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48572 Zero Energy House Lecture 2: Housing Systems The Housing Industry Fragmented, de-centralized The top 100 companies(by volume) build only 1 out of every 16 houses Under-capitalized Minimal research & development Many Players Owners/ Users Designers Constructors Regulators

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48572 Zero Energy House

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48572 zero energy house l.jpg

48572Zero Energy House

Lecture 2: Housing Systems


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The Housing Industry

  • Fragmented, de-centralized

    • The top 100 companies(by volume) build only 1 out of every 16 houses

  • Under-capitalized

  • Minimal research & development

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Many Players

  • Owners/ Users

  • Designers

  • Constructors

  • Regulators

  • Financers

  • Manufacturers

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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National Association of Homebuilders (NAHB)

  • > 200,000 members

  • National, state and local associations

  • Research center in MD

  • Publications

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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System Types

  • Systems–Built (factory–built)

    • Pre-cut

    • Panelized

    • Modular

    • Mobile (HUD–code)

  • Stick–Built (site built)

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Buckminster Fuller: Benefits of Chassis Construction

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Dymaxion House; 1927-29

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Dymaxion Bathroom

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Lustron Homes

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Lustron Homes

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Lustron Homes

Well we're DATED; -that abstractionist next door built his house in space-time!"

"They said something about a perfect example of an integrated, demountable, prefabricated dwelling unit

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Stick–built

  • Assembled piece by piece on site

  • Can make use of components

    • Trusses, prime windows/ doors, plumbing

  • Can be assembled from pre–cut elements

  • Must meet local codes/ ordinances

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Constructor’s Pyramid

  • Home builder

    • Sub- contractor (Framing, Elec, HVAC)

      • Sub- sub- contractor (rough/ finish, wiring, ductwork)

        • Sub- sub- sub- contractor………

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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System–built

  • In 2001

    • 5% of single-family homes completed nationwide

    • 13% of new, single-family homes built outside metropolitan areas

    • 13% of new, single-family contractor-built homes on owner's land.

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Panelized

  • Pre–made wall and/ or floor panels

    • 8’ x 8’ ~ 40’

    • Closed wall:

      • With sheathing both sides + insulation

    • Open wall:

      • With sheathing one side

    • With or w/o windows and doors

  • Must meet local codes/ ordinances

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Panelized

  • BSC study w/ Wood Truss Council of American, found:

    • a 2,600 sq. ft. home with trusses and panels:

      • used 26% less lumber,

      • generated 76% less waste, and

      • was constructed in just 37% of the man hours of a similar, stick-built home.

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Modular

  • Constructed from 3–dimensional volumes, “modules” that are 90 – 95% complete

    • 8’ x 11’6” x 70’ max

    • Interior/ exterior finishes, technologies, stairs, etc.

  • Erected on site–built foundation

  • Must meet local codes/ ordinances

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Modular Facts

  • In 2001,

    • 3% of the new, single-family homes constructed.

    • 11% outside of metropolitan areas

    • One of every ten homes built in the northeast is a modular home. 

    • The most popular states for modular construction in 2001 were Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Michigan, and New York.

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Mobile

  • Single–, double– or triple–wide factory–built houses

  • Integral chassis for highway transportation

  • Built to a national pre–emptive code

  • Can only be built in designated MHP’s

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Factory–built advantages

  • Reduced completion time

  • Less vandalism

  • Less skilled labor required on–site

  • Reduced danger of cost–overruns

  • Potential for better quality

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Factory–built disadvantages

  • Limited design flexibility

  • Site limitations

  • Local inspection problems

  • Consumer bias

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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Focus for Improvement

Design

Technology

Construction

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University


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