Airstream mechanisms and phonation types
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Airstream mechanisms and phonation types

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Airstream mechanisms and phonation types

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1. Airstream mechanisms and phonation types

2. Outline Airstream mechanisms ? general overview Pulmonic AM Glottalic AM Velaric AM Phonation types Voicelessnes Whisper Breathiness Voice Creak Voice onset time

3. Airstream mechanisms: General classification Last week we only briefly mentioned the issue of airstream mechanisms. We said that they provide the source of energy for generating speech sounds using airflow and pressure in the vocal tract and that three basic mechanisms are distinguished: pulmonic (or lung), glottalic and velaric AM. Depending on the direction of the airflow a further distinction can be drawn, namely that between ingressive and egressive mechanisms.Last week we only briefly mentioned the issue of airstream mechanisms. We said that they provide the source of energy for generating speech sounds using airflow and pressure in the vocal tract and that three basic mechanisms are distinguished: pulmonic (or lung), glottalic and velaric AM. Depending on the direction of the airflow a further distinction can be drawn, namely that between ingressive and egressive mechanisms.

4. Pulmonic (lung) AM (1) Pulmonic egressive AM basic to speech production standard AM (e.g. English, Spanish, Polish, Indonesian, Chinese) the sole AM The pulmonic egressive AM Si basic to speech production. It is the ?standard? AM in all languages. It can be found in languages as diverse as English, Spanish, Polish, Indonesian or Chinese and most of the time it is the sole AM. Even though the speech on a pulmonic ingressive AM is possible (you can try to produce a groan or even a vowel when breating in) it isn?t used as a distinctive feature of particular speech sounds during normal articulation in any language of the world. However, in Western cultures it is sometimes used for paralinguistic purposes to express different emotional states. For example in Norwegian and Danish the word ja (yes) produced on an ingressive airstream signals sympathy, agreement or commiseration. The word nei (no) pronounced on an inward breath expresses surprise (Danish, Norwegian) or sympathy (Danish).The pulmonic egressive AM Si basic to speech production. It is the ?standard? AM in all languages. It can be found in languages as diverse as English, Spanish, Polish, Indonesian or Chinese and most of the time it is the sole AM. Even though the speech on a pulmonic ingressive AM is possible (you can try to produce a groan or even a vowel when breating in) it isn?t used as a distinctive feature of particular speech sounds during normal articulation in any language of the world. However, in Western cultures it is sometimes used for paralinguistic purposes to express different emotional states. For example in Norwegian and Danish the word ja (yes) produced on an ingressive airstream signals sympathy, agreement or commiseration. The word nei (no) pronounced on an inward breath expresses surprise (Danish, Norwegian) or sympathy (Danish).

