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Historical Foundations of Education Dr. Janet Fredericks Northeastern Illinois University. Historical Issues & Themes. What are the recurring issues & themes? Why are they issues? How did they evolve? What is the current status of each?. Historical Themes. Appropriate Education

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Historical foundations of education dr janet fredericks northeastern illinois university

Historical Foundations of EducationDr. Janet FredericksNortheastern Illinois University


Historical issues themes

Historical Issues & Themes

  • What are the recurring issues & themes?

  • Why are they issues?

  • How did they evolve?

  • What is the current status of each?


Historical themes

Historical Themes

  • Appropriate Education

  • Organization & structure of education

  • Repeating conflicting views, interests & objectives


European roots

European Roots

  • Class/Caste & Gender Based Education

  • Religious Education

  • Major Educational Structures


Appropriate education

Appropriate Education

Nobles

Merchants/Craftsmen

Religious ~ Class Linked

Peasants

[Based on Class/Caste & Gender]


Religious education

Religious Education

  • Early Structures

    • Chantry Schools

    • Cathedral Schoolsevolved into:

      • universities

      • preparatory schools for universities

  • Post Reformation Structures

    • Luther/Melancthon utilized the Dual Track Model & developed vernacular schools for all children


Structures of education 1

Structures of Education [1]

  • Characteristics

  • Boys

  • [Noble girls tutored]

  • Latin/Greek

  • Classical

  • Preparatory Schools

  • Latin Grammar School

  • Lycee

  • Gymnasium


Structures of education 2 universities

Paris

Faculty Controlled

6000 students

Theology/Arts

Students = teenagers

M.A. with public

defense of thesis

College System

Problems with Townspeople

Bologna

Student Controlled

2000 students

Law

Students in their 30’s

Doctoral Degree after 10 years

No college system

Emphasized city &

political life

Structures of Education [2] Universities


Elements transmitted to americas

Elements Transmitted to Americas

  • Dual Track Education

  • Varied, Appropriate Education

  • Religion & Education are linked

  • Issues concerning vernacular education

  • University structure


Evolution of u s education

Evolution of U.S. Education

Common

School

Movement

Historical

Periods &

Elements

Educational

Structures

Development

of Secondary

Education

Postsecondary

Issues

Recurring

Conflicts

Diversity

Issues


Historical period to 1800

New England

Theocratic Society

Homogenous

First Compulsory School Laws

Schools financed by: taxes, tuition, land, licenses, donations and lotteries

Middle States

Geography

Highly Heterogeneous

Parochial

First book on education

Emphasis on primary education

Lack of government

influence

Historical Period: To 1800


Historical period to 1865

Historical Period: To 1865

Southern Education

  • Appropriate Education based on Caste, Class, Gender, and Circumstance

  • Agricultural Society and Economy

  • Strong neoclassic and chivalric influences

    • Oratory-Personal Libraries-Frontierism

  • Formal, Informal & Direct Experience

    are equally important as educational experiences

  • Catholic and Anglican Influences


Historical period to 18001

Thomas Jefferson

University of Virginia

Bill for the General Diffusion of Knowledge

Benjamin Franklin

Learned Societies &

Libraries

Secularized Puritan

Ethic

English Grammar School

[Instruction in English, utilitarian curriculum,

sense knowledge & scientific approach]

Historical Period: To 1800


Historical period new nation

Historical Period: New Nation

Need to Bind & Americanize the population

  • Government control of education [state level]

  • Need to teach for governance & population control, [later: immigration, urbanization & industrialization]

  • Need to establish & pay for schools

  • Need to develop teachers

  • Legislation

    • Northwest Ordinance-10 State Universities

    • State control of education chartered by 1821

      -Common Schools & Conversion Patterns


Educational structures to 1865 evolve some fade over time

Educational Structures: To 1865[Evolve - Some fade over time]

CS

  • Dame Schools

  • Town Schools

  • Parochial [vernacular primary] schools

  • Latin Grammar Schools

  • English Grammar School

  • Private Venture Schools

  • Tutors

  • Postsecondary [Colonial, Princeton [Scot Model], Johns Hopkins [German/Graduate Education], State,

    Religious Affiliated colleges


Educational structures to 1865 evolve some fade over time1

Educational Structures: To 1865[Evolve - Some fade over time]

  • Academy- 1800 to 1870

    • College Prep.-Teacher Training

    • Military-Practical/Terminal

  • Subscription Societies, Working Men’s

    Societies, Sunday Schools, Infant Schools

  • Monitorial Schools

    Popular experiment, Lancaster & Bell,

    Student Instructors/Groups, Materials

    Low cost, Ineffective


Common school movement 1820 1860

Characteristics

Free

Open to All

Locally Controlled

Publicly Supported

3 R’s, Health, Civics

Nondenominational

Christianity

Developed

POLITICAL Struggle

Coalition of Super-

intendents, business,

teachers, some clergy,

politicians & labor

Influenced by 18th & 19th Century European

Schools

Concerns: language elimina-

tion, property rights & privacy

Common School Movement: 1820-1860


Secondary education 1840 1920 s

Secondary Education: 1840-1920’s

LEGAL STRUGGLE

TAXATION

1847 - KALAMAZOO CASE

COMPLETION OF EDUCATIONAL

LADDER


Secondary education 1840 1920 s1

Secondary Education:1840-1920’s

COMMITTEE OF TEN

NEA - 1892 to 1893

What Subjects? How Long? Level? Manner?

