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2004-2005 Chemotherapeutics Review. 10 March 2014 12:05 PM. Abacavir. Antiretroviral Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). Acyclovir. Antiherpes Purine analog Phosphorylated to inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase. Albendazole. Antihelminthic Treatment of intestinal roundworms.

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2004 2005 chemotherapeutics review l.jpg

2004-2005Chemotherapeutics Review

10 March 201412:05 PM


Abacavir l.jpg
Abacavir

  • Antiretroviral

  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)


Acyclovir l.jpg
Acyclovir

  • Antiherpes

  • Purine analogPhosphorylated to inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase


Albendazole l.jpg
Albendazole

  • Antihelminthic

  • Treatment of intestinal roundworms


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Alemtuzumab

  • Antineoplastic

  • Anti-CD52 antibody


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Amantadine

  • AntiviralAntiparkinson

  • Treatment of Influenza A Inhibits replicationat the stage of uncoating


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Amikacin

  • Aminoglycoside antibioticBactericidal protein synthesis inhibitor

  • 30S ribosomeFreezes initiation


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Aminoglutethimide

  • AntineoplasticImmunosuppressive

  • Glucocorticoid antagonistAromatase inhibitor(decreases steroid synthesis)


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Aminoglycosides

  • AntibioticsBactericidal protein synthesis inhibitors

  • 30S ribosomeFreeze initiation


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Ampicillin

  • Penicillin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • Amino penicillinInhibits peptidoglycan cross-linking


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Amphotericin B

  • AntifungalPolyene antibiotic

  • Binds to ergosterol and alters permeabilitySystemic


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Amsacrine

  • Antineoplastic

  • Miscellaneous


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Anastrozole

  • AntineoplasticAntiestrogen

  • Aromatase inhibitor


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Anti-thymocyte globulin

  • Immunosuppressive

  • Anti-T cell antibody


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Arsenicals

Melarsoprol

  • Tropical antiparasitic

  • Treatment of African Trypanosomiasis in CNS


L asparaginase l.jpg
L-asparaginase

  • Antineoplastic

  • Protein synthesis inhibitor


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Atovaquone

  • Antimalarial

  • Depolarizes parasitic mitochondria and inhibits electron transport


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Azathioprine

  • ImmunosuppressiveAntineoplastic

  • Antimetabolite(“pseudofeedback inhibition” of HGPRT and PRP)


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Azithromycin

  • Macrolide antibioticBacteriostatic protein synthesis inhibitor

  • 50S ribosome Inhibits translocation


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Aztreonam

  • New b lactam antibiotic

  • Monobactam


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Bacitracin

  • AntibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • Topical, not a b lactam, Inhibits dephosphorylation of bactoprenol


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Basiliximab

  • Immunosuppressive

  • Anti-CD25 (interleukin 2 receptor) Organ transplant (antirejection)


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Benzathine penicillin G

  • Penicillin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • Inhibits peptidoglycan cross-linking Repository preparation


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Bleomycin

  • Antineoplastic

  • Natural productAntibiotic


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Busulfan

  • Antineoplastic

  • Alkylating Agent


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Carbenicillin

  • Penicillin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • Anti-pseudomonal penicillinInhibits peptidoglycan cross-linking


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Carmustine (BCNU)

  • Antineoplastic

  • Alkylating Agent


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Cefaclor

  • Cephalosporin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • 2nd generationOral


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Cefadroxil

  • Cephalosporin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • 1st generationOral


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Cefepime

  • Cephalosporin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • 4th generationCSF penetration


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Cefotaxime

  • Cephalosporin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • 3rd generationCSF penetration


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Cefoxitin

  • Cephalosporin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • 2nd generation


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Ceftazidime

  • Cephalosporin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • 3rd generation


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Ceftriaxone

  • Cephalosporin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • 3rd generationCSF penetration


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Cefuroxime

  • Cephalosporin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • 2nd generationCSF penetration


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Cephalexin

  • Cephalosporin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • 1st generationOral


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Cephalosporins

  • Antibioticsb lactam

  • Cell wall synthesis inhibitorsInhibit cross-linking of peptidoglycan


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Cephalothin

  • Cephalosporin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • 1st generationOral


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Chloramphenicol

  • AntibioticBacteriostatic protein synthesis inhibitor

  • 50S ribosomeInhibits peptide bond formation


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Chloroquine

  • Antimalarial

  • Intercalates in DNABinds to ferriprotoporphyrin


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Cidofovir

  • Antiherpes

  • Pyrimidine analogPhosphorylated to inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase


