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Nature of Science Dr. Charles Ophardt EDU 370 Nature of Science Interconnected and validated ideas Successive generations have increasing comprehensive understandings Specific and particular ways of thinking - observing, experimenting, and validating Different from other modes of knowing.

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NatureofScience

Dr. Charles Ophardt

EDU 370


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Nature of Science

  • Interconnected and validated ideas

  • Successive generations have increasing comprehensive understandings

  • Specific and particular ways of thinking - observing, experimenting, and validating

  • Different from other modes of knowing.


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Scientific World View

  • Basic beliefs and attitudes about the nature of the world and what can be learned from it.

  • World is Understandable

  • Things and events are consistant patterns that are comprehensible

  • Careful and systematic study


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Scientific World View II

  • Scientific Ideas are Subject to Change

  • Science is a process of producing knowledge through observations

  • Invent theories to make sense of observations

  • New observations make changing theories inevitable

  • Can only produce "possible" to "highly probable" explanations for natural phenomena; these are never certainties.


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Scientific World View III

  • Scientific Knowledge is Durable

  • Absolute truth attainment rejected

  • Knowledge, ideas, theories are modified

  • Theories become more precise and widely accepted


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Scientific World View IV

  • Science Cannot Answer All Questions

  • Beliefs can not be proven or disproven

  • Cannot settle questions of “good or evil”

  • Must be able to control variables and carry out experiments.


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Scientific Inquiry

  • Science disciplines united in reliance on observation, evidence, hypothesis, theories, logic

  • Science Demands Evidence

  • Observations, measurements, accurate data

  • Use own senses or instruments

  • Probe natural world


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Scientific Inquiry II

  • Science Explains and Predicts

  • Make sense of observations

  • Make explanations and theories

  • Logically sound

  • Incorporate significant body of observations


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Scientific Inquiry III

  • Science is not a process in which one solution is as good as another, or is simply a matter of opinion.

  • In science, there is rigorous analysis fair-test comparison of alternative explanations, using discriminate criteria

  • Confirm by multiple independent lines of evidence, leading to one "best” solution.


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Scientific Inquiry IV

  • Scientists Try to Identify and Avoid Bias

  • Claims must be based on evidence

  • Evidence can be biased in interpretation, recording, or reporting of data

  • Which data are chosen?

  • Unconscious racial bias, gender bias, social status, source of funding, or political leanings can and do influence one's perceptions and interpretations.


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Scientific Inquiry V

  • Science is not Authoritarian

  • Appropriate to turn to knowledgeable sources of information and opinion

  • Esteemed authorities may be wrong and do not define what is true

  • No pre-established conclusions


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Scientific Enterprise

  • Has individual, social, and institutional dimensions

  • A major feature of the contemporary world

  • Science is a Complex Social Activity

  • Many individuals doing many kinds of work and study


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Scientific Enterprise II

  • Organized by Disciplines

  • Generally Accepted Ethical Principles

  • Strongly held traditions of accurate records, data, peer review, attribution of prior work

  • Do not falsify data or findings or withhold information


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Scientific Enterprise III

  • Participate in Public Affairs as Scientists and as Citizens

  • Bring insights and skills to bear on matters of public concern

  • Help to understand likely causes

  • Help to estimate possible effects of projected policies


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Distinguishing Science and Pseudoscience

  • Pseudoscience is indifferent to criteria of valid evidence.

  • Always avoids putting its claims to a meaningful test.

  • Pseudoscience depends on arbitrary conventions of human culture, rather than on unchanging regularities of nature.

  • http://www.quackwatch.org/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/pseudo.html


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Distinguishing Science and Pseudoscience II

  • Pseudoscience appeals to false authority, to emotion, sentiment, or distrust of established fact.

  • Pseudoscience makes extraordinary claims and advances fantastic theories that contradict what is known about nature.

  • Evidence for a discovery is anecdotal.

  • The discoverer must propose new laws of nature to explain an observation.


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Questions I

  • Describe the nature of Scientific Ideas or Theories. Which statement is false?

  • A. A scientific theory is used to predict future events.

  • B. Predictions are compared to reality.

  • C. If the prediction does not occur exactly as the theory predicted , the entire theory is disproven.

  • D. Theories become more precise and widely accepted with time


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Questions II

  • Describe the nature of science. Which statement is false?

  • A. Science Cannot Answer All Questions

  • B. Beliefs can be proven or disproven

  • C. Cannot settle questions of “good or evil”

  • D. Science is able to control variables and carry out experiments.


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Questions III

  • Describe the nature of science. Which statement is false?

  • A. Science is Authoritarian

  • B. It is appropriate to turn to knowledgeable sources of information and opinion

  • C. Esteemed authorities may be wrong and do not define what is true

  • D. There are no pre-established conclusions


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Questions IV

  • Describe the nature of science. Which statement is false?

  • A. Science is Authoritarian

  • B. It is appropriate to turn to knowledgeable sources of information and opinion

  • C. Esteemed authorities may be wrong and do not define what is true

  • D. There are no pre-established conclusions


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Questions V

  • Describe the nature of science. Which statement is false?

  • A. Science disciplines rely on observation, evidence, hypothesis, theories, logic

  • B. Science demands evidence for theories

  • C. Pseudoscience observations are repeatable or verifiable

  • D. All relevant observations are considered


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Questions VI

  • Describe the nature of science. Which statement is false?

  • A. Science explains and predicts

  • B. Science makes sense of observations

  • C. Makes explanations and theories

  • D. Science can perform controlled experiments to study phenomena of interest

  • E. Scientific ideas are absolutely proven


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Questions VII

  • Describe the nature of science. Which statements are false?

  • A. The natural world is understandable

  • B. Scientific Laws are not subject to change

  • C. Scientific knowledge is durable

  • D. Science can answer all questions

  • E. Science demands evidence

  • F. Science explains and predicts

  • G. Scientists try to identify and avoid bias

  • H. Science is authoritarian


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References

  • Science for All Americanshttp://www.project2061.org/tools/sfaaol/chap1.htm


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