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Policy, Legislation and Institutional Arrangements: An ADPC Commentary on Innovation and Good Practice in DRR Governance in Asia. Presentation by A.J Rego (ADPC) for the Seventh IIASA -DPRI Forum on Integrated Disaster Risk Management Asian Conference for Disaster Reduction

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Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

Policy, Legislation and Institutional Arrangements:

An ADPC Commentary on Innovation and Good Practice in DRR Governance in Asia

Presentation by A.J Rego (ADPC) for the Seventh IIASA -DPRI Forum on Integrated Disaster Risk Management

Asian Conference for Disaster Reduction

21st September 2007 - Italy


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

The Importance of Good Practice in DM Legislation

  • Background on Disasters in the Region -

  • Asia - most disaster prone continent in the world - over 50% of total world disasters

  • Disasters exacerbated by Asia’s rising population, increased development + urban expansion

  • Asia is home to nearly two thirds of the world’s population


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

  • The 2 deadliest disasters of 2006 were both in Asia

  • -Indonesian EQ (May) killing 5,778

  • -Typhoon Durian (Philippines, Dec.) killing 1,399

  • Typically DM activities in Asia have been focused around relief + response efforts on mitigation, preparedness and DRR measures


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

Catastrophes As Turning Points

1880’s - run up to IDNDR

1990/91 - Mt. Pinatubo eruption & Bagiou EQ saw start of NDCC in Philippines

1991 - Bangladesh cyclone prompted separate DM Bureau (‘93)

1994 - Yokohama conference stimulated national & sub regional action plans for DM

1995 - Kobe EQ -changes in building control

1996 - Typhoon Linda led to better implementation of 1993 Water Disaster Management Plan


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

Catastrophes As Turning Points

1997 - El Nino induced fires showed regional scale of disaster & response

1998 - China adopted Natural Disaster Reduction Plan

1998 - IDNDR catalysed new commitment and action

2000 - floods, EQ’s and cyclones in India promoted formation of high powered committee on DM policy

2000 - Mekong floods in Cambodia & Vietnam led to regional river basin approach to FMM led by MRC

2001 -Gujarat EQ accelerated HPC report


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

UNDP Global Review on DRM ILS (2004)

  • A Global Review:UNDP Support to Institutional and Legislative Systems (ILS) for Disaster Risk Management


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

ILS for DRM

  • Institutional and Legislative Systems (ILS) for Disaster Risk Management are important components of “good governance” and should be guided by the same basic principles, (i.e. accountability, participation, rule of law, effectiveness and sustainability).

  • For the purpose of this review, ILS have been broken down into five important dimensions:

    • legal and regulatory frameworks

    • policy and planning

    • organizational aspects

    • resources and capacities

    • partnerships (international and national levels)


Hfa 2005 15 priority on governance

HFA (2005-15) - Priority on Governance

Priority 1: Ensures that disaster risk reduction is a national and local priority with strong institutional basis for implementation.

  • Strong national and local commitment is required to save lives and livelihoods threatened by natural disasters.

  • Countries to develop or modify policies, laws and organisational arrangements, as well as plans, programs and projects, to integrate DRR and allocation of sufficient resources to support and maintain them.


Hfa priority no 1 calls for

HFA Priority no. 1 calls for

  • Institutionalization of DRR and establishment of mechanisms to mainstream it

  • Creation of effective multi-sector national platforms to provide policy guidance and to coordinate activities

  • Community participation so that local needs are met


Unisdr guiding principles for national platforms

UNISDR Guiding Principles for National Platforms

  • DRR should be regarded as a national and cross-cutting issue within the field of sustainable development.

  • National platforms should utilize a participatory process that includes multidisciplinary and multi-sectoral perspectives and actions that are linked to existing systems.

  • National platforms should influence positive changes by making concerted and coordinated efforts, particularly in policy, planning and decision-making processes.

  • National platforms should encourage the national adaptation and ownershipof the HFA.