5. Pulmonic (lung) AM (2) The pulmonic egressive AM exploits the respiratory system to provide an outward-flowing stream of air which is then modulated by articulatory actions of the larynx and supralaryngeal organs (i.e. the part of the vocal tract above the trachea). The lungs can be described as spongelike tissues located in a cavity formed by the rib cage and diaphragm. Inhalation: The contraction of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles causes the lungs to flatten and to stretch downward. The expansion of the lungs is accompanied by the expansion of the air inside them (a gas will always fill its container) which causes a drop in the air pressure in the lungs. As a result the air in the lungs is at a lower pressure than the air outside. As the air flows always from higher to lower pressure, the air flows into the lungs from outside. Exhalation: Expiration or exhalation is said to be a passive process because it does not involve muscle contraction. The diaphragm and the intercostal muscles relax and the lungs recoil (cofaja sie) elastically reducing their volume. The volume (objetosc) of air in the lungs decreases causing an increase in the air pressure. The air in the lungs is at a higher pressure than the air outside so it flows out of the lungs (air flows from higher to lower pressure). As the lungs recoil, the diaphragm is pulled up and the ribcage moves downward. Comparing to other AM the pulmonic AM is easier to control and requires less overall articulatory effort in sustained speech, largely because speakers can expolit the realxation pressure available when the lungs are relatively full and can thus expell air in a slow, controlled fashion.The pulmonic egressive AM exploits the respiratory system to provide an outward-flowing stream of air which is then modulated by articulatory actions of the larynx and supralaryngeal organs (i.e. the part of the vocal tract above the trachea). The lungs can be described as spongelike tissues located in a cavity formed by the rib cage and diaphragm. Inhalation: The contraction of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles causes the lungs to flatten and to stretch downward. The expansion of the lungs is accompanied by the expansion of the air inside them (a gas will always fill its container) which causes a drop in the air pressure in the lungs. As a result the air in the lungs is at a lower pressure than the air outside. As the air flows always from higher to lower pressure, the air flows into the lungs from outside. Exhalation: Expiration or exhalation is said to be a passive process because it does not involve muscle contraction. The diaphragm and the intercostal muscles relax and the lungs recoil (cofaja sie) elastically reducing their volume. The volume (objetosc) of air in the lungs decreases causing an increase in the air pressure. The air in the lungs is at a higher pressure than the air outside so it flows out of the lungs (air flows from higher to lower pressure). As the lungs recoil, the diaphragm is pulled up and the ribcage moves downward. Comparing to other AM the pulmonic AM is easier to control and requires less overall articulatory effort in sustained speech, largely because speakers can expolit the realxation pressure available when the lungs are relatively full and can thus expell air in a slow, controlled fashion.

6. Pulmonic (lung) AM (3) Different activity of the respiratory system: breathing about 12 inspirations and expirations per minute expiration phase only slightly longer inspiration ? muscular action (active process) expiration ? mechanical and elastic recoil force (passive process) The activities of the respiratory system during quiet breating and speech differ significantly. In breating most people take about 12 inspirations (i.e. breats in) and expirations (breaths out) per minute. It is characteristic of breating that the expiratory phase is only slightly longer than the inspiratory phase. Inhalation ? inspiration: In breating the lungs expand to inhale by the actions of the inspiratory muscles: diaphragm (dajefram) and intercostal muscles. Exhalation ? expiration: During expiration the air is expelled from the lungs by the mechanical and elasic recoil force of the lung tissue, diaphragm, the cavities of the thorax (foraks ? klatka piersiowa) and abdomen. In speech the expiration is much longer than the inspiration and contrary to breating, the expiration takes much longer than the inspiration and muscular action is exploited to the same extent as recoil factors (i.e. expiration during speech is regulated by the thoracic (forasik) system and abdominal muscles).The activities of the respiratory system during quiet breating and speech differ significantly. In breating most people take about 12 inspirations (i.e. breats in) and expirations (breaths out) per minute. It is characteristic of breating that the expiratory phase is only slightly longer than the inspiratory phase. Inhalation ? inspiration: In breating the lungs expand to inhale by the actions of the inspiratory muscles: diaphragm (dajefram) and intercostal muscles. Exhalation ? expiration: During expiration the air is expelled from the lungs by the mechanical and elasic recoil force of the lung tissue, diaphragm, the cavities of the thorax (foraks ? klatka piersiowa) and abdomen. In speech the expiration is much longer than the inspiration and contrary to breating, the expiration takes much longer than the inspiration and muscular action is exploited to the same extent as recoil factors (i.e. expiration during speech is regulated by the thoracic (forasik) system and abdominal muscles).

