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Lecture #16. Deviations from the Ideal Gas Law and Chemistry in the Atmosphere. Chemistry 142 B Autumn Quarter, 2004 J. B. Callis, Instructor. Deviations from Ideal behavior for real gases. The effect of intermolecular attractions on measured gas pressure.

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Deviations from the ideal gas law and chemistry in the atmosphere

Lecture #16

Deviations from the Ideal Gas Lawand Chemistry in the Atmosphere

Chemistry 142 B

Autumn Quarter, 2004

J. B. Callis, Instructor




The effect of pressure.

molecular

volume on

measured gas

volume.


The van der Waals equation of state is valid over a wider range of conditions than the ideal gas law:

Where P is the measured pressure, V is the container volume, n is the number of moles of gas and T is the temperature. a and b are the van der Waals constants, specific for each gas.


Problem 16-1:van der Waals Calculation of a Real gas range of conditions than the ideal gas law:

Problem: A tank of 20.00 liters contains Chlorine gas at a temperature

of 20.000C at a pressure of 2.000 atm. if the tank is pressurized to a new

volume of 1.000 L and a temperature of 150.00 0C. What is the new

pressure using the ideal gas equation, and the van der Waals equation?

Plan: Do the calculations according to the ideal gas and vdV eqns.

Solution:

n =

Pideal =

PvdV =


Variation of Temperature and Pressure with Altitude range of conditions than the ideal gas law:


Sources of air pollution
Sources of Air Pollution range of conditions than the ideal gas law:

  • Transportation

  • Production of Electricity


Air pollution from cars and trucks
Air Pollution from Cars and Trucks range of conditions than the ideal gas law:

Combustion of petroleum produces CO, CO2, NO and NO2 together with unburned petroleum.

N2 + O2 2 NO; 2 NO + O2 2 NO2

NO2 NO + O (reactive) : O + O2 O3 (ozone)

This net production of ozone then produces other pollutants.


Concentration of Smog Components Over a Day range of conditions than the ideal gas law:


Air pollution from electricity production by coal burning plants
Air Pollution from Electricity Production by Coal Burning Plants

Coal contains significant quantities of sulfur, which when burned produces sulfur dioxide:

S + O2 SO2;

SO2 can be further oxidized to sulfur trioxide:

2SO2 + O2 2SO3 (ozone)

Sulfur trioxide can combine with moisture to produce the corrosive H2SO4.


Sulfur dioxide scrubber chemistry
Sulfur Dioxide Scrubber Chemistry Plants

Production of Lime: CaCO3 CaO + CO2

Capture of SO2: CaO + SO2 CaSO3



Answers to problems lecture 16
Answers to Problems: Lecture 16 Plants

  • Pideal = 57.745 atm; PvdV = 45.751 atm


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