Download

Airstream mechanisms and phonation types






Advertisement
/ 22 []
Download Presentation
Comments
nituna
From:
|  
(1138) |   (0) |   (0)
Views: 196 | Added:
Rate Presentation: 1 0
Description:
Airstream mechanisms and phonation types. Outline. Airstream mechanisms – general overview Pulmonic AM Glottalic AM Velaric AM Phonation types Voicelessnes Whisper Breathiness Voice Creak Voice onset time. A irstream mechanisms : General classification.
Airstream mechanisms and phonation types

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only and may not be sold or licensed nor shared on other sites. SlideServe reserves the right to change this policy at anytime. While downloading, If for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.











- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




Airstream mechanisms and phonation typesSlide 1

Airstreammechanisms and phonation types

OutlineSlide 2

Outline

  • Airstreammechanisms – general overview

  • Pulmonic AM

  • Glottalic AM

  • Velaric AM

  • Phonation types

  • Voicelessnes

  • Whisper

  • Breathiness

  • Voice

  • Creak

  • Voiceonset time

A irstream mechanisms general classificationSlide 3

Airstream mechanisms:General classification

Pulmonic lung am 1Slide 4

Pulmonic (lung) AM (1)

Pulmonic egressive AM

  • basic to speech production

  • standard AM (e.g. English, Spanish, Polish, Indonesian, Chinese)

  • the sole AM

Pulmonic ingressive AM

  • [ja] inNorwegian and Danish – sympathy, agreementorcommiseration

  • [nei] – surprise (Norwegian and Danish), sympathy (Danish)

  • Pulmonic ingressive AM

  • possible

  • isn’tused for systematically for distinctivephonologicalpurposes

  • paralinguisticuses (Western cultures)

Pulmonic lung am 2Slide 5

Pulmonic (lung) AM (2)

  • Pulmonic egressive AM

  • generator of the airstream – the respiratory system

    • inspiration – active

    • expiration – passive*

  • easier to control

  • less overall articulatory effort

Pulmonic lung am 3Slide 6

Pulmonic (lung) AM (3)

Differentactivity of the respiratory system:

  • breathing

    • about 12 inspirations and expirations per minute

    • expirationphaseonlyslightlylonger

    • inspiration – muscular action (activeprocess)

    • expiration – mechanical and elasticrecoilforce (passiveprocess)

  • speech

    • expirationphase much longer

    • expiration – a controlledprocesswithco-activation of the inspiratory and expiratorymuscles

Glottalic am 1Slide 7

Glottalic AM (1)

  • glottis (larynx) – initiator of an airstream

  • glottis closed – the air in the lungsblockedoff

  • movement of the larynxin the pharynx

    • controlled by elevator and depressorlaryngealmuscles

    • upward – egressive AM – ejectives

    • downward – ingressive AM – implosives

Glottalic am 2Slide 8

Glottalic AM (2)

Ejectives

  • stops, fricatives and affricates

  • precedeorfollowsoundsusing pulmonic AM

Pronunciation of a glottalic egressive velar stop [k’]:

Glottalic am 3Slide 9

Glottalic AM (3)

Ejectivesarefoundinlanguages of:

  • Africa (Hausa),

  • North (Lakhota, Navajo), Central (Quicheanlanguage of Guatemala) and SouthAm,

  • Asia (mainlyin the Caucasusarea: Georgian and Circassian)

  • Soundexamples: http://www.paulmeier.com/ipa/nonpulmonics.html

Glottalic am 4Slide 10

Glottalic AM (4)

Implosives

  • incompleteclosure of the glottis – voicing

  • voicelessimplosives – extremelyrare

  • onlystops

  • languages: African (Zulu, Hausa, Margi), Asian (Sindhi), American (Maidu)

Glottalic am 5Slide 11

Glottalic AM (5)

Soundexamples – go to http://www.paulmeier.com/ipa/nonpulmonics.html

Pronunciation of a glottalicbilabialimplosive [б]:

Velaric am 1Slide 12

Velaric AM (1)