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Ciprofloxacin

  • Fluoroquinolone antibioticDNA replication inhibitor

  • Inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase


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Cisplatin

  • Antineoplastic

  • MiscellaneousCross-linking agent


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Clarithromycin

  • Macrolide antibioticBacteriostatic protein synthesis inhibitor Antiulcer

  • 50S ribosomeInhibits translocation


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Clavulanic acid

  • b-lactamase inhibitor

  • Combined with antibacterials


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Clindamycin

  • AntibioticBacteriostatic protein synthesis inhibitor

  • 50S ribosomeAnaerobic infections


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Clotrimazole

  • Imidazole antifungal

  • Inhibits synthesis of ergosterolLanosterol 14a demethylase inhibitor


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Cloxacillin

  • Penicillin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • Penicillinase resistant penicillinInhibits peptidoglycan cross-linking


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Cyclophosphamide

  • Antineoplastic

  • Alkylating Agent


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Cycloserine

  • AntibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • Secondary TB drugInhibits formation of Park nucleotide


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Cyclosporine

  • ImmunosuppressiveAntineoplastic

  • Binds cyclophilinInhibits calcineurin


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Cyproterone acetate

  • AntiandrogenAntineoplastic

  • androgen receptor antagonist


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Cytarabine (AraC)

  • Antineoplastic

  • Antimetabolite


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Dacarbazine

  • Antineoplastic

  • Alkylating Agent


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Daclizumab

  • Immunosuppressive

  • Anti-CD25 (interleukin 2 receptor) antibody Organ transplant (anti-rejection)


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Dactinomycin

  • Antineoplastic

  • Natural productAntibiotic


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Dapsone

  • Sulfone antibioticNucleic acid andprotein synthesis inhibitor

  • Inhibits dihydropteroate synthetaseLeprosy


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Daunorubicin

  • Antineoplastic

  • Anthracycline antibiotic Natural product


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Delavirdine

  • Antiretroviral

  • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)


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Dexamethasone

  • AdrenocorticosteroidGlucocorticoidAntineoplastic

  • Anti-inflammatory steroidNot by inhalation


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Didanosine

  • Antiretroviral

  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) Dideoxyinosine (ddI)


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Diethylcarbamazine

  • Antihelminthic

  • Treatment of intestinaland tissue roundworms


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Doxorubicin

  • Antineoplastic

  • Anthracycline antibioticNatural product


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Doxycycline

  • Tetracycline antibioticBacteriostatic protein synthesis inhibitor

  • 30S ribosomePrevents aminoacyl tRNA attachment


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Efavirenz

  • Antiretroviral

  • Non-nucleoside reversetranscriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)


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Enfuvirtide (T-20)

  • Antiretroviral

  • Fusion inhibitor


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Erythromycin

  • Macrolide antibioticBacteriostatic protein synthesis inhibitor

  • 50S ribosomeInhibits translocation


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Ethambutol

  • Antibiotic

  • Major drug for tuberculosis


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Ethionamide

  • Antibiotic

  • Secondary drug for tuberculosis


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Etoposide

  • Antineoplastic

  • Natural productPlant alkaloid


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Exemestane

  • AntineoplasticAntiestrogen

  • Aromatase Inhibitor


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Famciclovir

  • Antiherpes

  • Purine analogPhosphorylated to an inhibitor ofviral DNA polymerase


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Fluconazole

  • Triazole antifungal

  • Inhibits synthesis of ergosterol by inhibiting lanosterol 14a demethylase


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Flucytosine

  • Antifungal

  • Converted by fungi to 5-fluorouracil  faulty RNA and DNA synthesis


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Fluorinated Quinolonesciprofloxacin, norfloxacin

