Introduction. Leadership traits endow the leader with the potential to be a good leaderExamination of what leaders do helps explain what makes a good leaderPeople with the traits are more likely to engage in leadership activities. (kirkpatrick and Locke)Leadership is getting work done
1. Leadership Behavior and Attitudes What leaders do
3. In the 1940’s major research efforts were launched at Ohio State University and the University of Michigan
4. Ohio State University Study 2 key factors that account for most of the varience in leadership behavior.
5. Initiates Structure Specifies tasks and procedures
Who does what and how.
6. Initiating Structure Includes behavior in which the supervisor organizes and defines group activities and his relation to the group. This he defines the role he expects each member to assume, assigns tasks, plans ahead, establishes way of getting things done and pushes for production.
7. Consideration Creates and envorinment
Provides support, warmth, friendship and trust.
8. Consideration Includes behavior indicating mutual trust, respect and a certain warmth and rapport between the supervisor and his group. This does not mean that this dimension reflects a superficial “pat-on-the-back”, “first name calling” kind of human relations behavior. This dimension appears to emphasize a deeper concern for group members needs and includes such behavior as allowing subordinates’ more participation in decision making and encouraging more two way communication.
9. Relationship between structure and consideration Each dimension is independent
High structure-low consideration characteristic of “proficient” supervisors.
Same pattern led to high turnover, grievances, absences, accidents, low morale
10. Patterns of leadership behavior related to employee grievances and turnover (Fleishman and Harris) Significant correlation between leadership behavior (IS & C) and organizational effectiveness (grievances and turnover).
Grievances and turnover increase most sharply at the extreme ends of consideration(low) and structure(high).
Increase consideration-grievances and turnover decline initially.
Continued increases in consideration get decreasing results
11. Patterns of leadership behavior related to employee grievances and turnover (Fleishman and Harris) Consideration is the dominant factor.
High consideration – increased structure perceived as helpful in a climate of mutual trust and respect
Low consideration – increased structure perceived as oppressive and self serving.
High consideration formen could initate almost any amount of structure without increasing greivances or turnover.
12. Patterns of leadership behavior related to employee grievances and turnover (Fleishman and Harris) Low consideration-low structure perceived as irrelavent.
Low consideration-high structure perceived as tyrannical
13. University of Michigan Examined high producing groups and low producing groups
Leaders characterized as “production centered” or “employee centered”
14. Production Centered Analogous to initiating structure
Leaders do the following
Tight work standards
Well organized tasks
Prescribed work methods
Sounds like transactional leadership, doesn’t it?
15. Employee centered Encourages subordinate participation
Employee participates in goal setting activities
16. The most productive groups were led by employee centered leaders
17. Yes, but what do leaders do when they initiate structure or demonstrate consideration?
18. Task related activities and attitudes Adaptability
Sizes up people, situations and tactics
Set high performance standards
19. Task related activities and attitudes (cont’d) Risk taking/action oriented
Provides hands on guidance
Provides frequent feedback
Takes corrective action
Reinforces favorable activities
20. Task related activities and attitudes (cont’d) Remain calm and consistent under pressure
Asks tough questions rather than provide answers
Strong customer orientation
21. Relationship Oriented actions Alignment
Everyone pulling in the same direction and persuing a common vision
Getting group to work together smoothly
Care for each other
Confidence in each others’ ability
Letting people know how they fit and how they are doing
22. Relationship Oriented actions (cont’d) Concert building
The goal is to produce a system that is self evaluation, self correction, self renewing, ongoing.
Satisfaction of the needs of members
23. Relationship Oriented actions (cont’d) Making work meaningful
Emotional support and encouragment
Promotion of principles and values