Sugars and Polysaccharides. An Introduction W.T. Winter [email protected] 215 Jahn Lab; x6876. Overview. Monosaccharides? Oligosaccharides? Polysaccharides Glycoproteins and Proteoglycans. Carbohydrates Are Chiral Molecules. Typically but not always L – amino acids D - sugars. D.
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Hence, these molecules have a measurable optical rotation, which depends upon both the monomer residues and their conformation
Next to last carbon determines D or L
New carbon is added as C1
a and b are “anomers and differ in configuration at the new chiral center formed in the cycle
Pyranose rings can form chair and boat
From one 6 carbon hexopyranose sugar such as glucose, you can make 11 different disaccharides and 8 of those lead to infinite polymers
From one amino acid or nucleotide you can make only a single dimer.
n ~ 5000-10000
Also found in some bacteria, algae, fungi, seed hairs, and animals (tunicates or sea squirts)
Wood cell (fiber) cell walls are made of cellulose + lignin and hemicelluloses
Unlike cellulose, starch can be metabolized by humans. Starches provide the bulk of the energy we obtain from grains, potatoes etc.
A regular copolymer of N-acetyl glucosamine and Glucuronic Acid (as a metal salt)