  • AntibioticsDNA replication inhibitors

  • Inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase


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5-Fluorouracil

  • Antineoplastic

  • AntimetaboliteThymidylate synthase inhibitor


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Foscarnet

  • Antiherpes

  • Pyrophosphate analogDirectly inhibits viral DNA polymerase


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Fulvestrant

  • AntineoplasticAntiestrogen

  • Estrogen receptor antagonist


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Ganciclovir

  • Antiherpes

  • Purine analogPhosphorylated to an inhibitorof viral DNA polymerase


Gemtuzumab l.jpg
Gemtuzumab

  • Antineoplastic

  • Anti-CD33 antibody


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Gentamicin

  • Aminoglycoside antibioticbactericidal protein synthesis inhibitor

  • 30S ribosomeFreezes initiation


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Goserelin

  • AntineoplasticGonadotropin releasing hormone(GnRH) agonist


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Griseofulvin

  • Antifungal

  • Binds to microtubules


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Hydroxyurea

  • Antineoplastic

  • MiscellaneousRibonucleotide reductase inhibitor


Ibritumomab l.jpg
Ibritumomab

  • Antineoplastic

  • Anti-CD20 antibody


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Imatinib

  • Antineoplastic

  • MiscellaneousTyrosine kinase inhibitor


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Imipenem/Cilastatin

  • New b lactam antibiotic

  • Cilastatin inhibits akidney dipeptidase that inactivates imipenem


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Indinavir

  • Antiretroviral

  • Protease inhibitor (PI)


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Interferon alpha

  • Antiviral for hepatitisAntineoplasticCytokine

  • Anti-angiogenesis


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Interleukin 2

  • Cytokine Antineoplastic


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Interleukin 11

  • Cytokine Antineoplastic (supporting agent)


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Iodoquinol

  • Antiparasitic

  • Treatment of protozoal infections


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Iressa

  • Antineoplastic

  • MiscellaneousTyrosine kinase inhibitor


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Isoniazid

  • Antibiotic

  • Inhibits biosynthesis of mycolic acids Major drug for tuberculosis


Itraconazole l.jpg
Itraconazole

  • Triazole antifungal

  • Inhibits synthesis of ergosterol by inhibiting lanosterol 14a demethylase


Ivermectin l.jpg
Ivermectin

  • Antihelminthic

  • Treatment of intestinaland tissue roundworms


Ketoconazole l.jpg
Ketoconazole

  • Imidazole antifungal

  • Inhibits synthesis of ergosterol by inhibiting lanosterol 14a demethylase


Lamivudine l.jpg
Lamivudine

  • Antiretroviral

  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)


Letrozole l.jpg
Letrozole

  • AntineoplasticAntiestrogen

  • Aromatase Inhibitor


Leucovorin l.jpg
Leucovorin

  • Antineoplastic (supporting agent)

  • Folic acid analogue(used in methotrexate rescue)


Leuprolide l.jpg
Leuprolide

  • AntineoplasticGonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist


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Linezolid

  • Oxazolidinone antibioticProtein synthesis inhibitor

  • 50S ribosomal subunit


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Lomustine (CCNU)

  • Antineoplastic

  • Alkylating Agent


Macrolides erythromycin azithromycin clarithromycin l.jpg
Macrolideserythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin

  • AntibioticsBacteriostatic protein synthesis inhibitors

  • 50S ribosome


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Mebendazole

  • Antihelminthic

  • Treatment of intestinal roundworms


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Mechlorethamine

  • Antineoplastic

  • Alkylating Agent


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Mefloquine

  • Antimalarial

  • Treatment and prophylaxis for chloroquine resistant Plasmodium


Meglumine antimonate l.jpg
Meglumine antimonate

  • Tropical antiparasitic

  • Organic antimonialTreatment of Leishmaniasis


Melarsoprol l.jpg
Melarsoprol

  • Tropical antiparasitic

  • Treatment of African Trypanosomiasis in CNS


Melphalan l.jpg
Melphalan

  • Antineoplastic

  • Alkylating Agent


6 mercaptopurine l.jpg
6-Mercaptopurine

  • Antineoplastic

  • Antimetabolite(“pseudofeedback inhibition” of HGPRT and PRP – purine synthesis)


Mesna l.jpg
Mesna

  • Antineoplastic (supporting agent)

  • Prevent hemorrhagic cystitisdue to cyclophosphamide


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Methenamine

  • Urinary tract antiseptic

  • Decomposes to formaldehydein acidic environment


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Methicillin

  • Penicillin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • Pencillinase resistant penicillin Inhibits peptidoglycan cross-linking


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Methotrexate

  • ImmunosuppressiveAntineoplastic

  • Folic acid antagonistDihydrofolate reductase inhibitor


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Metronidazole

  • AntibioticAntiparasiticAntiulcer

  • AnaerobesReduction leads to intermediatesthat damage DNA


Miconazole l.jpg
Miconazole

  • Imidazole antifungal

  • Inhibits synthesis of ergosterol by inhibiting lanosterol 14a demethylase


Minocycline l.jpg
Minocycline

  • Tetracycline antibioticBacteriostatic protein synthesis inhibitor

  • 30S ribosomePrevents aminoacyl tRNA attachment


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Mitomycin C

  • Antineoplastic

  • Natural productAntibiotic


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Muromonab-CD3

  • Immunosuppressive

  • Mouse monoclonal anti-CD3 antibody Organ transplant (anti-rejection)


