ECONOMIC-TERRITORIAL FIRMS AGGLOMERATIONS: ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC POLICIES ADDRESSED TO SU...
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ECONOMIC-TERRITORIAL FIRMS AGGLOMERATIONS: ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC POLICIES ADDRESSED TO SUSTAIN THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN THE COUNTRIES. PhD Thesis Program of Serena Novero. Doctorate in Economy and Management of Technology - University of Bergamo

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PhD Thesis Program of Serena Novero

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Phd thesis program of serena novero

ECONOMIC-TERRITORIAL FIRMS AGGLOMERATIONS: ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC POLICIES ADDRESSED TO SUSTAIN THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN THE COUNTRIES

PhD Thesis Program of Serena Novero

Doctorate in Economy and Management of Technology - University of Bergamo

Ceris - Cnr, Torino – www.ceris.cnr.it


Phd thesis program of serena novero

Preliminary remarks:

  • New increasing attention to agglomeration phenomenos due to the competitiveness in national and international markets need of “make a system” to contrast it

  • Attention to networks in their different types, characteristics, way of development, points of strenght and weakness, role in innovation production:

    • In Italy: Industrial and Technological Districts (Marshall, 1890; Antonelli, 1986)

    • In the world: Perroux Poles (1955-’71); Clusters (Porter, 1990); Milieu Innovateur (Camagni, Cappellin,Brenner, 2000); Networks; Poles de Compétitivité (2005)

    • SMEs, Big firms, Centre of research, Public Bodies, spread know-how, skilled workers

Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007


Element of success ability of cohesion and collaboration among them

Element of success: ability of cohesion and collaboration among them

  • Important rule in territorial performances: rise of territorial specificities and innovations in products and processes

  • Research Question 1:

    Differences among economic agglomerations, in particulary between districts and clusters: the role and the relationship with the areas of location the topic has been only partially treated

  • Paper 1:

  • “Economic-territorial agglomerations of enterprises: typologies, definitions, characteristics, comparison”

Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007


Phd thesis program of serena novero

  • Paper 1:

  • Storical excursus of the teories of economic agglomerations: birth of the different agglomeration typologies, their evolutions and their diversification

  • Importance of technological innovation in TD, poles and clusters and their role in it

P.Aydalot,1986;

C.Antonelli, 1986-2003;

G.Becattini, 1991-2000;

F.Belussi, 2002;

H.Bennett, 1992;

Bergman E., Feser E., 1999;

Bottazzi G., Dosi G., Fagiolo G., 2002;

Huggins R., 2001;

Krugman P., 1991

M.Lazzeroni, 2001-2004

Lorenzen E., Maskell P.,2004

Lorenzoni G., 1990

Markusen, A., 1996,

Marshall A., 1890-1920

Maskell P., 2001

Mills E.S., 1992

Ozcan S., 2004

Patrono A.,2002

Piccaluga A., 2002-2003

Porter, M.E., 1990-2000

Rullani E.,1997

Sforzi, F., 1990-2002

Storper M.,, 1992

Brenner T., 2000-2001;

Callegati E., Grandi S., 2005

Cavallo C., 2002;

Cesaroni, 2003;

Cooke P.,1998-2006;

Dümmler Patrick, 2003;

Guerrieri P., Pietrobelli C., 2001

Harrison B.

Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007


Phd thesis program of serena novero

  • Territorial transitions and life cycles of districts phenomenons have been recognized

  • Necessity of a public intervention

Research Question 2:

Which is the innovationpolicies impact on economic/territorial agglomerations? And which are the most important points of these collaborations? How public policies have to work to gain positive results?

Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007


Phd thesis program of serena novero

  • Paper 2:“Technological districts and innovation: TT policies and processes, methods and measures of valuation of public actions, analysis of the impact of public policies made to their support – The case of Canavese”

  • Centrality of knowledges and innovations (territorially localized)

  • Innovation and Technological Transfer policies = the solution for innovation problems of firms?

    • Strategic variable for SMEs

    • First responsable of success or failure of the policy actions made

    • Foundamental for innovative knowledges diffusion

    • Different in dissimilar ambits

    • Transfer the knowledges in the space new variable: a field of stregths

    • Characteristics, subjects and channels envolved


Phd thesis program of serena novero

Subjects: sources, interfaces, usersimportance of relationship among them

Channels of communication:- a network among the econimic actors- public bodies and structuresTechnological intermediaryTT could be:- formal: patents, licences, spinn-off, R&D collaborations, join ventures, mergers, consortia- informal: direct contacts

  • Different methods of transmission:

  • Tacit knowledges undirect way (services) firms

  • Esplicit knowledges direct way (texts, workshops,patents) institute of research

Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007


Phd thesis program of serena novero

Address of TT: - Market oriented: active TT because it creates financial fees in the Centre of research involved: measured in units of money - Education oriented: it produces benefits in the long time for the receiving social system, it increas the level of knowledges:measured with the n° of courses, students, doctorate, etc..

  • Methods and measures of impact of innovation policies?

