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Dimensions of Tourism. Social Interaction Cross-Cultural Interaction For many travelers, cross-cultural interaction is the motivator Cross-cultural interaction is also the result of travel Cross-cultural interaction may be a “pull factor” of a region. Negative Use of resources/utilities

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dimensions of tourism
Dimensions of Tourism
  • Social Interaction
  • Cross-Cultural Interaction
  • For many travelers, cross-cultural interaction is the motivator
  • Cross-cultural interaction is also the result of travel
  • Cross-cultural interaction may be a “pull factor” of a region
impacts
Negative

Use of resources/utilities

Longer lines at the grocery store

Pollution

Increased traffic

Larger crowds at recreation facilities

Positive

Exposure to new ideas

Increased interest in activities

Increased interest in the arts

Reduce barriers

Impacts
contacts encounters
Contacts (Encounters)
  • Tourist (non-resident) and resident (host) contacts do not just happen in formal situations (such as check-in at a hotel or at a CVB)
  • Contacts can occur at any place of business (even if the business is not specifically tourist-related)
  • Contacts occur on the street or in cafes with regular residents of the host community
providers
Providers
  • Providers are those people in other sectors of the tourism industry who service the needs (and wants) of tourists, but are not located within the destination community
    • Airline personnel
    • Hotel employees
    • Travel agents
    • Information providers
contacts encounters5
Directly Involving Tourists

Hosts & Tourists

Tourists & Tourists

Tourists & PotentialTourists

Tourists & Providers

Support of Tourists

Host & Providers

Providers & Providers

Hosts & Hosts

Contacts (Encounters)
dimensions of tourism6
Dimensions of Tourism
  • Each contact, whether positive, negative or neutral, leaves an impact
  • All encounters are personal
  • At many commercial attractions, the tourists & tourists interactions are the most frequent (therefore, controlling tourists behavior becomes paramount)
social impacts
Social Impacts
  • Changes in the lives of people who live in destination communities which are associated with tourism activity
  • Tourists are also affected by social impacts
limiting factors
Limiting Factors
  • Interactions between tourists, providers and hosts have four limiting characteristics:
    • Transitory
    • Bound by spatial and temporal constraints
    • Lacking in spontaneity
    • Unbalanced, less than equal
transitory
Transitory
  • By (modern) definition and design, tourism is short term
  • Interactions will be brief without forming personal bonds
  • If friendships do occur, they are most likely to be between tourist and tourist
  • Relationships between travelers and providers are even shorter, and involve the exchange of money
transitory10
Transitory
  • Keeping to a businesslike relationship can be beneficial
  • Superficial greetings and comments are valuable because of the personal nature of service interactions, and should be maintained
spatial and temporal
Spatial and Temporal
  • Because (as mentioned earlier), time is limited, tourists themselves are often impatient at delays which would be considered normal at home
  • The result is providers and hosts may begin to make tourism experiences predictable (reducing the chance of problems or delays)
lack of spontaneity
Lack of Spontaneity
  • As encounters become more regimented and predictable (to ease the strain of problems and delays), destination visits and experiences become less spontaneous
  • The “tourist bubble” for example, greatly enhances tourist access to providers and facilities, but almost completely eliminates the “chance encounter” or possibility of interacting with “the locals”
unequal relations
Unequal Relations
  • Often, in tourism destinations, tourists and hosts have different socioeconomic backgrounds
  • Social and economic differences, when large, may make tourists avoid such encounters altogether
response models
Response Models
  • Social impacts of tourism can be explained by several models:
  • Irridex Model
  • Attitudinal Model
  • Adjustment Model
irridex
Irridex
  • The irridex model is one of the most commonly used and the most simple to understand
  • One of the problems with the irridex model is that it tends to group all residents together, not allowing for individual differences of the local population
irridex16
Irridex
  • The irridex model has four stages:
    • Euphoria
    • Apathy
    • Annoyance
    • Antagonism
  • *Been to Lake Tahoe recently? According to the irridex model, where would the lake be?
attitudinal
Attitudinal
  • I will not ask you to re-draw this model or label it, but I will ask you to be able to explain it if you see it on the test (hint, hint)
attitudinal18
Attitudinal
  • This model allows for different residents to have different feelings about tourists and tourism
  • This model allows for the same resident to change his mind
  • This model allows for the same resident to have different feelings on issues and impacts related to tourism and tourists
  • The attitudinal model uses “strong” and “quiet” (each in two different situations) to indicate how residents will respond in positive/negative and active/passive categories – definitely read this!
adjustment
Adjustment
  • This model also allows for residents to have more than one feeling towards tourists and tourism
  • The five categories of responses to impacts are:
    • Resistance
    • Retreatism
    • Boundary maintenance
    • Revitalization
    • Adoption
resistance
Resistance
  • Residents take active, aggressive (and often hostile) actions against tourists
    • Refusing to speak the language of tourists
    • Refusing to serve tourists
    • Purposely taking advantage of tourists monetarily
    • Taking advantage of tourists that don’t treat the natives (or the environment) respectfully
retreatism
Retreatism
  • Avoiding contact with tourists on a social level, but dealing with them at a business level
  • The community is often dependent on tourism for economic reasons, but has a resentment over that fact
  • This may be a passive form of resistance (tourists are almost always unaware)
boundary maintenance
Boundary Maintenance
  • Locals may appreciate tourism (and even enjoy the tourists), but make an effort to separate themselves from the tourists
  • Common with sub-cultures in the US
  • Customs, dress, diet, language, technology, etc. can keep a distance from the tourists
revitalization
Revitalization
  • One of the most controversial areas of tourism destination/social impacts research
  • Local customs, festivals, rituals, architecture, dress, foods, religious ceremonies, etc. can often be tourist attractions
revitalization24
Revitalization
  • Historic districts (Boston, Colonial Williamsburg, Charleston) can use tourist derived dollars to maintain themselves, and act as “living museums”
  • Residents of these areas may practice boundary maintenance
adoption
Adoption
  • The local community adopts the lifestyle and orientation of the tourists
  • The community organizes (or alters) its festivals and marketing and local wares to cater to tourists
  • Such a place is known as a “tourist town” (Gatlinburg, Aspen, Amity Island)
summary of adjustment
Resistance