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Mycophenolate

  • Immunosuppressive

  • Inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity


Nafcillin l.jpg
Nafcillin

  • Penicillin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • Penicillinase resistant penicillinInhibits peptidoglycan cross-linking


Nalidixic acid l.jpg
Nalidixic acid

  • Urinary tract antiseptic

  • QuinoloneInhibits bacterial DNA gyrase


Neomycin l.jpg
Neomycin

  • Aminoglycoside antibioticBactericidal protein synthesis inhibitor

  • 30S ribosomeFreezes initiationTopical


Netilmicin l.jpg
Netilmicin

  • Aminoglycoside antibioticBactericidal protein synthesis inhibitor

  • 30S ribosomeFreezes initiation


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Nevirapine

  • Antiretroviral

  • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)


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Nifurtimox

  • Tropical antiparasitic

  • Treatment of South American Trypanosomiasis; Chagas disease


Nitrofurantoin l.jpg
Nitrofurantoin

  • Urinary tract antiseptic

  • Reduction leads to intermediates that damage DNA


Norfloxacin l.jpg
Norfloxacin

  • Fluoroquinolone antibioticDNA replication inhibitor

  • Inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase


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Nystatin

  • AntifungalPolyene antibiotic

  • Binds to ergosterol & alters permeabilityTopical


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Organic antimonials

sodium stibogluconatemeglumine antimonate

  • Tropical antiparasitic

  • Treatment of Leishmaniasis


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Oseltamivir

  • Antiviral

  • Inhibits neuraminidase anddecreases viral release Treatment of Influenza A & B


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Oxacillin

  • Penicillin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • Pencillinase resistant penicillinInhibits peptidoglycan cross-linking


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Oxytetracycline

  • Tetracycline antibioticBacteriostatic protein synthesis inhibitor

  • 30S ribosomePrevents aminoacyl tRNA attachment


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Paclitaxel

  • Antineoplastic

  • Natural productPlant alkaloid (taxane)


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Palivizumab

  • Antiviral

  • Monoclonal antibody againstthe surface ofrespiratory syncytial virus


Para aminosalicylic acid l.jpg
Para-aminosalicylic acid

  • AntibioticNucleic acid andprotein synthesis inhibitor

  • Inhibits dihydropteroate synthetaseSecondary TB drug


Paromomycin l.jpg
Paromomycin

  • AntiparasiticAminoglycoside antibiotic

  • Treatment of protozoal infections


Penciclovir l.jpg
Penciclovir

  • Antiherpes

  • Purine analogPhosphorylated to inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase


Penicillins l.jpg
Penicillins

  • b lactam antibioticsCell wall synthesis inhibitors

  • Inhibit cross-linking of peptidoglycan


Penicillin g l.jpg
Penicillin G

  • Penicillin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • Acid labileInhibits peptidoglycan cross-linking


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Penicillin V

  • Penicillin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • More acid resistant than Penicillin GInhibits peptidoglycan cross-linking


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Pentostatin

  • Antineoplastic

  • MiscellaneousEnzyme inhibitor(blocks purine synthesis)


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Piperacillin

  • Penicillin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • Anti-pseudomonal penicillinInhibits peptidoglycan cross-linking


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Polymyxin B

  • AntibioticDisrupts gram negative cell membrane

  • Binds phosphatidylethanolamineBactericidal


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Praziquantel

  • Antihelminthic

  • Treatment of trematode (fluke) and cestode (tapeworm) infections


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Primaquine

  • Antimalarial

  • Eliminates hepatic forms of plasmodium


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Procaine Penicillin G

  • Penicillin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • Repository preparationInhibits peptidoglycan cross-linking


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Pyrantel Pamoate

  • Antihelminthic

  • Treatment of intestinal roundworms


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Pyrazinamide

  • Antibiotic

  • Major drug for tuberculosis


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Pyrimethamine

  • AntimalarialProtein and nucleic acid synthesis inhibitor

  • Plasmodial dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor


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Ribavirin

  • Antiviral

  • Primarily used as aerosol for respiratory syncytial virus


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Rifampin

  • AntibioticNucleic acid synthesis inhibitor

  • Inhibits DNA dependent RNA polymeraseMajor drug for TB


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Rimantadine

  • Antiviral

  • Inhibits replicationat the stage of uncoating Treatment of Influenza A


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Ritonavir

  • Antiretroviral

  • Protease inhibitor (PI)


