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David K. N. Leong*, Ph.D., P.Eng., CIH, ROH, C. Chem. Provincial Hygienist, Ontario Ministry of Labour 505 University Avenue, 20 th Floor

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Ontario Ministry of Labour’s Occupational Hygiene Initiatives, Strategies and Programs Fall Symposium, Occupational Hygiene Association of Ontario (Toronto, Ontario). David K. N. Leong*, Ph.D., P.Eng., CIH, ROH, C. Chem. Provincial Hygienist, Ontario Ministry of Labour

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Ontario Ministry of Labour’s Occupational Hygiene Initiatives, Strategies and ProgramsFall Symposium, Occupational Hygiene Association of Ontario (Toronto, Ontario)

David K. N. Leong*, Ph.D., P.Eng., CIH, ROH, C. Chem.

Provincial Hygienist, Ontario Ministry of Labour

505 University Avenue, 20th Floor

Toronto, Ontario M7A 1T7

Tel: (416) 326-1431; Fax: (416) 326-7761

*Chair, ACGIH Air Sampling Instruments Committee

presentation
Presentation
  • Key MOL Occupational Hygiene Initiatives
  • Regulation Updates
  • Enforcement Strategies
  • Targeted Substances
  • GHS Implementation
key mol occupational hygiene initiatives
Key MOL Occupational Hygiene Initiatives

Increased Occupational Hygiene Interventions in workplaces through:

  • Regulation Development/amendments
  • Enforcement of Regulations, Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs), and Federal/Provincial WHMIS Legislation
  • Inspections and Investigations
key mol occupational hygiene initiatives cont d
Key MOL Occupational Hygiene Initiatives (Cont’d)
  • Industrywide Air Quality Surveys
  • Supporting other MOL initiatives
  • Collaborating with Federal, Provincial and Territorial agencies on GHS implementation
  • Participation in consensus standards development
goals for mol occupational hygiene initiatives
Goals for MOL Occupational Hygiene Initiatives
  • Identification and assessment of risk factors contributing to occupational diseases and illnesses
  • Compliance with regulation requirements and OELs
  • Better protection of workers from the risks of exposures to hazardous substances and noise
  • Prevention of occupational diseases and illnesses through collaboration with Ontario Health and Safety System partners
key revisions and new requirements for noise in amended regulations
Key Revisions and New Requirements for Noise in Amended Regulations
  • Noise requirements amended in Regulations 851 for Industrial Establishments (Section 139) and Regulation 855 for Oil and Gas-Offshore (Section 41)
  • Amendments effective July 1, 2007
  • Revised noise limit expressed as “equivalent sound pressure level”
  • No exposure greater than equivalent sound pressure level of 85 dBA over 8-hour shift, based on 3 dB exchange rate
key revisions and new requirements for noise cont d
Key Revisions and New Requirements for Noise … (Cont’d)
  • All reasonably necessary protective measures to be taken
  • Posting warning signs at every approach to work area where sound level regularly exceeds 85 dBA
  • Ministry’s Guideline released on May 29, 2007
  • Duty for employer in other sectors to take every reasonable precaution to protect workers from noise hazard under section 25(2)(h) of OHSA
  • Noise prevention guideline being drafted by OSHCO working group
oel development revisions updates
OEL Development, Revisions & Updates
  • Permanent process followed for adopting revised and new OELs in Regulation 833 and DSRs
  • Proposals based on adopted ACGIH TLVs announced annually since 2004
  • Regulation 833 and DSRs amended following consultation period and Ministry’s decision
oels development revisions updates cont d
OELs Development, Revisions & Updates (Cont’d)
  • Latest proposal announced on July 23, 2007 including:
    • Proposed OELs for 6 new substances
    • Proposed revised OELs for 13 substances
    • Proposed withdrawals of OELs for 2 substances
  • Stakeholders’ comments to be submitted by September 28, 2007
oels development revisions updates cont d1
OELs Development, Revisions & Updates (Cont’d)
  • Stakeholders encouraged to nominate substance without TLV for OEL development, and include proposed OEL and supporting documentation
  • OEL revisions made in 1994, 2000, 2005 and 2007
  • Revised and new OELs for 349 substances adopted in regulations since 1994
particulate size selective oels criteria and sampling
Particulate Size-Selective OELs, Criteria and Sampling
  • OELs set on specific size range of particulates and aerosols
    • Inhalable
    • Thoracic
    • Respirable
  • Internationally harmonized size-selective criteria adopted for setting OELs
  • Same criteria to be met by size-selective devices used for sampling specific size range
size selective devices for thoracic particulate sampling
Size-Selective Devices for Thoracic Particulate Sampling
  • 50% cut-point of 10 microns and matching the thoracic size criteria
  • BGI Thoracic Cyclone, GK 2.69, referenced in NIOSH Method 5524 for sampling of metalworking fluid
  • Flowrate set at 1.6 Lpm when using BGI G2.69 Cyclone for sampling thoracic particulate
size selective devices for thoracic particulate sampling cont d
Size-Selective Devices for Thoracic Particulate Sampling (Cont’d)
  • Stainless steel model available for sulphuric acid sampling
  • BGI G2.69 Cyclone used for respirable particulate sampling at 4.2 Lpm
  • SKC Parallel Particle Impactor also available for thoracic particulate sampling at 2 L/min.
size selective devices for respirable particulate sampling
Size-Selective Devices for Respirable Particulate Sampling
  • 50% cut-point of 4 microns and matching the respirable size criteria
  • Various types of cyclones and flow rates specified in NIOSH Method 0600:
    • MSA 10 mm Dorr-Oliver Nylon Cyclone, 1.7 L/min
    • BGI Higgins-Dewell (HD) Cyclone, 2.2 L/min
    • SKC Aluminum Cyclone, 2.5 L/min
  • Other cyclones are commercially available
  • Advantages for using cyclone operating at higher flow rate
size selective devices for inhalable particulate sampling
Size-Selective Devices for Inhalable Particulate Sampling
  • 50% cut-point of 100 microns and matching the inhalable size criteria
  • Various types of inhalable particulate samplers and flow rates specified in HSE Method MDHS 14/3:
    • IOM Sampler, 2 L/min
    • Multi-orifice (or 7-hole) sampler, 2 L/min
    • Conical Inhalable Sampler (CIS), 3.5 L/min
size selective devices for inhalable particulate sampling cont d
Size-Selective Devices for Inhalable Particulate Sampling (Cont’d)
  • IOM samplers available from SKC:
    • Plastic Model
    • Stainless Steel Model
