Shiite Islam – The Partisans of the Ahl al-Bayt. Important Family of the Prophet. Prophet. Hanafi woman. ‘Ali. Fatema. Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya. Hasan (2). Husayn (3). ‘Ali Zayn al-’Abidin (4). Zayd b. ‘Ali. Muhammad al-Baqir (5) Ja’far al-Sadiq (6) Musa al-Kazim (7)
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Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya
‘Ali Zayn al-’Abidin (4)
Zayd b. ‘Ali
Muhammad al-Baqir (5)
Ja’far al-Sadiq (6)
Musa al-Kazim (7)
‘Ali al-Rida (8)
Muhammad al-Taqi (9)
‘Ali al-Naqi (10)
Hasan ‘Askari (11)
Muhammad al-Mahdi (12)
Zaydi / Fivers
Isma’ili / Sevener Shiites
From 632 – about 765 ‘Shiite’ means…
Mukhtar b. Abi ‘Ubayd and the Kaysaniyya
Reoccurring themes in Shiite and even Sunni Islam
Rebellion of Zayd b. ‘Ali 740 CE vs. Umayyads… fails (‘ata’ and campaigns)
Shiite Hopes for the ‘Abbasid Revolution 750 CE … crushed.
Most of the Kaysaniyya and Rebellious Alids join as followers of the 6th Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (d. 765) in Medina
874 or 878, 11thImam dies with no known heir… almost…
Prominent Shiites close to the family say he had a son who was hidden away by the ‘Abbasids in Samarra… But, fed up with the world, he went into a cave and disappeared, to return as the Mahdi and fill the world with justice as it was full of injustice
Until 941, a series of 4 ‘Ambassadors’ communicate with the 12th imam.
By 950 CE Imami Shiite doctrine had formed:
Sunna of Prophet and Imams
Principles applied in reasoning
Texts to be followed literally
Originally those who believed that the 6th imam’s son, Ismail, his chosen successor who died before his father, was in occultation and would return as the Mahdi.
They set up armed camps for their followers in Syria, Southern Iraq and Algeria. All swore allegiance to the awaited imam.
Prophets only gave the external part of the religion - each one had an ‘Inheritor’ who told the inner meaning of the faith (Jesus’ was Peter). Then each was followed by 7 imams. Ismail went into occultation and will return to remove the Shariah so that mankind can follow the original religion of Adam: pure worship of the Creator.
In 899 CE the head of the movement in Syria declared he was the Mahdi… he was only accepted by the Algerian Ismailis he flees there and in 909 they declare a caliphal/mahdi state. In 969 they take Egypt and found the city of Cairo.
But the apocalyptic endtime state (with no Shariah!) is “postponed indefinitely”
His family rules Egypt, Syria the Hejaz until 1171 as the Fatimid Caliphate… “The State of Truth (Dawlat al-Haqq)”
In 1094 there is dispute over who should be the next imam/caliph… The Fatimids choose one, but the Ismailis in Syria and Iran believe another one should rule.
These Ismailis take control of mountain castles in Syria and Iran and battle their Sunni enemies by assassinating rulers (and also Crusaders!)
Dawud Bhoras: generally Indian, followers of Fatimid imams who moved to Yemen, practice close to 12er Shiism