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International Marketing Research: Practices and Challenges. Dana-Nicoleta Lascu Chapter 6. Chapter Objectives. Define international marketing research and provide a description of its immense scope; offer examples of each type of research conducted in international marketing

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International Marketing Research:Practices and Challenges

Dana-Nicoleta Lascu

Chapter 6

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Chapter Objectives

  • Define international marketing research and provide a description of its immense scope; offer examples of each type of research conducted in international marketing

  • Describe the steps involved in the international marketing research process while addressing, for each step, the international constraints involved

  • Introduce the concept of decision support systems for international marketing and describe the sales forecasting process

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International Marketing Research

  • International marketing managers need to constantly monitor the different forces affecting their international operations

  • International marketing research is especially complex

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International Marketing Research

International marketing research is the systematic design, collection, recording, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of information pertinent to a particular marketing decision facing a company operating internationally.

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Research of Industry, Market Characteristics, and Trends

  • Acquisition analyses

  • Diversification analyses

  • Market-share analyses

  • Export research

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International Buyer Behavior Research

  • Brand preferences

  • Brand attitudes

  • Brands awareness studies

  • Purchase behavior studies

  • Consumer segmentation studies

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International Product Research

  • Concept development and testing studies

  • Brand name generation and testing

  • Product testing

  • Competitive product studies

  • Packaging design studies

  • Test marketing


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International Distribution Research

  • Import/export analyses

  • Channel performance and coverage

  • Plant/warehouse location studies

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International Promotion Research

  • Studies of premiums, coupons, and deals

  • Advertising effectiveness research

  • Local media research

  • Studies pertaining to personal selling activities

    • Sales Force Compensation

    • Quota

    • Territory

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International Pricing Research

  • Studies projecting demand

  • Currency and counter trade studies

  • Studies of inflation rates and pricing

  • Studies of negotiation tactics

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The International Marketing Research Process

  • STEP 1Define the international research problem and agree on the research objectives

    • Exploratory Research

    • Descriptive Research

    • Causal Research

  • STEP 2Set specific objectives

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The International Marketing Research Process, continued

  • STEP 3Develop the International Research Plan

  • STEP 4Define Information Sources

    • Secondary Data

      • Researchers must determine if the information is available, and, if so, how reliable it is

      • Internal data is useful only if company has collected similar info from relevant respondents in a country with similar environment

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Secondary Data Constraints

  • Conceptual Equivalence

    • Concepts have different meanings in different cultural environments

  • Functional Equivalence

    • Products themselves may be used for different purposes in different country environments

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Secondary Data Constraints, continued

  • Availability, Reliability,andValidity

    • Accuracy of secondary data can be questionable: Published statistics may be unreliable

    • Sources of reliable data:

      • World Bank

      • United Nations Development Program

      • Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

      • Euromonitor

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Primary Data

  • Information collected for a specific purpose, to address the problem at hand.

    • The costs of collecting primary data in foreign markets are likely to be much higher given the lack of an appropriate marketing research infrastructure

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Primary Data Research Approaches

  • Qualitative research has been particularly useful as a first step in studying international marketing phenomena.

    • Focus Groups

    • Observation

  • Constraints: Responses can be affected by culture, individuals may act differently if they know they are being observed.

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Primary Data Research Approaches, continued

  • Quantitative research are more structured, involving either descriptive research approaches, such as survey research, or causal research approaches, such as experiments.

    • Content Analysis

    • Survey Research

    • Experimental Research

  • Constraints: Respondent factors, infrastructure factors

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Data Collection

  • STEP 5Design Data Collection Instrument

    • Emic instruments measure phenomena specific to each culture.

    • Etic instruments measure the same phenomenon in different cultures.

  • Constraints: Translation; Instrument Reliability; Reluctance to answer certain questions

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Data Collection, continued

  • STEP 6Decide on the Sampling Plan

    • Sample Unit

    • Sample Size

    • Sampling Procedure

  • STEP 7Collect, Analyze, and Interpret Data

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Decision Support Systems for Global Marketing

  • A coordinated collection of data, systems, tools, and techniques, complemented by supporting software and hardware designed for the gathering and interpretation of business and environmental data

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Sales Forecasting

  • Sales Force Composite Estimates

    • Personal observations and expectations of the local sales force

  • Jury of Expert Opinion

    • Opinions of different experts about future demand

  • The Delphi Method

    • Experts to estimate market performance; findings are aggregated, and experts are queried again, in light of aggregate responses

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Sales Forecasting, continued

  • Time Series and Econometric Models

    • Use data of past performance to predict future market demand

  • Analogy Methods

    • Estimation method that relies on developments and findings in markets

      • With similar levels of economic development, or

      • Where the product is in the same market development stage, or

      • In markets which share similar cultural characteristics

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Sales Forecasting, continued

  • Point of Sale Research

    • Made with the help of store scanners, in markets where they are available

    • Involve comprehensive store audits

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Chapter Summary

  • Defined international marketing research

  • Described steps involved in the international marketing research process and related international constraints

  • Discussed marketing decision support systems and international sales forecasting