Exploring pedagogy presence and participation in interactive formative assessment
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Exploring Pedagogy, Presence and Participation in Interactive Formative Assessment. Denise Whitelock and Marc Eisenstadt IET and KMi, The Open University, e-mail: [email protected] Presentation Outline. What have we learnt about interactive learning?

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Exploring pedagogy presence and participation in interactive formative assessment

Exploring Pedagogy, Presence and Participation in Interactive Formative Assessment

Denise Whitelock and Marc Eisenstadt

IET and KMi,

The Open University,

e-mail: [email protected]

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Presentation outline

Presentation Outline

  • What have we learnt about interactive learning?

  • What does it mean to work in the presence of others?

  • From scaffolded feedback to scaffolded assessment?

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Global warming

Global Warming

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Global warming1

Global Warming

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Interactivity and feedback

Interactivity and Feedback

  • Interaction, Feedback loops

    • Tell, Explore, Check

    • Predict, Look and Explain

  • Entering the discourse of a subject via audio feedback

  • Scaffolded text feedback (Bruner & Woods)

  • SHOW ME button

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Interactivity and cognitive change scores

Interactivity and Cognitive Change Scores

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


What do we know about presence

What do we know about Presence?

  • Motivating

  • Engagement

  • Nature of task (Malone & Leper)

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Working in the presence of others is better than working alone

Working in the presence of others is better than working alone?

  • PuckLand simulation

  • Pairs matched for cognitive dissonance

  • Worked completely alone and in the presence of others

  • Significant difference between working in presence of others and working alone (Whitelock et al, 1995)

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Presence

Presence

  • No agreed definition

  • Immersion and Presence (Slater et al, 1995)

  • Immersion is how much a person is “in” the environment

  • Presence is a sense of “being there”

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Presence and conceptual learning whitelock et al s cube

Presence and Conceptual Learning: Whitelock et al’s Cube

  • Presence, Immediacy of Control and Representational Fidelity are the variables and predict:

  • High Presence and high degree of Immediacy of Control equals high implicit learning

  • Low value of Immediacy of Control is more likely to be associated with explicit learning

  • Representational Fidelity has a smaller affect on conceptual understanding than appropriately designed infidelities

  • Desktop VR environments tested and support above hypotheses, see Jelfs & Whitelock, 2000; Brna, 1999; Whitelock & Jelfs, 2004

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


The role of presence findings from buddyspace

The Role of Presence: Findings from BuddySpace

Analysis of 1000 discussion forum messages among OU language students showed that at least 20% of those were location-centric

Instant Messaging with location info

Automatic group and map generation

Very scalable and customizable

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Buddyspace

Buddyspace

15 evaluation questionnaires from long term users (>6months)

Users were asked to rate ‘group belongingness’ engendered by 20 activities, situations, physical and digital artifacts.

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Buddyspace1

Buddyspace

  • Automatically-generated groups and enhanced ‘state’ information are perceived as the most beneficial and most frequently-used feature of BuddySpace

  • BuddySpace maps, personal rosters and group rosters ranked within top 5 items

BuddySpace endorses our long-term goal of fostering a sense of ‘group belongingness’

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


From interactivity and presence findings to building formative assessment environments

From Interactivity and Presence findings to building Formative Assessment Environments

  • Formative assessment is a powerful means to improve student learning (Black & Williams, 2001)

  • Effect size on standardised tests of between 0.4 and 0.7

  • How can we support our students to become more reflective learners and engage in formative assessment tasks?

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Openmark and buddyspace

OpenMark and BuddySpace

  • Need a system to provide scaffolded feedback to students

  • Check reasoning

  • Communicate with others

  • Find a partner with relevant experience to support information sharing

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Openmark

OpenMark

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Openmark1

OpenMark

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Buddyspace2

BuddySpace

  • Automatic map construction to show locations

  • Automatic roster (‘buddy list’) construction using OU login authentication… so it knows which workgroup or tutorial group I’m in

  • Many views: map, timelines, etc.

  • Plug-ins for future enhancements

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Exploring pedagogy presence and participation in interactive formative assessment

BuddySpace

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Exploring pedagogy presence and participation in interactive formative assessment

  • “State of mind”

  • goals, plans, intentions

  • devices

  • user profiling

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Exploring pedagogy presence and participation in interactive formative assessment

Smart inset chosen,depending onactual data

Automatic

Map

Generation

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Exploring pedagogy presence and participation in interactive formative assessment

Right-click to ‘drill down’into ‘cluster’ nodes

(provides scaleability)

Automatic

Map

Generation

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Buddyfinder

BuddyFinder

Generally: “Find me the person who can really help me now.”

More specifically:

  • Who else is facing a similar problem?

  • Where can I find complementary approaches?

  • Has anyone found contrary evidence?

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Exploring pedagogy presence and participation in interactive formative assessment

BuddyFinder

Arbitrary keywords

at user’s discretion

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Exploring pedagogy presence and participation in interactive formative assessment

Easy

search

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Exploring pedagogy presence and participation in interactive formative assessment

Matches

‘light up’

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Exploring pedagogy presence and participation in interactive formative assessment

BuddyFinder

Invokes

Google’s Web Service

behind the scenes,

if requested,

and auto-highlights

within user’s own map!

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Working with course teams

Working with Course Teams

  • H806 Learning in the Connected Economy – BuddyFinder

  • Technology short course – OpenMark addressing misconceptions

  • Combining BuddyFinder and a science problem solving environment

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Next yoked apps via buddyspace

Next: ‘Yoked’ apps via BuddySpace

Student A

Student B

(‘yoked’, butwithout full

screen sharing

required!)

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Interactive formative assessment

Interactive Formative Assessment

No longer learning about X but reflecting about X

  • Students are able to find facts similar to X

  • Know how X might be disputed

  • Are able to make predictions about X

  • Know how to use X in an argument

  • Know how far X can be pushed

  • Supported with e-tools and pedagogical strategies

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


Thank you

Thank you

  • Chris Denham: BuddyFinder and OpenMark tools

  • Jiri Komzak: BuddySpace

  • Martin Dzbor and Rod Norfor: Jabber and BuddySpace servers

  • Jon Rosewell, Technology

  • Chris Pegler, H806

  • S103 Team

DMW, IET, and ME, KMi, Open University, 2005


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