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Milestones in the Auto Industry? At the dawn of the auto industry in late 19th century Electric Vehicles had a large market share – competing with gasoline and steam powered vehicles

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Milestones in the Auto Industry?

  • At the dawn of the auto industry in late 19th century Electric Vehicles had a large market share – competing with gasoline and steam powered vehicles

  • Genius of Henry Ford – invention of the assembly line gave the gasoline vehicle lock-in on automobile market that it has held for close to 100 years;

  • In late 1970’s/ early 80s (following first oil embargo) Japanese auto industry introduced small, high-efficiency vehicles – increasing market share in N. America;

  • From 2005 – 2008 seen new renaissance of Electric Vehicles – top 20 OEM auto companies plan to launch some type of Electric Vehicle in next 1-3 yrs

  • 40 start-up EV companies in N. America & Europe

  • In China - 500 companies involved in e-mobility


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Batteries assembled from thin layers of cathode, anode and separator material with gel electrolyte


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Battery Developments separator material with gel electrolyte

  • Lithium is preferred chemistry – 5 times energy density at one quarter of the weight of lead acid

  • Issues are energy density (driving range) and power density (acceleration)

  • Concerns are price – target $0.50/W

  • Safety – some lithium batteries had safety issues – new chemistries solved this problem

  • Perform – calendar life and cycle life


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Smart Electric Car – Electrovaya separator material with gel electrolyte

Shows the size of the motor/powertrain and

lithium polymer battery pack


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Project Better Place $16.94

  • Uses new concept – car as a transportation service – based on cell phone business model;·Pure battery electric vehicle developed by Renault Nissan·Infrastructure of charging stations – powered by renewable energy/ solar/wind?·Battery exchange stations·Software to control the charging / exchange process

  • Israel, Denmark, Portugal, Ireland, Australia signed up plus several cities



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Need to break oil dependency $16.94

We have to get off oil – the electrification of the automobile is inevitable - Bob Lutz, GM Vice President

‘Fossil fuels will face increasing competition from renewable energy – ultimately we may leave oil in the ground – like coal

- Lord Brown Chairman Shell UK


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Price at the gas pump main driver for electric vehicles? $16.94

$4/gallon in North America but $8 - $12 in Europe – despite speculation causing swings, general trend is up


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Expect competition from traditional auto industry $16.94

  • Shift to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles - Tata Nano – 620 cc rear petrol engine - retails for $2,500 – 20km/l – meets Euro IV standards

  • Shift to diesel, direct injection, spark ignition

  • Demands from developing markets, China, India – 1 –10M vehicles/year



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Feature of EVs is the low operating cost – even the UK Electric Lightning –

www.lightningcarcompany.co.uk

The drumbeat of electrical transportation is accelerating like nothing I’ve ever seen in my life – Andy Grove, ex CEO Intel


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