  • SKC Button Aerosol Sampler, operating at 4 L/min with porous curved-surface sampling head
particulate size selective sampling for three size ranges
Particulate Size-Selective Sampling for Three Size Ranges
  • All three sizes of particulate can be determined simultaneously by a TSI Respicon Particle Sampler, operating at 3.11 L/min
  • Direct-reading instrument such as SKC HAZ-Dust IV Aerosol Monitor for measuring the concentrations of inhalable, thoracic or respirable particulate individually.
inhalable vs total particulate
Inhalable vs “Total” Particulate
  • “Total” particulate referred to particulate sampled onto 37 mm filter loaded into cassette
  • Inhalable and “total” particulate concentrations about the same for smoke, fumes, and fine particles
  • Inhalable particulate concentrations usually greater by 1.2 to >3 times than “total” particulate concentrations for larger particles
  • “Total” referred to total analysis by gravimetric method, nothing to do with particle size
key requirements for compliance in regulation 833
Key Requirements for Compliance in Regulation 833
  • All reasonable measures to be taken to protect workers from exposure to hazardous chemical or biological agent (section 3(1) & (2))
  • OELs not to be exceeded in the exposure of workers (Section 4)
key requirements for compliance in designated substance regulations
Key Requirements for Compliance in Designated Substance Regulations
  • All necessary measures to be taken to ensure compliance with OELs
  • Written assessment of the exposure, or likelihood of exposure
  • Development and implementation of control program
  • Following fully validated standard methods or Measurement Codes for determining the concentrations of designated substance in air
key requirements for compliance in designated substance cont d
Key Requirements for Compliance in Designated Substance … (Cont’d)
  • Standard methods refer to those methods published by agencies such as NIOSH, OSHA, HSE, ASTM or ISO
  • Following Respirator Code or NIOSH Respirator Selection Logic 2004 for respirator selection and other guidance, where respiratory protection is allowed
diffusive samplers
Diffusive Samplers
  • Performance standards available in:
    • ANSI/ISE 104-1998 (R2000), workplace
    • ASTM D6246-02, workplace
    • EN 838:1995, workplace
    • EN 14412:2004, IAQ
    • ISO 16107:1999, workplace
    • EN 13528-1:2002, EN 13528-2:2002 & EN 13528-3:2003, Ambient Air
  • OSHA & NIOSH protocols available for laboratory evaluation and testing
diffusive samplers cont d
Diffusive Samplers (Cont’d)
  • Sampling rate variation (SRV) determined by OSHA for each brand and type of commercially available sampler
  • SRVs used to calculate the sampling and analytical errors (SAEs) in OSHA validated methods
  • Use of diffusive samplers included in fully validated standard methods for some substances
diffusive samplers cont d1
Diffusive Samplers (Cont’d)
  • Manufacturers’ validation reports also available
  • AIHA diffusive sampler PAT programs available
  • Advantages in using diffusive samplers for full-shift TWA sampling and IAQ investigations
  • Increased use of diffusive samplers and better acceptance by government agencies will help make gas and vapour sampling a more common practice in workplaces
role of ministry s field hygienists
Role of Ministry’s Field Hygienists
  • Responsible for occupational hygiene interventions in workplaces; identifying evaluating and assessing exposures
  • Enforcement of DSRs, Regulation 278/05 for asbestos in construction, regulations for confined space, Reg. 833/90, Noise, WHMIS Legislation (both Federal and Provincial) and Sector Regulations
role of ministry s field hygienists cont d
Role of Ministry’s Field Hygienists (Cont’d)
  • Issuance of Orders for compliance
  • Investigations of events and referrals of federal WHMIS issues from other provinces and territories
  • Targeting substances and related work operations for inspections and industrywide air quality surveys to enforce OELs
  • Communicating the hazards, risks and exposure potentials to workplace parties
hazardous substances enforcement strategy
Hazardous Substances Enforcement Strategy
  • DSRs, Regulation 833/90 and WHMIS Regulation 860 are enforced all together when inspecting a workplace where hazardous chemicals are used, handled or stored
  • Compliance with the federal WHMIS legislation will also be enforced when the WHMIS issues are related to importers, suppliers and distributors
hazardous substances enforcement strategy cont d
Hazardous Substances Enforcement Strategy (Cont’d)
  • Inspections and industrywide air quality surveys will continue to focus on substances with:
    • New and revised OELs in effect as of September 30, 2000
    • Potentials as occupational carcinogens, reproductive toxins or sensitizers, or
    • Newly recognized health effects
hazardous substances enforcement strategy cont d1
Hazardous Substances Enforcement Strategy (Cont’d)
  • Orders may be issued for:
    • Conducting re-assessment of the risks of exposures to designated substance(s)
    • Upgrading control programs related to designated substance(s)
    • Updating or upgrading labels, MSDSs and training to meet WHMIS requirements
hazardous substances enforcement strategy cont d2
Hazardous Substances Enforcement Strategy (Cont’d)
