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APES REVIEW. Matter and Energy in the environment. Organization of Matter Non-living Matter Atoms, Ions, and Compounds

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APES REVIEW

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Apes review

APES REVIEW


Matter and energy in the environment

Matter and Energy in the environment

  • Organization of Matter

    • Non-living Matter

      • Atoms, Ions, and Compounds

      • Atoms = smallest unit of elements and are listed on periodic table. The nucleus of an atom is composed of neutrons and protons (+). Electrons (-) exist outside the nucleus. All atoms are isotopes of some other atom that has the same # of protons but a different # of neutrons


Apes review

  • Ions= atoms or combinations of atoms

    that demonstrate an unbalanced electrical charge.

    -This happens when the total # of electrons

    does not equal the total # of protons.

    More electrons than protons = neg charge = ANION

    More protons than electrons = pos charge = CATION

    Monoatomic ions involve only one atom

    Polyatomic ions involve more than one atom


Common mono and polyatomic ions in apes

Common Mono- and Polyatomic Ions in APES


Compounds

Compounds

  • Compounds are combinations of atoms held together by ionic or covalent bonds.

    • Ionic compounds form when Negchrg nonmetal combines with an ionic attraction to a Pos chrg metal.

      Ex. calcium chloride, CaCl2.

    • Molecules are combinations of nonmetal atoms held together by covalent bonds.

    • Organic molecules are carbon-based molecules that also contain H, and sometimes O, N, or S


Polar molecules

Polar Molecules

  • Moleculesare compounds of nonmetals covalently bound together.

  • Polar molecules contain separation of elecchrg w/in the molecule that helps it to be attracted to ions or other polar molecules.

    -This causes a slight negative charge near the oxygen and a slight positive charge near the hydrogen.

    Ex. Water H2O polarity of water is strong enough to break apart some ionic compounds which causes them to dissolve, or go into solution


Acids and bases

Acids and bases

  • A single proton, or hydrogen ion (H+), can be removed from water when some substances are dissolved in it.

    • If a substance creates a hydrogen ion when put in water it is called an ACID.

    • If a substance creates a hydroxide ion (OH-) when it is placed in water, it is called a BASE.

      • H+ + OH- = H2O


P h scale

pH scale

  • The concentration of protons or hydroxide ions in solution is pH. (measuring acidity or alkalinity)

  • The pH of 7.0 is neutral

  • The pH of < 7 is acidic

  • The pH of > 7 is basic

  • Each whole-number drop in pH represents a 10-fold increase in acidity


States of matter

States of matter

  • 4 states of matter

    • Solid

    • Liquid

    • Gas

    • Plasma

      solid liquid vapor

      (heat) (heat)


Organization of matter

Organization of matter

  • Living Matter p.66

    • Cells

    • Tissues and Organ Systems

    • Organisms or Species

    • Populations

    • Communities

    • Ecosystems

    • Biosphere

    • Small to broad focus


Conservation of matter

Conservation of Matter

  • Chemical reactions

    • Changes in the arrangement of molecules

    • Matter cannot be created or destroyed

    • Once a chemical reaction is complete, equilibrium has been established between the reactants and products

    • CO2 + H2O H2CO2 H+ + HCO3-


Nutrient cycles

Nutrient cycles

  • A.k.a. Biogeochemical Cycles

    • Carbon Cycle(biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere)

    • Nitrogen Cycle(biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere)

    • Phosphorus Cycle (remains as Phosphate ion throughout the whole cycle – no gaseous phase) (biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere)

    • Sulfur Cycle(biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere)

    • Hydrologic Cycle(biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere)


Conservation of energy

Conservation of energy

  • First Law of Thermodynamics

    • Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but can change forms

  • Second Law of Thermodynamics

    • Transfers of energy decrease the amount of useful energy

    • Entropy is the amount of useful energy lost per amount of matter. This disperses as heat and becomes scattered or disordered.

      • As heat disperses, entropy increases


Heat transfers

Heat transfers

  • Convection

  • Conduction

  • Radiation

  • Efficiency – For any transfer of energy, the amount of energy that is useful from one step to another is considered the efficiency of the transfer. (%)

    • Ex. Coal-fire power plant derives an amount of electrical energy that is 38% of the total amt of chemical energy stored in coal, so it is considered 38% efficient. The rest of that energy is lost to heat and accounts for the increase in entropy.


Energy movement through ecosystems

Energy movement through ecosystems

  • Ecosystems are characterized by how energy is obtained, converted into chemical energy, and transferred from one organism to another.

  • Productivity is the amount of biomass that is produced by a community.

    • Primary Productivity is the amount of biomass produced by photosynthetic organisms.

    • Secondary productivity is the amount of biomass produced by organisms that eat photosynthetic organisms.


Food chains and food webs

Food Chains and Food Webs

  • Food chains are sequences of organisms that begin with a primary producer and trace the movement of biomass through a series or predator/prey relationships.

  • Food webs are interconnecting series of food chains.

    • Each step along along the food chain is a trophic level.

    • Each step only converts about 10% of ingested biomass into biomass available for the next trophic level.


Case studies to research

Case studies to research

  • Water Treatment and the Nitrogen Cycle

  • Composting Wastes: Combining Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles

  • Energy Efficiency of Lights


Citations

citations

  • Miller, G T. Living In the Environment. 13th ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, 2004. Print.

  • Reel, Kevin R. AP Environmental Science. 2nd ed. USA: Research and Education Association, 2008. Print.

    • Created using MLA Citation Maker on www.oslis.org.


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