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Airstream mechanisms and phonation types


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Airstream mechanisms and phonation types

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Airstream mechanisms and phonation types

Airstreammechanisms and phonation types


Outline

Outline

  • Airstreammechanisms – general overview

  • Pulmonic AM

  • Glottalic AM

  • Velaric AM

  • Phonation types

  • Voicelessnes

  • Whisper

  • Breathiness

  • Voice

  • Creak

  • Voiceonset time


A irstream mechanisms general classification

Airstream mechanisms:General classification


Pulmonic lung am 1

Pulmonic (lung) AM (1)

Pulmonic egressive AM

  • basic to speech production

  • standard AM (e.g. English, Spanish, Polish, Indonesian, Chinese)

  • the sole AM

Pulmonic ingressive AM

  • [ja] inNorwegian and Danish – sympathy, agreementorcommiseration

  • [nei] – surprise (Norwegian and Danish), sympathy (Danish)

  • Pulmonic ingressive AM

  • possible

  • isn’tused for systematically for distinctivephonologicalpurposes

  • paralinguisticuses (Western cultures)


Pulmonic lung am 2

Pulmonic (lung) AM (2)

  • Pulmonic egressive AM

  • generator of the airstream – the respiratory system

    • inspiration – active

    • expiration – passive*

  • easier to control

  • less overall articulatory effort


Pulmonic lung am 3

Pulmonic (lung) AM (3)

Differentactivity of the respiratory system:

  • breathing

    • about 12 inspirations and expirations per minute

    • expirationphaseonlyslightlylonger

    • inspiration – muscular action (activeprocess)

    • expiration – mechanical and elasticrecoilforce (passiveprocess)

  • speech

    • expirationphase much longer

    • expiration – a controlledprocesswithco-activation of the inspiratory and expiratorymuscles


Glottalic am 1

Glottalic AM (1)

  • glottis (larynx) – initiator of an airstream

  • glottis closed – the air in the lungsblockedoff

  • movement of the larynxin the pharynx

    • controlled by elevator and depressorlaryngealmuscles

    • upward – egressive AM – ejectives

    • downward – ingressive AM – implosives


Glottalic am 2

Glottalic AM (2)

Ejectives

  • stops, fricatives and affricates

  • precedeorfollowsoundsusing pulmonic AM

Pronunciation of a glottalic egressive velar stop [k’]:


Glottalic am 3

Glottalic AM (3)

Ejectivesarefoundinlanguages of:

  • Africa (Hausa),

  • North (Lakhota, Navajo), Central (Quicheanlanguage of Guatemala) and SouthAm,

  • Asia (mainlyin the Caucasusarea: Georgian and Circassian)

  • Soundexamples: http://www.paulmeier.com/ipa/nonpulmonics.html


Glottalic am 4

Glottalic AM (4)

Implosives

  • incompleteclosure of the glottis – voicing

  • voicelessimplosives – extremelyrare

  • onlystops

  • languages: African (Zulu, Hausa, Margi), Asian (Sindhi), American (Maidu)


Glottalic am 5

Glottalic AM (5)

Soundexamples – go to http://www.paulmeier.com/ipa/nonpulmonics.html

Pronunciation of a glottalicbilabialimplosive [б]:


Velaric am 1

Velaric AM (1)

  • oralcavity

  • 2 closures– double articulation:

    • the back of the tongue – velum

    • anteriorclosure – the lips, the tip, blade or front of the tongue

  • onlyingressive airflow

  • cliks– stops and affricates

  • phonologicaldistinctions – ratheruncommon(Africanlanguages of Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Tanzania)

  • paralinguisticuses of cliks: tsk, tsksignallingimpatienceorexasperation


Velaric am 2

Velaric AM (2)

Pronunciation of a velaringressivevoicelessdental [k]:

Soundexamples – go to http://www.paulmeier.com/ipa/nonpulmonics.html


Phonation types

Phonation types

  • Phonation:

    • vocal foldvibration

    • any state of the glottis

  • Phonationmodes:

    • voicelessness

    • whisper

    • breathiness (breathyvoice, murmur)

    • voice

    • creak (creakyvoice, laryngelization)


Voicelessness

Voicelessness

  • absence of anyphonation

  • widelyorfullyopened glottis (60-95% of the maximumpossibleglottalarea) – a non-turbulent airflow


Whisper

Whisper

  • greaterconstriction of the glottis (>25% of the possibleglottalarea)

  • adduction of the vocal folds, an openingbetween the arytenoidcartilages

  • characteristicflowratesabout 25-30 cc/s

  • linguisticuses – rare

  • paralinguisticuses – signalssecrecyorconfidentiality

  • onlyvoicedsounds can be whispered


Breathiness murmur

Breathiness (murmur)

  • vocal foldsarepulledapart + continuousturbulent airflow (vibration)

  • incompleteglottalclosure, the arytenoidcartilagesslightlyapart

  • characteristicflowratesabove 200-300 cc/s

  • systematicdistinctions e.g. Hindi, Urdu (contrastbh-b, gh-g), Tamang (voicedvs. breathyvowels)

  • English: [h] betweenvowels (ahead, behind), voicequality, laryngealdisorders


Voice

Voice

  • normal vocal foldvibrationalong the length of the glottis

  • a number of subtypesinbetweenbreathy and creakyvoice

  • variationinvoicequality (fromdarkormellow to brightorsharpvoicequality)

  • voicing – normal for vowels, nasal and lateralconsonants


Creaky voice laryngelization

Creakyvoice (laryngelization)

  • lowfrequencyvibration of the vocal cords

  • irregular and short period of the opening of the glottis

  • the vibrationoccursin the anterior part

  • flowrate of 12-20 cc/s


Creaky voice 2

Creakyvoice (2)

  • phonologicaldistinction:

    • betweenvoicedvs. creakyconsonants: West Africanlanguages (Hausa, Bura, Margi)

    • between „normally” voicedvs. creakyvowels: Ateso (Kenia), Lango (Uganda, Sudan)

  • inEnglish, Polish:

    • inutteranceswithfallingintonationin the end

    • feature of a speaker oreffect of a speakingdisorder


Voice onset time 1

Voiceonset time (1)

  • refers to the start of the phonationrelative to the release of the closure

  • mainlyrelevant to stops

Stops (betweenvowels) distinguished by VOT (adaptedfrom P. Ladefoged, A course inphonetics)


Voice onset time 2

Voiceonset time (2)

  • VOT is a secondaryfactorin e.g. English, German

    • [p], [t], [k] : wordinitial, before a vowel, stressed – aspirated(identification of voicelessness)

    • wordinitial [b], [d], [g] – partiallyvoiced

    • inPolish, French, Dutch – onlyvoicelessvs. voiced

  • Primaryfactor – phonologicaldistinctionsin:

    • Thai, Burmese: voicelessaspirated, voicelessunaspirated and voiced

    • Hindi: voicelessaspirated, voicelessunaspirated, voiced and breathyvoiced