7. Glottalic AM (1) glottis (larynx) ? initiator of an airstream glottis closed ? the air in the lungs blocked off movement of the larynx in the pharynx controlled by elevator and depressor laryngeal muscles upward ? egressive AM ? ejectives downward ? ingressive AM ? implosives The glottalic AM uses the air above the glottis. When the glottal AM is the sole AM involved in the production of a speech sound, the glottis is closed, the vocal folds are adjusted and the air in the lungs is blocked off from the air in the rest of the vocal tract. The airflow is initiated by an upward and downward movement of the larynx controlled by elevator and depressor laryngeal muscles. when the larynx moves up the pharynx the air is pushed out of the mouth and an egressive AM is generated. Sounds produced using this AM are called ejectives. On the contrary, If the closed larynx moves down the pharynx, the air is sucked into the mouth and an ingressive AM is generated. Sounds produced using this AM are called implosives. The glottalic AM uses the air above the glottis. When the glottal AM is the sole AM involved in the production of a speech sound, the glottis is closed, the vocal folds are adjusted and the air in the lungs is blocked off from the air in the rest of the vocal tract. The airflow is initiated by an upward and downward movement of the larynx controlled by elevator and depressor laryngeal muscles. when the larynx moves up the pharynx the air is pushed out of the mouth and an egressive AM is generated. Sounds produced using this AM are called ejectives. On the contrary, If the closed larynx moves down the pharynx, the air is sucked into the mouth and an ingressive AM is generated. Sounds produced using this AM are called implosives.

8. Glottalic AM (2) Ejectives stops, fricatives and affricates precede or follow sounds using pulmonic AM Sounds which are produced using the egreesive glottalic AM include stops, fricatives and affricates. In the flow of articulation they usually precede or follow sounds produced using the standard lung AM, because the airflow generated by the laryngeal movement is relatively weak and of short duration. rysunek!!! The figure below shows the sequence of events that occurs in a glottalic egressive velar stop [k?].Sounds which are produced using the egreesive glottalic AM include stops, fricatives and affricates. In the flow of articulation they usually precede or follow sounds produced using the standard lung AM, because the airflow generated by the laryngeal movement is relatively weak and of short duration. rysunek!!! The figure below shows the sequence of events that occurs in a glottalic egressive velar stop [k?].

9. Glottalic AM (3) Ejectives are found in languages of: Africa (Hausa), North (Lakhota, Navajo), Central (Quichean language of Guatemala) and South Am, Asia (mainly in the Caucasus area: Georgian and Circassian) Sound examples: http://www.paulmeier.com/ipa/nonpulmonics.html

10. Glottalic AM (4) Implosives incomplete closure of the glottis ? voicing voiceless implosives ? extremely rare only stops languages: African (Zulu, Hausa, Margi), Asian (Sindhi), American (Maidu) Implosive sounds are made with the ingressive glottalic mechanism. During their production the glottis is not entirely closed and some small amount of the air from the lungs is pushed out causing the vocal folds to vibrate, so that there is voicing. This mechanism is very often described as a combination of a glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive AM. Voiceless implosives are extremely rare, they are found only in two languages: Tojolabal (Mexico) and Cakchiquel (Guatemala). Only oral stops are made using this AM and historically, they originate from plosives that became more and more voiced. Implosives can be found in African, Asian and American languages. Implosive sounds are made with the ingressive glottalic mechanism. During their production the glottis is not entirely closed and some small amount of the air from the lungs is pushed out causing the vocal folds to vibrate, so that there is voicing. This mechanism is very often described as a combination of a glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive AM. Voiceless implosives are extremely rare, they are found only in two languages: Tojolabal (Mexico) and Cakchiquel (Guatemala). Only oral stops are made using this AM and historically, they originate from plosives that became more and more voiced. Implosives can be found in African, Asian and American languages.

11. Glottalic AM (5) Sound examples ? go to http://www.paulmeier.com/ipa/nonpulmonics.html rysunek!!! The figure below shows the estimated sequence of events in a Sindhi glottalic bilabial implosive [?]. The lips get closed and the larynx moves downward and the vocal folds vibrate due to the subtle but constant airflow from the lungs. The pressure of the air trapped between the larynx and the closure formed by the lips becomes rarefied (rozrzedzony), and when the lips come apart before the voicing stops the outside air flows in at an atmospheric pressure. rysunek!!! The figure below shows the estimated sequence of events in a Sindhi glottalic bilabial implosive [?]. The lips get closed and the larynx moves downward and the vocal folds vibrate due to the subtle but constant airflow from the lungs. The pressure of the air trapped between the larynx and the closure formed by the lips becomes rarefied (rozrzedzony), and when the lips come apart before the voicing stops the outside air flows in at an atmospheric pressure.

