Andrew Jackson.


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1840 Whig Campaign Poster platforms came into use by the early

  • The Whigs were formed in 1834 to oppose President Andrew Jackson who they thought governed like a king.


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  • The Democratic party suffered from public discontent over a financial crisis that occurred in the United States during the late 1830s. As a result, a Whig candidate, William Henry Harrison, won the presidency in 1840.

  • During Harrison’s campaign for president, the Whig party’s platform focused on restoring financial stability to the country, principally through the establishment of a national bank and a protective tariff on manufactured goods.


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The Present Party System: Democrats and Republicans financial crisis that occurred in the United States during the late 1830s. As a result, a Whig candidate, William Henry Harrison, won the presidency in 1840.

  • By the 1850s the Whigs were divided into several wings and the Democrats were split between northern and southern wings. The present party system, featuring the Democratic and Republican parties, developed in the late 1850s.

  • The Whigs split over the issues of slavery and sectionalism and failed to offer a candidate in the presidential election of 1856.


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  • In 1854 a new party – the Republicans – emerged. financial crisis that occurred in the United States during the late 1830s. As a result, a Whig candidate, William Henry Harrison, won the presidency in 1840.

  • The Republican party was formed in opposition to slavery.

  • The leader of this new party was Abraham Lincoln, who was elected president in 1860.


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Cleveland was elected president again in 1892, but after that the Republicans controlled the presidency until 1912 . However, in the 1880s and 1890s new political factions emerged.

The largest of these factions was the Populist party with its firebrand orator William Jennings Bryan. In 1896 the Democrats nominated Bryan as their presidential candidate.


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under the Progressive or Bull Moose party label but lost. that the Republicans controlled the presidency until 1912 . However, in the 1880s and 1890s new political factions emerged.

Shortly after the turn of the century Republican Theodore Roosevelt was elected president from 1901 to 1909. After sitting out from 1909 to 1912 Roosevelt ran again as a third party candidate


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The Republican split of 1912 allowed a Democrat, Woodrow Wilson, to be elected president. He served two terms until 1920. Under Wilson America fought in World War I.


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Wilson was followed in the presidency by two more Republicans, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover. During Hoover's presidency America suffered a major stock market crash. This helped Democrat Franklin Roosevelt to win in 1932.


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FDR was elected for an unprecedented four times to the presidency. He died shortly after the beginning of his fourth term. Vice president Harry Truman replaced him. It was Truman who approved use of the atomic bomb against Japan.


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Truman was elected on his own as president in 1948 even though white Southern Democrats opposed him. In 1952 he was followed by former Army general Ike Eisenhower.


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Eisenhower served two terms as president. In 1960 his vice president, Richard Nixon, and Massachusetts Senator Jack Kennedy were the party nominees. Kennedy narrowly won the election.


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On November 22, 1963, JFK was assassinated in Dallas, TX. His successor was Lyndon B. Johnson, a Texan and long time Washington politician, having served in both houses of Congress.


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Nixon was reelected in 1972 but resigned from office in August 1974 to avoid possible impeachment. His successor was Gerald Ford, who lost the bid for election in 1976 to Jimmy Carter.


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President Carter had difficulty winning broad public support for his leadership. The Iranian hostage situation drained his efforts. He sought re-election but was defeated by Ronald Reagan.


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His vice president, George Bush, succeeded him in office. support for his leadership. The Iranian hostage situation drained his efforts. He sought re-election but was defeated by Ronald Reagan.

President Reagan promised to reduce the size of government. He took a hard line position at first toward Russia. In the end he failed to reduce government expenditures but did see Communism begin to crumble.


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President Bush won high public approval ratings for the defeat of Iraq in Desert Storm but economic stalemate in the United States ultimately weakened his pubic support . He sought re-election but was defeated by Bill Clinton.


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Clinton and his wife Hillary have both been under attack during his first and early second administration on numerous grounds. Yet he was re-elected in 1996 and had a good public approval rating.


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  • Three million popular votes to Republican George W. Bush’s 47.9%.CRITICAL ELECTIONS and ELECTORAL REALIGNMENT--have marked the present party system.

  • In the election of 1860, the Republican party was dominant in the North, the Democrats in the South; and the parties alternated in control of Congress through 1894.


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The American Two-party System Delano Roosevelt, forged a new national majority out of urban workers, middle-class liberals, European immigrants, and southerners

  • Not just two parties, in fact there have been many minor parties in American history.

  • Four types of minor parties.

    • Bolter.

    • Farmer-labor.

    • Ideological protest.

    • Single-issue.


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  • BOLTER, TRANSIENT, or PROTEST. Delano Roosevelt, forged a new national majority out of urban workers, middle-class liberals, European immigrants, and southerners

    • Parties formed by factions that split from one of the major parties.

    • Progressives-1912; Dixiecrats -1948; George Wallace’s American Independent Party.


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represented people who felt that the working class was not getting its share of society's wealth.

Minnesota Farmer-Laborites; The Grange - 1880s; Populist Party - 1890s

Farmer-laborer parties


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Gift for the Grangers getting its share of society's wealth.

  • The Granger movement, led by a coalition of farmers, fought to improve the status of farmers and opposed the railroads' shipping and land use practices.


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The movement was successful in getting a number of states to pass laws regulating railroads. These laws, known as Granger laws, were challenged in court, but a number of them were upheld by the Supreme Court.


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Ideological Protest pass laws regulating railroads. These laws, known as Granger laws, were challenged in court, but a number of them were upheld by the Supreme Court.

  • Parties formed to promote a particular doctrine or attack the established system.

  • Socialists, Libertarians, etc.


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SINGLE-ISSUE pass laws regulating railroads. These laws, known as Granger laws, were challenged in court, but a number of them were upheld by the Supreme Court.