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

ADPC interest in Policy and Legislation for DRR

  • 1988-91: Disaster Managers Handbook for ADB

  • 1990-94: UN Inter Agency DM Training Program was implemented in 56 countries -ADPC involved with 7 workshops in Asia Identified need for information sharing on institutional design of national DM offices and National DM Plans


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

ADPC interest in Policy and Legislation for DRR

  • 1999 - AUDMP Regional Sharing Workshop

  • Identified need for enhanced institutional arrangements for DM in Asia, at both national and city level

  • Key concern at ADPC Regional Consultative Committee on DM (RCC)

  • ADPC Regional Workshop and Study on Policy, Legal and Institutional Arrangements for DM in Asia (Bangkok, 2002) - to share information on good practices and successful strategies b/w countries

  • UNDP DM Institutional Strengthening Projects in Sri Lanka and Cambodia implemented by ADPC


Rcc 2 priorities for capacity building for national systems

RCC 2 Priorities for Capacity Building for National Systems

  • Integrating disaster management into

  • national planning

  • Strengthening national disaster

  • management committees/agencies

  • Developing disaster management plans

  • Exchanging experience on legal and

  • institutional arrangements

  • Creating awareness and political

  • support

  • (As prioritized during RCC 1 and RCC 2, for implementation by RCC Member countries and ADPC)


Rcc 2 priorities for capacity building for national systems1

RCC 2 Priorities for Capacity Building for National Systems

• Building national disaster management

information systems

• Improving disaster management

training and capacity building

• Promoting public awareness and media

coverage of disaster risk reduction

• Enhancing scientific and technical

cooperation in disaster management

(As prioritized during RCC 1 and RCC 2, for implementation by RCC Member countries and ADPC)


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

DKKV-GTZ-ADPC Study

  • Study on National Platforms for Disaster Reduction 2006 analyses the current institutional arrangements and potentials of national platforms for disaster reduction in three South (East) Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka.


Analysis

Analysis

  • National agencies (MoFDM in Bangladesh, NCDM in Cambodia, MDMHR and DMC in Sri Lanka) should serve as the cornerstone of a “national platform

  • Advancing risk reduction through program implementation in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka

  • Specific Actions in Cambodia

  • Integration of DRR issues into development planning process in each country

  • National Reporting on HFA Implementation

  • Benefits from Regional Linkages


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

Importance of Integrating DRR Measures into Government Policy

  • Best use of scarce response resources - ensure responsible use of resources + implement DRR + mitigation activities

  • Disaster resilience - ensure limited disruption to community post disaster by maintaining essential services

  • Sustainability of publicly funded assets + infrastructure - hazard adjustments to protect government investments

  • Risk management coordinator - effective DM depends on this for resource + communication coordination


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

  • National level planning and execution - realisation that disasters affect all levels of society

  • Regulatory requirements and enforcement -change societal values through government legislature

  • Economic benefits of mitigation - risk reduction + disaster prevention are cheaper then recovery costs

  • Developing national strategies -government can plan counter measures + has authority to commit resources


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

Importance of Legislation

  • Defines actions to be taken during emergencies

  • Provides formal support to preparedness measures and organisational arrangements

  • Delegation of responsibilities/resources

  • Creates a uniform national effect


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

National DM Policy

Establish national agency/ organisation to deal with national risks/hazards - disaster counter measure

Coordinate DM activities eg. define roles/responsibilities and allocate resources

Provide framework for action

Implement pre-disaster mitigation + preparedness measures

Coordinate relief activities + assessments in disaster aftermath


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

  • National DM policy clearly defines methods and means of mitigating and dealing with disaster threats whether by ‘action enforcing’ policies, ‘attention focusing’ or ‘recovery’ policies

  • Institutions and arrangements regarding DM need to be adaptable to changing times/circumstances/ developments/competencies/DRR knowledge and need to recognise the potential of every individual/ organisation to contribute to DRR strategies

  • - allocate necessary responsibility/resources


Good drr governance practices in asia

Good DRR Governance Practices in Asia

  • SNAP Thailand

  • Cambodia's CBDRR strategy

  • Sri Lanka road map

  • Indonesia DRR NAP

  • Laos National Action Plan

  • Vietnam DRR Strategy

  • Bangladesh CDMP

  • India DRR framework

  • Pakistan DRR framework


Bangladesh

Bangladesh

  • Comprehensive Disaster Management Plan (CDMP) is articulated through the Ministry’s “Corporate Plan: A Framework of Action 2005-2009”, which highlights a road map for the development of internal strategic plans for its three operational directorates. The plans are based on collaborative partnerships, particularly with NGOs, and seek ensure the effective and sustainable delivery of services in each sector.