12. Velaric AM (1) Velaric AM is generated entirely within the oral cavity by raising the back of the tongue to make firm contact with the soft palate (velum). This is the first closure and the other one is formed by the lips, the tip, blade or front of the tongue. Even though it is possible to generate both ingressive and egressive airflow using this setting, only ingressive airflow is used normally in speech. Sounds produced using the velaric ingressive AM are called cliks and they include only stops and affricates. Velaric AM is generated entirely within the oral cavity by raising the back of the tongue to make firm contact with the soft palate (velum). This is the first closure and the other one is formed by the lips, the tip, blade or front of the tongue. Even though it is possible to generate both ingressive and egressive airflow using this setting, only ingressive airflow is used normally in speech. Sounds produced using the velaric ingressive AM are called cliks and they include only stops and affricates.

13. Velaric AM (2) Sound examples ? go to http://www.paulmeier.com/ipa/nonpulmonics.html This figure shows the action of the vocal organs in producing a velar ingressive voiceless dental [k]. At first, 2 closures are formed: in the anterior part of the mouth the tip of the tongue is pressed against the upper teeth, and the back of the tongue forms velic closure by a close contact with the velum. In the second stage, the enclosed oral space becomes expanded by the movement of the back of the tongue backwards and downwards the slope of the roof of the mouth. During this action the back of the tongue remains in a contact with the velum and the anterior closure is still kept. Finally, the closure in the front of the mouth is released. exasperation ? irytacja, zloscThis figure shows the action of the vocal organs in producing a velar ingressive voiceless dental [k]. At first, 2 closures are formed: in the anterior part of the mouth the tip of the tongue is pressed against the upper teeth, and the back of the tongue forms velic closure by a close contact with the velum. In the second stage, the enclosed oral space becomes expanded by the movement of the back of the tongue backwards and downwards the slope of the roof of the mouth. During this action the back of the tongue remains in a contact with the velum and the anterior closure is still kept. Finally, the closure in the front of the mouth is released. exasperation ? irytacja, zlosc

14. Phonation types Phonation: vocal fold vibration any state of the glottis Phonation modes: voicelessness whisper breathiness (breathy voice, murmur) voice creak (creaky voice, laryngelization) In a narrow sense the term phonation refers to vocal fold vibration, but in a broader sense it refers to all the means by which the laryx functions as a source of sound. The glottis (space between the vocal folds) can assume a number of shapes. Those states of the glottis which are linguistically relevant are described in terms of phonation modes. The distinction between voiceless and voiced is very common, but not universal. The distinctive use of breathy and creaky voice is much less common. Whisper is mostly paralinguistic ? it is used as a distinctive speech style rather than a as a feature of specific sounds.In a narrow sense the term phonation refers to vocal fold vibration, but in a broader sense it refers to all the means by which the laryx functions as a source of sound. The glottis (space between the vocal folds) can assume a number of shapes. Those states of the glottis which are linguistically relevant are described in terms of phonation modes. The distinction between voiceless and voiced is very common, but not universal. The distinctive use of breathy and creaky voice is much less common. Whisper is mostly paralinguistic ? it is used as a distinctive speech style rather than a as a feature of specific sounds.

15. Voicelessness absence of any phonation widely or fully opened glottis (60-95% of the maximum possible glottal area) ? a non-turbulent airflow Voicelessness means the absence of any phonation. The glottis is opened, i.e. the vocal folds are held far enough to allow for a non-turbulent airflow through the glottis. The opening of the glottis during the production of voiceless sounds is greater than in case of any other phonation modes and is similar to that used in normal breating. The glottis is typically set to 60-95% of the maximum possible glottal area.Voicelessness means the absence of any phonation. The glottis is opened, i.e. the vocal folds are held far enough to allow for a non-turbulent airflow through the glottis. The opening of the glottis during the production of voiceless sounds is greater than in case of any other phonation modes and is similar to that used in normal breating. The glottis is typically set to 60-95% of the maximum possible glottal area.