  • oralcavity

  • 2 closures– double articulation:

    • the back of the tongue – velum

    • anteriorclosure – the lips, the tip, blade or front of the tongue

  • onlyingressive airflow

  • cliks– stops and affricates

  • phonologicaldistinctions – ratheruncommon(Africanlanguages of Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Tanzania)

  • paralinguisticuses of cliks: tsk, tsksignallingimpatienceorexasperation

Velaric am 2Slide 13

Velaric AM (2)

Pronunciation of a velaringressivevoicelessdental [k]:

Soundexamples – go to http://www.paulmeier.com/ipa/nonpulmonics.html

Phonation typesSlide 14

Phonation types

  • Phonation:

    • vocal foldvibration

    • any state of the glottis

  • Phonationmodes:

    • voicelessness

    • whisper

    • breathiness (breathyvoice, murmur)

    • voice

    • creak (creakyvoice, laryngelization)

VoicelessnessSlide 15

Voicelessness

  • absence of anyphonation

  • widelyorfullyopened glottis (60-95% of the maximumpossibleglottalarea) – a non-turbulent airflow

WhisperSlide 16

Whisper

  • greaterconstriction of the glottis (>25% of the possibleglottalarea)

  • adduction of the vocal folds, an openingbetween the arytenoidcartilages

  • characteristicflowratesabout 25-30 cc/s

  • linguisticuses – rare

  • paralinguisticuses – signalssecrecyorconfidentiality

  • onlyvoicedsounds can be whispered

Breathiness murmurSlide 17

Breathiness (murmur)

  • vocal foldsarepulledapart + continuousturbulent airflow (vibration)

  • incompleteglottalclosure, the arytenoidcartilagesslightlyapart

  • characteristicflowratesabove 200-300 cc/s

  • systematicdistinctions e.g. Hindi, Urdu (contrastbh-b, gh-g), Tamang (voicedvs. breathyvowels)

  • English: [h] betweenvowels (ahead, behind), voicequality, laryngealdisorders

VoiceSlide 18

Voice

  • normal vocal foldvibrationalong the length of the glottis

  • a number of subtypesinbetweenbreathy and creakyvoice

  • variationinvoicequality (fromdarkormellow to brightorsharpvoicequality)

  • voicing – normal for vowels, nasal and lateralconsonants

Creaky voice laryngelizationSlide 19

Creakyvoice (laryngelization)

  • lowfrequencyvibration of the vocal cords

  • irregular and short period of the opening of the glottis

  • the vibrationoccursin the anterior part

  • flowrate of 12-20 cc/s

Creaky voice 2Slide 20

Creakyvoice (2)

  • phonologicaldistinction:

    • betweenvoicedvs. creakyconsonants: West Africanlanguages (Hausa, Bura, Margi)

    • between „normally” voicedvs. creakyvowels: Ateso (Kenia), Lango (Uganda, Sudan)

  • inEnglish, Polish:

    • inutteranceswithfallingintonationin the end

    • feature of a speaker oreffect of a speakingdisorder

Voice onset time 1Slide 21

Voiceonset time (1)

  • refers to the start of the phonationrelative to the release of the closure

  • mainlyrelevant to stops

Stops (betweenvowels) distinguished by VOT (adaptedfrom P. Ladefoged, A course inphonetics)

Voice onset time 2Slide 22

Voiceonset time (2)

  • VOT is a secondaryfactorin e.g. English, German

    • [p], [t], [k] : wordinitial, before a vowel, stressed – aspirated(identification of voicelessness)

    • wordinitial [b], [d], [g] – partiallyvoiced

    • inPolish, French, Dutch – onlyvoicelessvs. voiced

  • Primaryfactor – phonologicaldistinctionsin:

    • Thai, Burmese: voicelessaspirated, voicelessunaspirated and voiced

    • Hindi: voicelessaspirated, voicelessunaspirated, voiced and breathyvoiced


Copyright © 2014 SlideServe. All rights reserved | Powered By DigitalOfficePro