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Lecture #16. Deviations from the Ideal Gas Law and Chemistry in the Atmosphere. Chemistry 142 B Autumn Quarter, 2004 J. B. Callis, Instructor. Deviations from Ideal behavior for real gases. The effect of intermolecular attractions on measured gas pressure.

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deviations from the ideal gas law and chemistry in the atmosphere

Lecture #16

Deviations from the Ideal Gas Lawand Chemistry in the Atmosphere

Chemistry 142 B

Autumn Quarter, 2004

J. B. Callis, Instructor

slide5

The effect of

molecular

volume on

measured gas

volume.

slide6

The van der Waals equation of state is valid over a wider range of conditions than the ideal gas law:

Where P is the measured pressure, V is the container volume, n is the number of moles of gas and T is the temperature. a and b are the van der Waals constants, specific for each gas.

slide7

Problem 16-1:van der Waals Calculation of a Real gas

Problem: A tank of 20.00 liters contains Chlorine gas at a temperature

of 20.000C at a pressure of 2.000 atm. if the tank is pressurized to a new

volume of 1.000 L and a temperature of 150.00 0C. What is the new

pressure using the ideal gas equation, and the van der Waals equation?

Plan: Do the calculations according to the ideal gas and vdV eqns.

Solution:

n =

Pideal =

PvdV =

sources of air pollution
Sources of Air Pollution
  • Transportation
  • Production of Electricity
air pollution from cars and trucks
Air Pollution from Cars and Trucks

Combustion of petroleum produces CO, CO2, NO and NO2 together with unburned petroleum.

N2 + O2 2 NO; 2 NO + O2 2 NO2

NO2 NO + O (reactive) : O + O2 O3 (ozone)

This net production of ozone then produces other pollutants.

air pollution from electricity production by coal burning plants
Air Pollution from Electricity Production by Coal Burning Plants

Coal contains significant quantities of sulfur, which when burned produces sulfur dioxide:

S + O2 SO2;

SO2 can be further oxidized to sulfur trioxide:

2SO2 + O2 2SO3 (ozone)

Sulfur trioxide can combine with moisture to produce the corrosive H2SO4.

sulfur dioxide scrubber chemistry
Sulfur Dioxide Scrubber Chemistry

Production of Lime: CaCO3 CaO + CO2

Capture of SO2: CaO + SO2 CaSO3

answers to problems lecture 16
Answers to Problems: Lecture 16
  • Pideal = 57.745 atm; PvdV = 45.751 atm
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