16. Whisper greater constriction of the glottis (>25% of the possible glottal area) adduction of the vocal folds, an opening between the arytenoid cartilages characteristic flow rates about 25-30 cc/s Whisper requires far greater constriction of the glottis than voicelessness. The adjustment of the glottis for whisper is less than 25% of the possible glottal area. Vocal folds are positioned very close together and usually the only opening of the glottis is between the arytenoid cartilages ? it has a triangular shape and is located at the back of the larynx. As a matter of fact, the space between the vocal folds can be greater, but it can not exceed 60% of the possible glottal area. The air form the lungs is pushed through this small opening at a low flow rate (about 25-30 cc/s). Whisper can be used as a phonation mode in the pronunciation of some vowels in some languages of North Am, and it occurs as a phonetic characteristic of sounds in pre-pausal, pre-voiceless or post-voiceless contexts, but these linguistic uses of whisper are rather uncommon. On the contrary, whisper is used very often paralinguistic communication to signal secrecy or confidentialty. In the flow of an articulation using the whisper mode, the voiceless sounds remain voiceless and only voiced sounds become whispered.Whisper requires far greater constriction of the glottis than voicelessness. The adjustment of the glottis for whisper is less than 25% of the possible glottal area. Vocal folds are positioned very close together and usually the only opening of the glottis is between the arytenoid cartilages ? it has a triangular shape and is located at the back of the larynx. As a matter of fact, the space between the vocal folds can be greater, but it can not exceed 60% of the possible glottal area. The air form the lungs is pushed through this small opening at a low flow rate (about 25-30 cc/s). Whisper can be used as a phonation mode in the pronunciation of some vowels in some languages of North Am, and it occurs as a phonetic characteristic of sounds in pre-pausal, pre-voiceless or post-voiceless contexts, but these linguistic uses of whisper are rather uncommon. On the contrary, whisper is used very often paralinguistic communication to signal secrecy or confidentialty. In the flow of an articulation using the whisper mode, the voiceless sounds remain voiceless and only voiced sounds become whispered.

17. Breathiness (murmur) vocal folds are pulled apart + continuous turbulent airflow (vibration) incomplete glottal closure, the arytenoid cartilages slightly apart characteristic flow rates above 200-300 cc/s adduct ? przywiesc abduct ? odwiesc ligament ? wiazadlo The setting of the glottis in the breathy voice mode is similar to that in voicelessness, i.e. the vocal folds are pulled apart, but at the same time there is a considerable continuous turbulent airflow that causes the vocal folds to vibrate. The closure of the glottis is incomplete during the vibratory cycle and the arytenoid cartilages remain slightly apart while the folds vibrate. The threshold of airflow through a typical adult male glottis for creating a turbulence for breathy voice is above 200-300 cc/s. Below this threshold voiceless phonation is produced. adduct ? przywiesc abduct ? odwiesc ligament ? wiazadlo The setting of the glottis in the breathy voice mode is similar to that in voicelessness, i.e. the vocal folds are pulled apart, but at the same time there is a considerable continuous turbulent airflow that causes the vocal folds to vibrate. The closure of the glottis is incomplete during the vibratory cycle and the arytenoid cartilages remain slightly apart while the folds vibrate. The threshold of airflow through a typical adult male glottis for creating a turbulence for breathy voice is above 200-300 cc/s. Below this threshold voiceless phonation is produced.