  • Submitting compliance plan(s) for meeting Regulation 833/90 requirements, and/or
  • Testing if quick fixes are not possible and the risks are unknown
noise enforcement strategy
Noise Enforcement Strategy
  • Noise-generated processes, operations, devices and tools, control measures, work practices will be inspected and the available noise data will be reviewed
  • Focusing on industrial workplaces in the following sectors:
    • Automotive
    • Chemical, Rubber and Plastics
    • Industrial Services
    • Primary Metals
    • Textile and Printing, or
    • Wood and Metal Fabrication
noise enforcement strategy cont d
Noise Enforcement Strategy (Cont’d)
  • Noise assessment will be carried out with integrating SLM and employer may be ordered to comply with the revised noise exposure limit
  • In workplaces where workers are exposed to both noise and ototoxic chemicals
    • Employers and workers will be informed of the higher risk of hearing loss
    • Employers will be advised to take additional precautionary measures to protect their workers from exposures to both noise and ototoxic chemicals
examples of substances targeted for inspections industrywide air quality surveys
Examples of Substances Targeted for Inspections & Industrywide Air Quality Surveys
  • Respirable silica in granite and marble shops
  • Manganese and other metals (chromium, nickel, cadmium, etc.) in welding operations
  • 1, 3, 5-Triglycidyl-s-triazinetrione or Triglycidyl Isocyanurate (TGIC) in the use of powder coating paints
  • Wood dust in woodworking shops
examples of substances targeted for inspections industrywide air quality surveys cont d
Examples of Substances Targeted for Inspections & Industrywide Air Quality Surveys (Cont’d)
  • Methylene chloride in furniture refinishing
  • Metalworking fluids in machining and metal-finishing operations
  • Toluene and other volatile organics in solvents used across various industries
  • Formaldehyde and Glutaraldehyde in health care facilities
examples of substances targeted for inspections industrywide air quality surveys cont d1
Examples of Substances Targeted for Inspections & Industrywide Air Quality Surveys (Cont’d)
  • Hexavalent Chromium in plating operations
  • Styrene in plastic manufacturing, boat building facilities, and fibreglass lay-up shops
  • Isocyanates in polyurethane production facilities and automotive spray painting
effectiveness of mol interventions through industrywide air quality surveys
Effectiveness of MOL Interventions Through Industrywide Air Quality Surveys
  • Silica Exposures in Granite Shop
  • MWF Exposures in Tool-Machining Shop
  • Synthetic Graphite Exposures in Graphite Powder Production Facility
silica exposures in granite shop
Silica Exposures in Granite Shop
  • Survey on Feb. 14, 2006
  • 0.06 to 0.39 mg/m3 for resprirable quartz (3 of 4 samples above 0.1 mg/m3)
  • ND to 0.08 mg/m3 for respirable cristobolite, 2 samples above 0.05 mg/m3
  • Orders issued for exposure reduction and interim PPE
  • Control measures implemented included:
    • Wet cutting
    • Dry grinding minimized
    • Rotating Dusty Assignments
silica exposures in granite shop cont d
Silica Exposures in Granite Shop (Cont’d)
  • Follow-up survey on July 26, 2007
  • 0.01 to 0.06 mg/m3 for respirable quartz
  • ND to 0.03 mg/m3 for respirable cristobalite
mwf exposures in tool machining shop
MWF Exposures in Tool-Machining Shop
  • Survey conducted on Feb. 9, 2006
  • 0.5 to 1.4 mg/m3 for MWF
  • 7 of 8 samples above 0.5 mg/m3
  • Orders issued for exposure reduction and interim PPE
  • Control measures implemented included
    • Minimizing compressed air cleaning
    • Upgrading work practices
  • Follow-up survey on November 14, 2006
  • 0.2 to 0.6 mg/m3
  • 2 of 8 samples above 0.5 mg/m3
synthetic graphite exposures in graphite powder production facility
Synthetic Graphite Exposures in Graphite Powder Production Facility
  • Survey on March 4, 2004
  • 1.2 to 5.0 mg/m3 for personal exposures (1 of 3 samples above 2 mg/m3)
  • 0.44 to 0.91 mg/m3 for area sampling results (3 samples)
  • Orders issued for reducing exposure of powder production operator
  • Control measures implemented included
    • Repairing dust collection system
    • Eliminating small package bagging
    • Upgraded housekeeping
synthetic graphite exposures in graphite powder productivity facility cont d
Synthetic Graphite Exposures in Graphite Powder Productivity Facility (Cont’d)
  • Follow-up survey on Aug. 1, 2006
  • Personal exposure reduced to 0.22 mg/m3
  • 0.18 to 0.22 mg/m3 for area sampling results (5 samples)
globally harmonized system ghs of classification and labeling of chemicals
Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals
  • GHS is the internationally harmonized system for defining and classifying hazards, and communicating information of hazards on labels and safety data sheets consistently, lessening the barriers to trade
  • Endorsed at UN Meeting in 2002 for implementation in each nation by a date suggested to be no later than December 31, 2008
globally harmonized system ghs of classification and labeling of chemicals cont d
Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (Cont’d)
  • GHS classification criteria
    • Health and Environmental Hazards
    • Physical Hazards
  • Canada is working towards GHS implementation for:

Health Canada

    • Workplace Chemicals (WHMIS)
    • Consumer Chemical Products
    • Pest Control Products

Transport Canada

    • Transportation of Dangerous Goods
objectives of ghs implementation in canada
Objectives of GHS Implementation in Canada
  • Harmonization to the greatest extent possible between the sectors
  • Harmonization to the greatest extent possible among the NAFTA countries
status of ghs implementation in canada
Status of GHS Implementation in Canada

Situation analysis completed in August 2003

  • Comparing classification criteria in existing systems with GHS
  • Identifying implementation issues for discussion

Multi-Stakeholder working groups established

  • Sectoral working groups, including the WHMIS Current Issues Committee (CIC)
  • Ad hoc expert groups on
    • Environmental Hazard Classification/Labeling
    • Chronic Hazards for Consumer Chemicals
  • GHS General Issues Committee (GIC)
status of ghs implementation in canada cont d
Status of GHS Implementation in Canada (Cont’d)
  • Interim recommendations in each sector being developed through technical consultations with sectoral working group, and possibly re-visited for harmonization among NAFTA countries
next steps regarding ghs implementation in canada
Next Steps Regarding GHS Implementation in Canada
  • Consultation on Implementation Phase-in Options
  • Consultation with Trading Partners
  • Economic Analysis
  • Development of Final Recommendations for
    • Decision Making (Minister of Health)
    • Drafting Regulations
  • Federal Regulatory Process
  • Phasing in Implementation
ghs impacts on whmis
GHS Impacts on WHMIS
  • Changes to WHMIS classification criteria
  • Changes to label elements:
    • Hazard symbols
    • Signal words
    • Hazard statements
    • WHMIS hatched border
  • Changes to MSDSs
    • From 9 to 16 headings
ghs whmis harmonization process
GHS/WHMIS Harmonization Process
  • Health Canada (HC)
    • Harmonization of Federal WHMIS legislation (HPA/CPR, IDL, HMIRC, HMIRR) with GHS
  • Canadian Association of Administrators of Labour Legislation (CAALL)
    • Harmonization of Canada Labour Code and provincial/territorial WHMIS regulations with GHS
ghs federal whmis harmonization
GHS/Federal WHMIS Harmonization
  • Multi-Stakeholder WHMIS Working Group established
  • Proposed recommendations discussed and approved at Multi-Stakeholder CIC Meeting
caall ghs whmis harmonization initiatives
CAALL GHS/WHMIS Harmonization Initiatives
  • Initiatives approved by CAALL in September 2005, and by the Ministers responsible for Labour in March 2006
  • Focusing on amendments to Model OSH, the basis for employers’ provisions under WHMIS in federal, provincial and territorial WHMIS regulations
caall ghs whmis harmonization initiatives cont d
CAALL GHS/WHMIS Harmonization Initiatives (Cont’d)
  • Model OSH amendments required to:
    • Harmonize with GHS
    • Improve the provisions after 20 years of enforcement
  • Report from Model OSH Drafting Group completed in November 2006
  • Proposed amendments to Model OSH discussed at WHMIS Model OSH Ad Hoc Committee Meetings in January and March, 2007
caall ghs whmis harmonization initiatives cont d1
CAALL GHS/WHMIS Harmonization Initiatives (Cont’d)
  • Finalized recommendations for proposed amendments transmitted to Steering Committee for approval
  • Consultations with national stakeholders during April to June 2007
  • Stakeholders’ comments to be analyzed and discussed by Ad Hoc Committee
caall ghs whmis harmonization initiatives cont d2
CAALL GHS/WHMIS Harmonization Initiatives (Cont’d)
  • Final report and recommendations presented at next CAALL Annual Meeting for approval by Deputy Ministers
  • Report and recommendations to be presented to next meeting of Ministers of Labour
ghs implementation in ontario
GHS Implementation in Ontario
  • Following the amendments to federal WHMIS legislation
  • Consultations on Model OSH amendments with Ontario stakeholders
  • Model OSH amendments and feedback from consultations will be used as the basis for drafting proposed amendments to Regulation 860
  • Consequential amendments to OHSA for reflecting changes in nomenclature
  • Regulatory process to be followed
outlook
Outlook
  • Commitment from all to increased workplace occupational hygiene interventions
  • Commitment to advance professional practices with science and technology
  • Enforcement strategies will continue to guide the Ministry in the targeting of substances and noise and related work operations for inspections and industrywide air quality surveys
outlook cont d
Outlook (Cont’d)
  • More OELs will be based on the particulate size-selective criteria
  • There will be increased use of diffusive samplers in workplaces
  • As OELs become progressively more protective, exposure monitoring will be an increasingly important part of exposure assessment
outlook cont d1
Outlook (Cont’d)
  • Continued development of simple and cost-effective sampling equipment requiring less technical skills for operation will help make exposure monitoring a more common practice in workplaces
  • All agencies will have to work together to implement GHS in Canada, provinces and territories
acgih air sampling instruments committee
ACGIH Air Sampling Instruments Committee
  • To report on availability, efficiency, use and limitations of existing new sampling technology and instrumentation
  • “Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants”, 1st to 9th editions (1960 to 2001)
acgih air sampling instruments committee cont d
ACGIH Air Sampling Instruments Committee (Cont’d)
  • New publication being developed, “Air Sampling Technologies: Principles and Applications”
  • Chapters of Interest
    • Nanoparticle and Ultrafine Aerosol Measurements
    • Sampling for CBRNE during Emergency Response to Mass Destructive Attacks, Terrorism and Chemical Disasters
acgih air sampling instruments committee cont d1
ACGIH Air Sampling Instruments Committee (Cont’d)
  • Size-Selective Particulate Sampling
  • Field Portable Measurements of Airborne Metal Particulates
  • Performance Standards and Criteria for Air Sampling Instruments
  • Indoor Air Quality
  • Air Sampling and Program Development for Occupational Hygiene Interventions in Developing Countries
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