Charles Eliot & University Professors

9 Committees with hearings

Decisions

H.S. = 4 years Subjects = 1 year each

Subjects = Math, English, Science, History, Lang.

Teach all in the same way - Subject Centered

Carnegie Credit Unit


Secondary education 1840 1920 s2

Secondary Education:1840-1920’s

Commission for the Reorganization of

Secondary Education : 1911-1918

Clarence Kingsley & Professional Educators

Driven by: Curriculum specialists, psychologists & those concerned with student issues

Decisions: Seven Cardinal Principles

*Health *Worthy Home Membership

*3R’s + Expression *Citizenship

*Ethical Character *Vocational Skills

*Good use of leisure time


Postsecondary issues

Postsecondary Issues

  • Who gets in and how?

  • Vocational v. Academic

    • What do we teach?

    • How do we assess?

  • Who controls the “school”?

  • Who pays and how much?

  • Expansion of access:

    • Campus

    • Community College System

    • Technology


National interests state colleges and universities

National Interests: State Colleges and Universities

  • Northwest Ordinance of 1785

    • 16th section of each township for education

  • Federal Land Grant Policy

    • Two townships of land for state universities as each territory entered the Union

  • Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890

  • Special Institutions of Higher Education

    • Military Academies: Annapolis and West Point

    • Columbia Institute for the Deaf [Gallaudet] 1857

    • Howard University [After the Civil War]


Continua of issues

Continua of Issues

Community of

Learners/dorms

Public Service

Social Purpose

National Purpose

Social Control

Device

Body of Studies

Indulgence

Individualistic

Personal

Investment

Personal Career


Attributes of land grant colleges

Attributes of Land Grant Colleges

  • Differed in character and location

    • Purdue

    • Alaska Agricultural College & School of Mines

  • Emphasized

    • Agriculture

    • Blending of practical and scientific

  • Provided studies in field related to agriculture

    • Home Economics

    • Veterinary Medicine

  • Colleges were committed to industry and stressed:

    • Technology

    • Engineering

    • Applied Science

  • Many have large extension programs to make education available throughout the state


Junior community colleges

Junior & Community Colleges

  • 1892, President William Rainey Harper of the University of Chicago

    • divides undergraduate curriculum into first 2 years of Academic College and last 2 years of University College

  • 1901 Joliet [Illinois] is the first junior college established in the United States

  • 1920’s & 1930’s emphasis placed on vocational & technical programs as “Terminal Programs”

  • After World War II State “Master Plans” [CA, NY, IL, FL] emphasize an expanded role for junior colleges


Junior community colleges continued

Junior & Community CollegesContinued

  • Currently community colleges provide:

    • 2 year liberal arts

    • Adult education

    • Vocational & technical training

    • Cultural, economic & civic center for the people it serves, emphasizes links between the college and the community


Formation of the modern university 1865 1917

Formation of the Modern University: 1865-1917

  • Liberal Arts College, leading to a bachelor’s degree [Based on the English College model]

  • German Universities emphasizing:

    • Freedom to teach [Lehrfreiheit]

    • Freedom to learn [Lernfreiheit]

  • Johns Hopkins University [founded in 1876] is the prototype, which was emulated by other U.S. universities

  • Scholars were to be conscious of:

    • Conservation of knowledge & ideas

    • Interpretation of knowledge & ideas

    • The search for truth

    • Training of students to carry on work


Formation of the modern university 1865 1917 continued

Formation of the Modern University: 1865-1917 Continued

  • Focal point is the undergraduate College of Arts and Sciences, surrounded by graduate college and professional schools

  • Charles Eliot [Harvard President 1869 - 1909]

    • Introduced the Elective System

    • President as CEO of large educational corporation

    • Greater relationship between K -12 Schools and universities


Diversity issues in u s education historical perspective by cultural language or racial group

Diversity Issues in U.S. Education : Historical Perspective [By Cultural, Language or Racial Group]

  • African-American - Good historical development and analysis

  • African [Non-U.S.] Documentation is sporadic, frequently blended into African-American experience

  • Native American - Interesting Studies, but not a comprehensive analysis

  • Hispanic - Diverse groups, studies have focused on language issues, very incomplete

  • Asian-American- Diverse Groups, few studies


Recurring conflicts

Recurring Conflicts

  • Language of instruction

  • Relationship between religion & education

  • Appropriate Education: By ability, class &

    gender

  • Vocational vs. Academic

  • Subject Centered vs. Student Centered

  • Who pays for what? - Who controls what?

  • Access

  • Assessment


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