18. Voice normal vocal fold vibration along the length of the glottis a number of subtypes in between breathy and creaky voice variation in voice quality (from dark or mellow to bright or sharp voice quality) voicing ? normal for vowels, nasal and lateral consonants Voice refers to normal vocal fold vibration occuring along most or all the length of the glottis. As a matter of fact various subtypes of voicing can be distinguished: from those that approach breathy voice to those which are characterized by tension of the muscles controlling the adduction of the vocal folds as in creaky voice. Different settings of the laryngeal muscles result in differences in voice quality ? ?dark? or ?mellow? voice (relaxed) to ?bright? or ?sharp? (tense). Voicing is the standard phonation mode for vowels and nasal and lateral consonants unless the consonant is devoiced by assimilation (e.g. in play, clay).Voice refers to normal vocal fold vibration occuring along most or all the length of the glottis. As a matter of fact various subtypes of voicing can be distinguished: from those that approach breathy voice to those which are characterized by tension of the muscles controlling the adduction of the vocal folds as in creaky voice. Different settings of the laryngeal muscles result in differences in voice quality ? ?dark? or ?mellow? voice (relaxed) to ?bright? or ?sharp? (tense). Voicing is the standard phonation mode for vowels and nasal and lateral consonants unless the consonant is devoiced by assimilation (e.g. in play, clay).

19. Creaky voice (laryngelization) low frequency vibration of the vocal cords irregular and short period of the opening of the glottis the vibration occurs in the anterior part flow rate of 12-20 cc/s Creaky voice is a phonation mode characterized by low frequency vibration of the vocal folds. The folds open only for a very short time and often quite irregularily from cycle to cycle of vibration. The arytenoid cartilages are tensely adducted (adjusted) and only the anterior part of the ligamental vocal folds vibrates. The flow rate of the air is very low 12-20 cc/s. Creaky voice is a phonation mode characterized by low frequency vibration of the vocal folds. The folds open only for a very short time and often quite irregularily from cycle to cycle of vibration. The arytenoid cartilages are tensely adducted (adjusted) and only the anterior part of the ligamental vocal folds vibrates. The flow rate of the air is very low 12-20 cc/s.

20. Creaky voice (2) phonological distinction: between voiced vs. creaky consonants: West African languages (Hausa, Bura, Margi) between ?normally? voiced vs. creaky vowels: Ateso (Kenia), Lango (Uganda, Sudan) in English, Polish: in utterances with falling intonation in the end feature of a speaker or effect of a speaking disorder Creak/creaky voice is used for phonological purposes to distinguish certain consonants in West African languages (Hausa, Bura, Margi) and certain types of vowels (Ateso ? Kenia, Lango ? Uganda, Sudan) from sounds with normally voiced phonation. English, Polish ? in utterances with falling intonation in the end Creak/creaky voice is used for phonological purposes to distinguish certain consonants in West African languages (Hausa, Bura, Margi) and certain types of vowels (Ateso ? Kenia, Lango ? Uganda, Sudan) from sounds with normally voiced phonation. English, Polish ? in utterances with falling intonation in the end