Retreatism

Boundary Maintenance

Revitalization

Adoption

Hawaii/Florida

Native Americans

Ethnic Grous/Tourists as Modern Man

Charlestown, SC

New Orleans

Summary of Adjustment
cultural impacts
Cultural Impacts
  • Cultural impacts are thought of as a change in the art, artifacts, customs, rituals and architecture of a people that result from tourist activity
  • Much of this work is debated since cultures are dynamic (they change anyway, on their own or by outside forces – see Nelson Grayburn)
cultural impacts28
Cultural Impacts
  • Local traditions, customs, etc., may be preserved by tourism
  • Local traditions, customs, etc., may be trivialized by tourism and result in what is called “airport art”
  • Some traditions or skills may be lost altogether because they were not marketable in terms of tourism
social cultural impacts
Social & Cultural Impacts
  • (pg 96) Summary
    • Social Interactions
    • Morality and Religious Norms
    • Social Norms
    • Cultural Ways and Activities
    • Day-to-Day Activities
case study
Case Study
  • Alarde in Fuenterrabia
    • Local festival (to recreate the 1638 victory of Spain over France in the region) became so popular with tourists that the small, intimate feeling of the ritual was lost
    • Locals first responded by keeping tourists away, but quickly decided to market the ritual, and thus it has become a commodity rather than a local community celebration
    • It makes lots of money for Fuenterrabia, but locals rarely attend
unesco
UNESCO
  • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
  • www.unesco.org
heritage tourism
Heritage Tourism
  • Beware…
    • Is heritage tourism just another excuse for mass shopping???
    • Case study(ies) Rouse Company’s “Festival Marketplaces”
heritage tourism33
“Heritage” Tourism
  • Heritage tourism has many guises, some more authentic than others
  • As society has become increasingly white collar and increasingly service oriented, oddly, places where blue collar people once worked are more and more popular as tourist attracts – postmodernism gone mad
terms vocabulary
Pull factor

Push factor

Attraction

Attractor

Guest

Host (Host community)

Providers

Excursionists

Irridex model

Adjustment model

Attitudinal model

Social impacts

Tourism

Tourism vs Travel

Tourist

WTO

Multiplier effect

Terms &Vocabulary
terms vocabulary39
Natural environment

Build environment

International tourism

Internal tourism

Domestic tourism

National tourism

Border

Sumerians

The Grand Tour

Retourner

Cathedral

Slides of cathedrals

USP

UNESCO

Terms & Vocabulary
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