Lecture #16. Deviations from the Ideal Gas Law and Chemistry in the Atmosphere. Chemistry 142 B Autumn Quarter, 2004 J. B. Callis, Instructor. Deviations from Ideal behavior for real gases. The effect of intermolecular attractions on measured gas pressure.
Chemistry 142 B
Autumn Quarter, 2004
J. B. Callis, Instructor
The effect of pressure.
The van der Waals equation of state is valid over a wider range of conditions than the ideal gas law:
Where P is the measured pressure, V is the container volume, n is the number of moles of gas and T is the temperature. a and b are the van der Waals constants, specific for each gas.
Problem 16-1:van der Waals Calculation of a Real gas range of conditions than the ideal gas law:
Problem: A tank of 20.00 liters contains Chlorine gas at a temperature
of 20.000C at a pressure of 2.000 atm. if the tank is pressurized to a new
volume of 1.000 L and a temperature of 150.00 0C. What is the new
pressure using the ideal gas equation, and the van der Waals equation?
Plan: Do the calculations according to the ideal gas and vdV eqns.
Variation of Temperature and Pressure with Altitude range of conditions than the ideal gas law:
Combustion of petroleum produces CO, CO2, NO and NO2 together with unburned petroleum.
N2 + O2 2 NO; 2 NO + O2 2 NO2
NO2 NO + O (reactive) : O + O2 O3 (ozone)
This net production of ozone then produces other pollutants.
Concentration of Smog Components Over a Day range of conditions than the ideal gas law:
Coal contains significant quantities of sulfur, which when burned produces sulfur dioxide:
S + O2 SO2;
SO2 can be further oxidized to sulfur trioxide:
2SO2 + O2 2SO3 (ozone)
Sulfur trioxide can combine with moisture to produce the corrosive H2SO4.
Production of Lime: CaCO3 CaO + CO2
Capture of SO2: CaO + SO2 CaSO3
Sulfur Dioxide Scrubber Plants