21. Voice onset time (1) refers to the start of the phonation relative to the release of the closure mainly relevant to stops voice onset time is a variable that refers to the start of phonation relative to release of the closure. It is mainly relevant to stops. Different possible VOTs provide a continuum of possible pronunciations. We are going to discuss five of them. Here we can see a representation of the realization of stops between vowels. In each figure the first set of lines (marked with a) shows the movements of two articulators e.g. lips. The sets marked b) show the degree of opening of the glottis ? the distance between the arytenoid cartilages. The lower part of the figure marked with c) illustrates the state of the glottis ? wave line indicates voicing and dashed line ? voicelessness. In the Fig. 1 the VOT of a fully voiced stop is shown: the vocal cords are close together and they are set vibrating throughout the first vowel, the closure, the release and the whole of the second vowel, e.g. [b] Fig. 2 shows the VOT of a partially voiced stop (word initial English or German [b]). Comparing to the fully voiced stop, here the vocal folds are set vibrating only during the last part of the closure and the release. Fig. 3 illustrates the VOT of an unvoiced, unaspirated stop e.g. Polish [p]. The glottis remains opened throughout the closure and it closes at the moment ot the release of the closure. In the fig. 4 and fig. 5 aspirated stops are schematically represented. In fig. 4 the aspiration is slighter then in the fig. 5, where it is considerable. In both cases the glottis still remains opened at the moment of the release of the closure, but in case of the strongly aspirated stop the maximum opening of the vocal cords will be much larger and voicing will start later. fully voiced ? voiced phonation begins at or before the formation of the occlusion (closure) in the vocal tract voiceless ? no voicing during the occlusion and voicing starts with the release of the occlusion aspirated ? voice onset is delayed beyond the release of the occlusion voice onset time is a variable that refers to the start of phonation relative to release of the closure. It is mainly relevant to stops. Different possible VOTs provide a continuum of possible pronunciations. We are going to discuss five of them. Here we can see a representation of the realization of stops between vowels. In each figure the first set of lines (marked with a) shows the movements of two articulators e.g. lips. The sets marked b) show the degree of opening of the glottis ? the distance between the arytenoid cartilages. The lower part of the figure marked with c) illustrates the state of the glottis ? wave line indicates voicing and dashed line ? voicelessness. In the Fig. 1 the VOT of a fully voiced stop is shown: the vocal cords are close together and they are set vibrating throughout the first vowel, the closure, the release and the whole of the second vowel, e.g. [b] Fig. 2 shows the VOT of a partially voiced stop (word initial English or German [b]). Comparing to the fully voiced stop, here the vocal folds are set vibrating only during the last part of the closure and the release. Fig. 3 illustrates the VOT of an unvoiced, unaspirated stop e.g. Polish [p]. The glottis remains opened throughout the closure and it closes at the moment ot the release of the closure. In the fig. 4 and fig. 5 aspirated stops are schematically represented. In fig. 4 the aspiration is slighter then in the fig. 5, where it is considerable. In both cases the glottis still remains opened at the moment of the release of the closure, but in case of the strongly aspirated stop the maximum opening of the vocal cords will be much larger and voicing will start later. fully voiced ? voiced phonation begins at or before the formation of the occlusion (closure) in the vocal tract voiceless ? no voicing during the occlusion and voicing starts with the release of the occlusion aspirated ? voice onset is delayed beyond the release of the occlusion

22. Voice onset time (2) VOT is a secondary factor in e.g. English, German [p], [t], [k] : word initial, before a vowel, stressed ? aspirated (identification of voicelessness) word initial [b], [d], [g] ? partially voiced in Polish, French, Dutch ? only voiceless vs. voiced Primary factor ? phonological distinctions in: Thai, Burmese: voiceless aspirated, voiceless unaspirated and voiced Hindi: voiceless aspirated, voiceless unaspirated, voiced and breathy voiced Voice onset time can be regarded as a secondary factor in: English, German ? word initial, before vowel [p], [t], [k] are aspirated, word initial [b], [d], [g] ? not fully voiced (partially voiced) In this case aspiration is the major factor that allows for the identification of the voicelessness. French, Dutch, Polish ? plosives are either fully voiced or voiceless. Voice onset time is a primary factor ? basis for phonological distinction in: East Asian languages (Thai, Burmese) ? distinction among voiceless aspirated, voiceless unaspirated and voiced Hindi ? voiceless aspirated, voiceless unaspirated, voiced and breathy voicedVoice onset time can be regarded as a secondary factor in: English, German ? word initial, before vowel [p], [t], [k] are aspirated, word initial [b], [d], [g] ? not fully voiced (partially voiced) In this case aspiration is the major factor that allows for the identification of the voicelessness. French, Dutch, Polish ? plosives are either fully voiced or voiceless. Voice onset time is a primary factor ? basis for phonological distinction in: East Asian languages (Thai, Burmese) ? distinction among voiceless aspirated, voiceless unaspirated and voiced Hindi ? voiceless aspirated, voiceless unaspirated, voiced and breathy voiced


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