    Analysis of a tangible case: how the development of technological district of Canavese has been supported - The story of the area

Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007


The canavese area

THE CANAVESE AREA

  • In the north-west of Italy, in Piedmont, at north of Turin

Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007


The snapshot of canavese in the nineties

The snapshot of Canavese in the nineties:

  • The firms1 Big Firm : Olivetti, 1908 - Ivrea

    290 High-Tech SMEs of informatic, elettronic semimanufactured and ICT products or services

  • December 1993

    • Province of Turin

    • Commune of Ivrea

    • Association of Industrial Managers of Canavese

      Founded: Consortium for the Technological District

      of Canavese (CTDC - www.canavese.to.it)

  • The innovative5 Centres of Competence : Cellular Sheet

    services of TTLaser

    Mechanical engineering

    Microsystems

    Metal Pressing

  • Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007


    The ctdc projects

    T.S. (Tecnologia & Sviluppo) CANAVESEJuly 1999 – September 2001

    PIA (Progetti Integrati d’Area) 01July 2003 – May 2005

    PIA 02May 2004 – December 2005

    PIA 03August 2004 – December 2005

    DIADIJanuary 2004 – December 2006

    CF 2October 2005 – March 2008

    The objective of each project was to give a significative impulse to the technological,

    economic and social development of the manufacturing industry of the area,

    supporting the rise of the competitiveness and of the employment in the local SMEs

    THE CTDC PROJECTS:

    Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007


    Phd thesis program of serena novero

    The technical services (described in a technical way) given to Canavese High Tech firms in the projects :

    • APlanning and making machineries

    • BMetallographic analysis for problems rise during the welding

    • CUse of laser technology

    • DAnalyses and advices

    • ECertification of the products

    • FUse of the laboratories and services that the Centre supply

    • GStudies of fattibility

    • HOthers different collaboration in the future

    Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007


    The firms definited with ateco istat activities code

    The firms: definited with ATECO - ISTAT activities code


    Phd thesis program of serena novero

    Y = Balance sheet performances (sales, ROI, G.O.M.)

    Valuation of their impact - The method (Antonelli, 2005)Balance sheets data, comparison with the area as a whole (index) and probit models:

    X12 = Results and possible developments

    X13 = Processes or products modifications, patents

    X14 = Projects execution

    X15 = Further developments

    X16 = Technological Status of each firm, before and after the collaborations

    X17 = Technological level and utility interventions

    X18 = Their impact in the production

    X17 = Relationships with the Centre

    X18 = if new employments have been done or are preview

    X19 = if new opportunity of work are rised

    X1 = ATECO code of activity of the firm

    X2 = Size of the firm (number of employeers)

    X3 = Gross Operative Margin (GOM = A.V. - salaries & wages)

    X4 = Sales

    X5 = Profit

    X6 = GOM / Sales

    X7 = ROS, ROI, ROE

    X8 = existing technological problems

    X9 = Centre of Competence involved

    X10 = Objectives of the collaborations (A-H)

    X11 = Feasibility studies


    Some results

    SOME RESULTS..

    • Probability of success of an innovative project = 62%

    • Larger firms answer better to innovation

    • Previous high technological status has a big weight

    • Types and high technical quality of the collaborations are also very important

    • Firms belonging to the sectors 28, 29, 30 and 72 have had a bigger economic growth and have required mostly the collaborations C and D.

    • Firms of sectors 25, 27, 28 and 51 have had a better evolution of employment.

    • Collaborations B, C, D and E have given a good result for the increase of the employment


    Collaborations

    COLLABORATIONS

    Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007


    Phd thesis program of serena novero

    It(.) = f(collabt) + f (relationshipt) + f(serv.typologyt) + f(locationt) + + f(feasibilityt) + f(projectt) + vt

    Bt(.) = f (ATECOt) + f (sizet) + f (salest) + f (profitt) + f (tech.problemst) + + f (collabt) + f (tech.statust) + f(serv.typologyt) + wt

    Innovativeness

    ?

    Balance sheet

    Collaborations

    Services typologies


    Phd thesis program of serena novero

    • Research Question 3:

      How enterprises in economical territorial agglomerations of others UE Countries have been supported by public interventions finalized to their innovation?

      and which have been their impacts?

      International comparison with the French case

    Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007


    Phd thesis program of serena novero

    PAPER 3: AN INTERNATIONAL CONFRONTATION: FROM LPS (Local Productive Systems) TO CP (Competition Poles), FRENCH POLICIES GENESIS AND EVOLUTION

    • French Poles de Compétitivité: points of strength and weakness

    • Policies and the governance management followed by the regional governments – International comparison

    • Their impacts: effects on technological innovation, creation and diffusion of knowledges, abilities and technologies, training of skilled employeers, spillovers

    • Results on firms balance sheets

    Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007


    Conclusions

    Conclusions:

    • Determination of typologies of interventions useful to substain technology innovation and to support firms development, competitiveness and networking. All that to:

    Cut down the costs

    Favour a fast circulations of ideas and projects

    Allow the development of the areas

    Serena Novero – Maastricht, October 2007


    Phd thesis program of serena novero

    Thank you for the attention!

    Serena Novero


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