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Background to Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches






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IFAD S L Workshops. Background to Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches. Developed in response to dissatisfaction with the RESULTS of development efforts Not INVENTED EVOLVED from the late 1980s through the 1990s (and still evolving). Slide 1. Background of Sustainable Livelihoods.
Background to Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches

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Background to sustainable livelihoods approachesSlide 1

IFAD SL Workshops

Background to Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches

  • Developed in response to dissatisfaction with the RESULTS of development efforts

  • Not INVENTED

  • EVOLVED from the late 1980s through the 1990s (and still evolving)

Slide 1

Background of Sustainable Livelihoods

Contributions to the development of slaSlide 2

IFAD SL Workshops

Contributions to the development of SLA

  • Country work by OXFAM and WORLD BANK on characterisation of the poor

  • Experience of wide-range of NGOs & CBOs, bi- & multi-lateral agencies, informing researchers

  • Work by ROBERT CHAMBERS and GORDAN CONWAY on RURAL LIVELIHOODS

  • Work by AMARTYA SEN on ENTITLEMENTS

Slide 2

Background of Sustainable Livelihoods

Approaches contributing to the development of slaSlide 3

IFAD SL Workshops

Approaches contributing to the development of SLA

  • PARTICIPATORY APPROACHES to development

  • FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH

  • Recognition of some of the limitations in MICRO-FINANCE

  • New approaches to MULTI-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS of POVERTY (including by IFAD)

Slide 3

Background of Sustainable Livelihoods

Processes in the development of slaSlide 4

IFAD SL Workshops

Processes in the development of SLA

  • Identifying and analysing WEAKNESSES in development practice - what didn’t work?

  • Distilling BEST PRACTICE - what worked?

  • Development of a NETWORK to identify best practices

  • Constantly EVOLVING

  • LEARNING from EXPERIENCE

Slide 4

Background of Sustainable Livelihoods

Organisations developing adopting and adapting slaSlide 5

IFAD SL Workshops

Organisations developing, adopting and adapting SLA

  • Many organisations involved in development of SLA in parallel and in partnership

  • Different organisations have adapted it to their specific priorities and concerns

Slide 5

Background of Sustainable Livelihoods

Organisations using slaSlide 6

IFAD SL Workshops

Organisations using SLA

e.g. International NGOs:

CARE Save the Children

OXFAM ITDG (Intermediate Technology

Development Group)

e.g. Bilateral:

DANIDA SIDA DFID

e.g. Multilateral :

UNDP FAO WFP IFAD

World Bank

Slide 6

Background of Sustainable Livelihoods

Alternative sl frameworksSlide 7

IFAD SL Workshops

Alternative SL Frameworks

  • Different organisations have “represented” the idea of “sustainable livelihoods” in different ways

  • All highlight similar basic concepts

  • Alternative frameworks reflect different priorities of organisations

  • Frameworks adapted to institutional “cultures”

Slide 7

Background of Sustainable Livelihoods

Dfid s sl frameworkSlide 8

IFAD SL Workshops

H

Vulnerability

Context

Shocks

Seasonality

Trends

Changes

N

Policies

Institutions

Processes

S

Livelihood

Strategies

Livelihood

Outcomes

The Poor

influence

P

F

DFID’s SL Framework

Slide 8

Background of Sustainable Livelihoods

Dfid s sl principlesSlide 9

IFAD SL Workshops

DFID’s SL Principles

  • People-centred

  • Sustainability-focused

  • Holistic

  • Implemented in partnership

  • Linking the micro with the macro

  • Dynamic

  • Building on the strengths of the poor

Slide 9

Background of Sustainable Livelihoods

The care livelihood modelSlide 10

IFAD SL Workshops

ASSETS

Human Capital Social Capital Economic Capital

(Livelihood (Claims & (Stores &

capabilities) access) resources)

Natural

Resources

Infrastructure

Economic,

Cultural &

Political

Environment

Shocks &

Changes

  • Security of:

  • Food

  • Nutrition

  • Health

  • Water

  • Shelter

  • Education

  • Community

  • Participation

  • Personal

  • Safety

Production &

Income

Activities

Household

Consumption

Activities

Processing &

Activities

The CARE Livelihood Model

Slide 10

Background of Sustainable Livelihoods

Guiding principles in care s livelihood modelSlide 11

IFAD SL Workshops

Improve targeting of

poor households

HOLISTIC

ANALYSIS

FOCUSED

STRATEGY

Participatory

Approaches

Improved

Household

Livelihoods

Ensure programmes

address real

livelihood

security needs

Ensure programmes

emphasise learning &

change management

Personal

empowerment

Social

empowerment

COHERENT

INFORMATION

STRATEGY

REFLECTIVE

PRACTICE

Improve synergy

between programmes

Guiding principles in CARE’s Livelihood Model

Slide 11

Background of Sustainable Livelihoods

The khanya sl frameworkSlide 12

IFAD SL Workshops

Policies

Institutions

Processes

Macro

impacts

Meso

External

Environment

Micro

N

  • Vulnerabilities

  • Human (ie disease)

  • Social (ie conflict)

  • Natural (ie drought)

  • Financial (ie markets)

  • Physical (ie isolation)

  • Opportunities

  • Human / Social /

  • Natural / Financial / Physical

  • Local / Regional

  • National / International

S

H

Capital

Assets

P

F

Livelihood

aspirations

influence

influence

Negotiation of:

Common objectives;

Processes & structures;

Roles

Livelihood

outcomes

Impact on

Livelihoods

Increasing

Opportunities

Implementation

The KhanyaSL Framework

Slide 12

Background of Sustainable Livelihoods

The tanga sl framework based on khanyaSlide 13

IFAD SL Workshops

Policies,

Institutions

& Processes

Vulnerability

Context

  • Macro

  • International bodies

  • International agreements

  • & obligations

  • Government

  • Representative bodies

  • Legal system

  • Property rights

Livelihood

Assets

  • Trends &

  • Changes

  • Market trends

  • Economic conditions

  • Technological changes

  • Environmental change

  • Shocks

  • Political unrest

  • Natural disasters

  • Seasonality

Human

Social

(political,

religious,

cultural)

  • Meso

  • Government departments

  • Local government

  • Civil society organisations

  • NGOs

CUSTOM

Natural

GENDER AGE

CLASS

  • Micro

  • Community-based

  • organisaionts

  • Communitygovernment

  • Local committees

Physical

Financial

RULES

Livelihood Aspirations

improved well-being - better education - better housing - better services -

increased access to resources - increased income

Livelihood Strategies

migration - natural resource-based -

non natural-resource-based

The Tanga SL Framework (based on Khanya)

Slide 13

Background of Sustainable Livelihoods

The undp sustainable livelihoods approachSlide 14

IFAD SL Workshops

Outcome

Sustainable

Livelihood

Entry point

Local Adaptive Strategies

Assets, knowledge, technology

Policy -

macro-micro, cross-sectoral

Governance -

local government, CSOs,

empowermentx

Technology

and

Investment

Drivers

The UNDP Sustainable Livelihoods Approach

Slide 14

Background of Sustainable Livelihoods


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