Liquid Live Micro Organisms LLMO

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Methods of Managing Lakes. Use of herbicides to manage weed problemsNutrient reduction to starve weeds and/or improve water qualityMechanical methodsBiological methodsCombination of methods. Herbicide Use. The best solution when water quality is not a consideration or cannot be changedCopper Sulfate causes damage to snails, mollusks and bacteriaCan achieve a fast, wide range of results.

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Liquid Live Micro Organisms LLMO

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1. Liquid Live Micro Organisms (LLMO) A Live Bacterial Treatment for Water Management

3. Herbicide Use The best solution when water quality is not a consideration or cannot be changed Copper Sulfate causes damage to snails, mollusks and bacteria Can achieve a fast, wide range of results

4. Nutrient Reduction Should be the goal of all lake managers Eutrophication (richness) is the term used by lake managers to categorize lake water quality Four eutrophic states are usually recognized

5. Oligotrophic Chl ug/l = <.95 - 2.6 FL mean 23 SD m = > 8 - 4 FL mean 1.9 TP ug/l = <6 -12 FL mean 37 Characterized by: Clear water Salmonid fisheries where appropriate Adequate oxygen

6. Mesotrophic Chl ug.l = 2.6 - 7.3 FL mean 23 SD = 4 - 2 FL mean 1.9 TP ug/l = 12 - 24 FL mean 37 Characterized by: Water moderately clear Loss of salmonids where applicable Walleye fishing where possible Fe, Mn, odor and taste problems worsen O2 problems may occur in the summer

7. Eutrophic Chl ug/l = 7.3 - 56 FL mean 23 SD m = 2 - .5 FL mean 1.9 TP ug/l = 24 - 96 FL mean 37 Characterized by: Blue- green algae Macrophyte problems Odor - taste problems Oxygen problems, possible fish kills Aesthetic problems discourage swimming

8. Hypereutrophic Chl ug/l = 56 - >155 FL mean 23 SD m = .5 - <.25 FL mean 1.9 TP ug/l = 96 - 384 FL mean 37 Characterized by Dense algae Light limited productivity Rough fish dominate Oxygen problems, summer fish kills possible

9. Lake Life-Span Varies with nutrient input Land use greatly affects nutrient input runoff through storm systems effluent - septic systems agriculture runoff deforestation industry artificial fertilizers

10. Nutrient Loading Consider budget for lakes nutrient input-output Have lake P, N and Chl analyzed Usually P is the limiting factor for growth Use trophic state to evaluate lakes Trophic state index (TSI) available Several methods of decreasing nutrients available

11. Nutrient (P) Reduction By: Calcium Carbonate at pH >9 Other calcium compounds (Ca(NO3)) (Ca(OH)2) Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) at pH 6-8 (1-800-642-4200 application handbook) Aluminum Chloride Aluminum Chlorohydrate Ferric Chloride Ferrous Sulfate Monohydrate PolyClay LLMO Aeration

12. When Not to Use LLMO If the lake is very shallow (<.5 m) If the lake has poor oxygenation (some of the bacteria in LLMO need oxygen) In moving water If immediate results are needed If this is expected to control all lake problems

13. How to use LLMO In conjunction with herbicides and dyes as needed but not with copper products If alum or calcium is needed for fast removal of phosphate, use LLMO 2-3 weeks after treatments for continued nutrient removal Best to start early spring before lakes become unsightly

14. LLMO Increases applicator safety Improves water quality - reduces N & P Improves wildlife habitat Reduces odor from lakes and ponds

15. LLMO Increases water clarity Decomposes sludge (bottom sediments) Increases dissolved oxygen Reduces chance of fish kills

16. LLMO All bacteria in LLMO is considered safe (Class 1 by American Type Culture Collection) in schools and classrooms Enhances public awareness programs Cannot possibly be detrimental to turf with irrigation Reduces BOD in water bodies

17. Why The Need For LLMO Increased use of fertilizers Reduction of filtering marshes Increased use of copper algaecides inhibiting positive values of beneficial bacteria Greater amount of (Non Point Source) pollution Copper products kill organisms at the lower end of food chain

18. Compared To Other Bacteria Products Live bacteria are killed in the freeze-drying process of other brands, leaving only the dormant reproductive spores Live-cultured LLMO are active, live cultures, thus more cost effective

19. Compared To Other Bacteria Products Much higher cell count per gallon (about 700 billion) for LLMO Tank growth system for nitrifiers are very important because of the slow growth rate of the nitrifiers LLMO has been manufactured for environmental purposes since 1974

20. Bacterial Augmentation Bacteria utilize nutrient in the water Bacteria convert carbon compounds (sludge) to CO2 Denitrification occurs under anaerobic conditions (NO3 to NO2 to N2) Nitrification occurs under aerobic conditions (NH3 to NO2 to NO3)

21. Bacterial Augmentation LLMO bacteria which consume phosphate are utilized by protozoa then the protozoa are ultimately utilized by fish Phosphates also can be permanently precipitated or are chelated to bottom sediments

22. Growing LLMO

23. Bacteria in LLMO NH3 to NO2 by Nitrosomonas NO2 to NO3 by Nitrobacter both are soil bacteria; both are required for nitrification and both need aerobic conditions Aerobacter aerogens aerobic oxidizes carbohydrates C+(H2O) (sugars, starches and celluloses) and short organic acid chains to CO2 and H2O when O2 is limited it ferments carbohydrates which become food for Pseudomonas sp.

24. Bacteria in LLMO Bacillus subtillus, B. licheniformis B. amyloliquefaciens oxidizes carbohydrates, organic acids, fats, oils, proteins and starches active in the soil; it’s enzymes degrade organic material denitrifying bacteria (NO3 to NO2 to N2) Cellulomonas biazotea converts cellulose to soluble carbohydrates which serve for growth of C. biazotea and other bacteria Pseudomonas denitificans and P. stutzsri reduces nitrate nitrogen under anaerobic conditions oxidizes and degrades organic compounds

25. Primary Uses Littoral zones, lakes, sewage, septic tanks, leach fields, drains, sludge removal, odor control, aquaculture, lake restoration and more Golf courses concerned with environmental, water quality and turf issues

26. Requirements Tank, electrical power (110 volt) to grow bacteria and a simple distribution method Lake treatments every 14 days throughout most of the year Can not be used with copper algaecide products

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