POLITICAL PARTIES JANDA, 7 TH ED. 2003 Political analysts discount third parties because the structure and dynamics of U.S. politics work strongly for the operation of a two-party system. However, third parties can affect elections, ex. 2000 presidential election.
JANDA, 7TH ED. 2003
What is a POLITICAL PARTY?
Both the candidate and the organization acknowledge the same label, and the label conveys significant meaning throughout the electorate.
George Washington, in his farewell address, warned the country against formation of political parties.
Federalists, led by Hamilton,
Demo.- Republicans, led by Jefferson.
Cleveland was elected president again in 1892, but after that the Republicans controlled the presidency until 1912 . However, in the 1880s and 1890s new political factions emerged.
The largest of these factions was the Populist party with its firebrand orator William Jennings Bryan. In 1896 the Democrats nominated Bryan as their presidential candidate.
under the Progressive or Bull Moose party label but lost.
Shortly after the turn of the century Republican Theodore Roosevelt was elected president from 1901 to 1909. After sitting out from 1909 to 1912 Roosevelt ran again as a third party candidate
The Republican split of 1912 allowed a Democrat, Woodrow Wilson, to be elected president. He served two terms until 1920. Under Wilson America fought in World War I.
Wilson was followed in the presidency by two more Republicans, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover. During Hoover's presidency America suffered a major stock market crash. This helped Democrat Franklin Roosevelt to win in 1932.
FDR was elected for an unprecedented four times to the presidency. He died shortly after the beginning of his fourth term. Vice president Harry Truman replaced him. It was Truman who approved use of the atomic bomb against Japan.
Truman was elected on his own as president in 1948 even though white Southern Democrats opposed him. In 1952 he was followed by former Army general Ike Eisenhower.
Eisenhower served two terms as president. In 1960 his vice president, Richard Nixon, and Massachusetts Senator Jack Kennedy were the party nominees. Kennedy narrowly won the election.
On November 22, 1963, JFK was assassinated in Dallas, TX. His successor was Lyndon B. Johnson, a Texan and long time Washington politician, having served in both houses of Congress.
Nixon was reelected in 1972 but resigned from office in August 1974 to avoid possible impeachment. His successor was Gerald Ford, who lost the bid for election in 1976 to Jimmy Carter.
President Carter had difficulty winning broad public support for his leadership. The Iranian hostage situation drained his efforts. He sought re-election but was defeated by Ronald Reagan.
His vice president, George Bush, succeeded him in office.
President Reagan promised to reduce the size of government. He took a hard line position at first toward Russia. In the end he failed to reduce government expenditures but did see Communism begin to crumble.
President Bush won high public approval ratings for the defeat of Iraq in Desert Storm but economic stalemate in the United States ultimately weakened his pubic support . He sought re-election but was defeated by Bill Clinton.
Clinton and his wife Hillary have both been under attack during his first and early second administration on numerous grounds. Yet he was re-elected in 1996 and had a good public approval rating.
represented people who felt that the working class was not getting its share of society's wealth.
Minnesota Farmer-Laborites; The Grange - 1880s; Populist Party - 1890s
The movement was successful in getting a number of states to pass laws regulating railroads. These laws, known as Granger laws, were challenged in court, but a number of them were upheld by the Supreme Court.
Not very successful, but can have an impact on the major parties.
Green Party’s Ralph Nader in 2000
Act as Safety Valves.
Three significant points stand out from studies of party identification over time.
The number of Republicans and Democrats far exceeds the Independents in every year.
The number of Democrats consistently exceeds that of Republicans.
The number of Democrats has shrunk over time, to the benefit of both Republicans and Independents, and the three groups are now almost equal in size.
The national convention formally "elects" the members of the national committee, but in fact it simply ratifies the choices of each state.