  • Single issue parties were formed to promote one principle rather than a general philosophy of government.


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Not very successful, but can have an impact on the major parties.

Green Party’s Ralph Nader in 2000

Act as Safety Valves.


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Characteristics of American Parties parties.

  • Major Parties.

    • Broad electoral base.

    • Election oriented, not issue-oriented.

    • Decentralized.


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  • Broad Electoral Base parties.

    • Encourages resolution of conflicts.

    • Blurs issues.

    • Moderates positions on issues; weeds out extremists.

    • Encourages a pragmatic flexibility


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  • Decentralized parties.

    • No such thing as a national party.

    • Only loose coalitions of state parties that get together every four years to nominate a candidate for president.

    • Decentralization of political power is the most important single characteristic of the major American political party.


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Characteristics of Minor Parties parties.

  • Small electoral base.

  • Issue-oriented.



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  • Electoral College System power in the United states for more than 125 years.

    • The importance of the presidency causes diverse groups across the nation to coalesce into the SAME two parties within each state.

  • Historical claim on voter loyalty


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The Federal Basis of the Party System power in the United states for more than 125 years.

  • PARTY IDENTIFICATION; POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION

  • Parties retain their strength in local areas because of the importance and durability of party identification.


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  • Voting is a behavior. power in the United states for more than 125 years.

  • Identification is a state of mind.


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Three significant points stand out from studies of party identification over time.

The number of Republicans and Democrats far exceeds the Independents in every year.

The number of Democrats consistently exceeds that of Republicans.

The number of Democrats has shrunk over time, to the benefit of both Republicans and Independents, and the three groups are now almost equal in size.


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Differences in Party Ideology, Figure 8.6 minorities, Jews, and Catholics to the Democratic party.

  • Contrary to what many people believe, the Democrats and Republicans differ considerably in political ideology.

  • The difference can be seen in the way voters and activists of both parties classify themselves on a liberal-conservative continuum.


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  • Another way to see ideological differences than Democratic identifiers.between the parties is to analyze their party platforms.

  • The 2000 Republican platform stressed issues of morality, but was much more moderate than the 1996 platform.

  • The 2000 Democratic platform stressed equality.


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  • More votes in Congress are being cast along party lines. than Democratic identifiers.

  • Still, Americans are more likely to call themselves “independent” which suggests that though the parties as organizations are enjoying a period of resurgence, fewer Americans are developing the strong party identifications necessary to insure their continued health.


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NATIONAL PARTY ORGANIZATION than Democratic identifiers.

  • American political parties are decentralized and loosely organized.

  • Party structure is a system of layers of organization.

  • Each successive layer-county or city, state, national-has an independent concern about elections in its geographical jurisdiction.


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State Party than Democratic identifiers.

Organizations

State Party

Organizations

State Party

Organizations

National Party

Organization

District Party

Organizations

District Party

Organizations

Local Party

Organizations

Local Party

Organizations


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The National Party Convention than Democratic identifiers.

  • Meets every four years

  • Adopts a national party platform

  • Nominates presidential and vice presidential candidates

  • Elects new national party chairperson (on recommendation of the presidential nominee)


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The national convention formally "elects" the members of the national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.


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Methods for Selection of National Committee Members national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.

  • By state party convention

  • By the state delegation to the national convention

  • By state committees, or

  • By primary elections


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Democratic National Committee national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.

  • One man/one woman from each state, D.C., Puerto Rico, other territories, 200 other members selected by formula and 65 at-large.

  • Includes Congressmen, Governors, mayors, county officials, youth and women.

  • 434 total.


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REPUBLICAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.

  • All state party chairmen, one man/one woman from each state, D.C., and the territories.

  • 165 total


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Congressional Party Organizations national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.

  • Both parties have internal commit-tees or caucuses for nominating or electing their respective chamber and party leaders.

  • In addition each party in each house has a campaign committee for raising and distributing campaign funds to candidates from their party.


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PRINCIPLES of RESPONSIBLE PARTY GOVERNMENT. national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.

  • Parties should present clear and coherent programs to voters.

  • Voters should choose candidates according to the party programs.

  • The winning party should carry out its program once it is in office.

  • Voters should hold the governing party responsible at the next election for executing its program.


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Texas’ Party Structure national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.

  • Temporary Organizations

    • Precinct conventions

    • County conventions

    • State conventions


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Precinct Conventions national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.

  • To attend, all you need to do is vote in your party’s primary earlier in the day.

  • Most important function is to elect delegates to the county or senatorial district convention.

  • May also adopt resolutions.


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County/Senatorial Conventions national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.

  • Select delegates to the state convention.

  • Adopt resolutions to be presented to the state convention


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State Convention national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.

  • Elect state party officers.

  • Elect 62 members of the State Executive Committee.

  • Adopt a party platform.

  • Certify primary election results to the Secretary of State.


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State Convention in Presidential Election Years national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.

  • Elect nominees to the national committee of the party.

  • Select Texas’ 32 presidential electors.

  • Elect delegates to the national party convention.


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  • Permanent Organizations national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.

    • Precinct chairman

    • County chair/County executive committee

    • State executive committee


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Precinct Chairman national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.

  • Elected in the primary for a 2 year term.

  • Party organizer in the precinct.

  • Arranges and serves as the temporary chair of the precinct convention.


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County Chairman and County Executive Committee. national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.

  • County chair elected in primary for a 2 year term.

  • Presides over the County Executive Committee.

  • Together, they administer the primary election on a county basis.


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State Executive Committee national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.

  • State chair chosen for 2 year term at state convention.

  • Determine the site for the next convention.

  • Canvass the primary returns.


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