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Rituxumab

  • Antineoplastic

  • Anti-CD20 antibody


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Saquinavir

  • Antiretroviral

  • Protease inhibitor (PI)


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Silver sulfadiazine

  • Sulfonamide antibioticMicrobial nucleic acidand protein synthesis inhibitor

  • Inhibits dihydropteroate synthetaseTopical


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Sirolimus

Rapamycin

  • Immunosuppressive

  • Binds FKBP, inhibits mTOR (mammalian kinase target of rapamycin) & cell cycle progression


Sodium stibogluconate l.jpg
Sodium stibogluconate

  • Tropical antiparasitic

  • Organic antimonial Treatment of Leishmaniasis


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Spectinomycin

  • AntibioticBacteriostatic protein synthesis inhibitor

  • 30S ribosome


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Streptomycin

  • Aminoglycoside antibioticBactericidal protein synthesis inhibitor

  • 30S ribosomeFreezes initiation


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Sulfacetamide

  • Sulfonamide antibioticMicrobial nucleic acidand protein synthesis inhibitor

  • Inhibits dihydropteroate synthetaseTopical


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Sulfadoxine

  • Sulfonamide antibioticMicrobial nucleic acidand protein synthesis inhibitor

  • Dihydropteroate synthetase inhibitor


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Sulfamethoxazole

  • Sulfonamide antibioticMicrobial nucleic acidand protein synthesis inhibitor

  • Inhibits dihydropteroate synthetase


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Sulfisoxazole

  • Sulfonamide antibioticNucleic acid andprotein synthesis inhibitor

  • Inhibits dihydropteroate synthetase


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Sulfonamides

  • AntibioticsNucleic acid andprotein synthesis inhibitors

  • Inhibit dihydropteroate synthetase


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Suramin

  • Tropical antiparasitic

  • Treatment of African Trypanosomiasis


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Tacrolimus

  • ImmunosuppressiveAntineoplastic

  • Binds FKBP (FK506 binding protein)Inhibits calcineurin


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Tamoxifen

  • Antineoplastic Antiestrogen

  • Estrogen receptor anatagonist


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Terbinafine

  • Allylamine antifungal

  • Inhibits ergosterol synthesis by inhibiting squalene epoxidase


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Tetracycline

  • AntibioticBacteriostatic protein synthesis inhibitor Antiulcer

  • 30S ribosomePrevents aminoacyl tRNA attachment


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Thalidomide

  • Antineoplastic

  • Anti-angiogenicAnti-TNFLeprosy (not antibiotic)


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Thiabendazole

  • Antihelminthic

  • Treatment of intestinal roundworms


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6-Thioguanine

  • Antineoplastic

  • Antimetabolite (“pseudofeedback inhibition” of HGPRT and PRP – purine synthesis)


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Thiotepa

  • Antineoplastic

  • Alkylating agent


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Ticarcillin

  • Penicillin antibioticCell wall synthesis inhibitor

  • Anti-pseudomonal penicillinInhibits peptidoglycan cross-linking


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Tobramycin

  • Aminoglycoside antibioticBactericidal protein synthesis inhibitor

  • 30S ribosomeFreezes initiation


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Trastuzumab

  • Antineoplastic

  • Anti-HER2 antibody


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Trifluridine

  • Antiherpes

  • Pyrimidine analogPhosphorylated to inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase


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Trimethoprim

  • AntibioticProtein and nucleic acidsynthesis inhibitor

  • Inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase


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Trimetrexate

  • Antibiotic

  • Folic acid antagonist Treatment for Pneumocystis carinii


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Tumor necrosis factor

  • CytokineAntineoplastic


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Valacyclovir

  • Antiherpes

  • Purine analogPhosphorylated to inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase


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Valganciclovir

  • Antiherpes

  • Purine analogPhosphorylated to inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase


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Vancomycin

  • AntibioticInhibits cell wall synthesis

  • Not a b lactam


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Vinblastine

  • Antineoplastic

  • Vinca alkaloidNatural product


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Vincristine

  • Antineoplastic

  • Vinca alkaloidNatural product


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Voriconazole

  • Triazole antifungal

  • Inhibits synthesis of ergosterol by inhibiting lanosterol 14a demethylase


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Zalcitabine

  • Antiretroviral

  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)Dideoxycytidine (ddC)


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Zanamivir

  • Antiviral

  • Inhibits neuraminidaseand decreases viral release Treatment of Influenza A & B


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Zidovudine

Azidothymidine (AZT)

  • Antiretroviral

  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)


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