India

India

  • Disaster Management Act 2005

  • National DM Framework 2002

  • High Powered Committee 1999 - improving country’s DM systems to develop culture of quick response, strategic thinking and prevention


Indonesia

Indonesia

  • Disaster Management Law 2006

    • Implementing Rules and Regulation

  • National Action Plan for Disaster Reduction


Sri lanka

Sri Lanka

Disaster Management Act. No. 13 of 2005 Road Map for Safer Sri Lanka (2005-2015)


Guidelines of sri lanka

Guidelines of Sri Lanka


Lao pdr

Lao PDR

  • National DM Committee 1995

  • National DM Plan 2015 (2003) – Targets on wide range including Provincial DM Strategies and District DM Plans

  • Khamouane Province DM Strategy (2004)

  • Nong Bok DM Plan (2006)


Cambodia

Cambodia

  • Flood Preparedness Program (FPP) of Prey Vent, Kandal and Kratie Provinces (2005-2006)

  • District level FPP in 4 Districts (May, 2006)

  • Priority FPP Projects proposed for consideration under Commune Development Plan (Nov 2006)


Cambodia1

Cambodia

  • Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Strategy (2007-2012) for Flood and Drought

    Guidance for Promoting and Implementing Community level Action for Self Reliance and Flood and Drought risk reductionStrategic Framework and Road Map for developing and implementing an Action Program (2007- 2012) by a multi stake holder partnership


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

RCC MDRD Program

RCC Program on MDRD launched at WCDR

Registered as post WCDR Partnership

5th Meeting: Issued Hanoi RCC 5 Statement on Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into development policy, planning and implementation in Asia

RCC MDRD

Program Brochure and ‘Towards a Tool Kit launched at RCC 6 Meeting


Mainstreaming drr into priority sectors

Mainstreaming DRR into Priority Sectors

Mainstreaming DRM in priority sectors such as:

  • Agriculture

  • Urban Planning and Infrastructure

  • Housing

  • Financial Services

  • Education

  • Health

  • Environment and Natural Resources


Mainstreaming drr into agriculture and education

Mainstreaming DRR into Agriculture and Education

Guidelines and Implementation Plan for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into Agriculture sector of Lao PDR and Education sector in Cambodia

In partnership with National Disaster Management Office (NDMO) and Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in Lao PDR; National Committee of Disaster Management (NCDM) and Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) in Cambodia


Mainstreaming drr into roads and bridges

Mainstreaming DRR into Roads and Bridges

Mainstreaming Disaster Reduction in Infrastructure Sector by incorporating Risk Impact Assessment procedures into planning process before construction of new Road and Bridges in Philippines

  • Analysis on past damagessuffered by the Road and Bridge infrastructure in Philippines in the last 10-15 years due to different hazards like Landslides, Earthquake, Volcanoes and Typhoons/Cyclones

  • Identification of specific steps for incorporation in the present project cycle for construction of Roads and Bridges to address the use of disaster risk assessment

  • Proposing areas of revision in the existing national structural codes and DPWH specifications for design standards of hazard resilient construction and provide comments on how to improve compliance and enforcement with these specifications

in partnership with National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) and Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH)


Policy legislation and institutional arrangements

  • RCC MDRD Phase II

  • Title: Partnerships for Safe Development and Good Governance in Asia

  • Implementation Period:2008-2012

  • Based on 4 principles of :

    • Multi donor funding,

    • Internal contribution of RCC Member countries,

    • Active partnership with UN agencies, IFIs, donors and partners,

    • Synergistic lessons learning partnership between the RCC Program and other national and regional DRR programs running on different scales, timelines and donor funding


Sub components of component 1

Sub Components of Component 2

Sub Components of Component 1

  • SAFER EDUCATION SYSTEM

  • SAFER HEALTH FACILITY

  • SAFER INFRASTRUCTURE (ROADS)

  • SECURE LIVELIHOOD

  • SAFER SHELTER (HOUSING)

  • SAFER WATER AND SANITATION

Mainstreaming DRR

  • National Development Plans and PRSP

  • In-Country Assessments and the Multi-year Program Framework of International Development Agencies (ADB, EU, World Bank and Bilateral Donors); the UN Common Country Assessment and UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) Process;

  • Developing and Implementing the National Disaster Risk Reduction Plan

  • Institutionalizing of Community-Based Disaster Risk Management in Government Policy and programs at National, Provincial and District levels.

  • Mainstreaming DRR into Environment

  • Mainstreaming DRR into Local Governance


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